The American Eastern Front, also known as the American Front, was a theatre of war during World War I that lasted from 1909 to Christmas Day in 1911.
The Front was contested by the French Colonial Defense Forces and the US Army. There was fighting in Quebec and various areas of Louisiana. The war in Quebec saw extensive trench warfare as well as artillery strikes and bombings. The Louisiana combat was more fluid since the border between the USA and Louisiana was huge.
|World War I|
|American Eastern Front|
After war was declared in late december of 1908, both sides prepared for war. The FCDF (French Colonial Defense Forces) knew that they would be outmatched and outnumbered fighting a war on two fronts against two world-class powers.
The French strategy was to hold out for as long as possible and hope to receive reinforcements from Europe. The Americans hoped for a quick and decisive strike to eliminate the French troops.
The Americans attacked after New Year's Day. The FCDF in Quebec were prepared for this and had been digging trenches for about a week before war started. The US Army charged with infantry and some artillery bombings, but they were forced to retreat after the French soldiers in trenches caused heavy casualties on the virtually unprotected americans.
After this failed first attack, the US Army started building their own trenches and used artillery combined with aerial harassment to take the opposing trench. This technique was very slow but it worked.
In Louisiana, the Americans used the same offensive strategy to more success. They quickly took the border city of St. Louis in the short Battle of St. Louis. After the initial victories, the US Army conquered a few more border towns and villages, but the front was to wide to eliminate the FCDF. The US Army attacked the massive territory of Louisiana only to miss French battalions and then have to fight them afterwards.
Meanwhile, in the Gulf of Mexico, the US Navy, in cooperation with the Mexican Navy started fighting the French Navy in the Battle of the Gulf of Mexico.
The second year of the war in the American Eastern Front went very much like the first year. The US Army in Quebec slowly advanced. By the end of the year, the FCDF were with their back to the St. Lawrence river and were forced to retreat. The US Army now had complete control of the southern parts of the cities of Quebec and Montreal. They continued to shell the cities indiscriminately trying to force a surrender, but the French only evacuated civilians and refused to surrender. The US Navy created a task force to destroy defensive emplacements in the St. Lawrence river and get ships in Quebec and Montreal. The Navy miserably failed to do so and the Army was forced to effectuate a river crossing operation to take the northern parts of Quebec City and Montreal and force the French to surrender. It would take until July 1911 for the river-cross to succeed.
The US Navy and Mexican navies continued to battle the ever shrinking French Navy without mayor success.
The year of 1911 was when the US and Mexican Armies finally achieved a breakthrough. After what looked like a bad start for the Americans after the French launched their famous Winter Offensive of 1911, the Mexican Army took over the opportunity to attack the capital city of Louisville and by June 16, after months of heavy urban fighting and with the Americans defeating the French offensive, Louisville surrendered.
The US and Mexican navies finally succeeded in defeating the French Navy in the Gulf of Mexico and were able to stage the successful invasion of New Orleans with no casualties and the governor quickly surrendered the city and agreed to the Allied conditions.
In Quebec, however, things weren't running as smoothly, it took half the year for the American to cross the river and establish a firm grip in the northern bank, and when they finally did, it took them another six months (exactly) to force the FCDF to surrender in December 1, 1911.