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America's Great War

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PoD: Teddy Roosevelt wins the election of 1913 after democrats won the election of 1909. Roosevelt is given great support by the people to get actively involved in the world and decided his first act will be to join the Entente powers. NOTE: I was lazy so the Balkan Wars are from Wikipedia, don't know much about them.

March to War

"If there's anything I know, it's that kraut Kaiser Wilhelm thinks he can rule the world, just he wait until American boys are there to stop his every move. The American people are ready to face any threat close or away from home. God bless America"- President Roosevelt's speech to the Entente powers in New York, May 1st, 1913.

The US in 1913 was a very happy and peaceful nation, it would only use its military when it has to but that all changed when the Mexican Civil War came to America.

The Border War

The Mexican Civil War had been raging since 1909 with the country being divided into several distinct groups. The war had remained obscure to the USA until the battle of Columbus, New Mexico. The New Mexico National Guard barely managed to defeat Pancho Villa's raiding force of 600 men. The USA launched an invasion of Mexico under the command of Lieutenant General Douglas MacArthur. Mexican forces in 1910 were overwhelmed and by 1911 all resistance in Northern Mexico had been crushed. Pancho Villa and his force of rebels overthrew the existing government forces and the US realized they were fighting the wrong enemy.

In 1913 Mexican Consul Villa met with MacArthur, John Pershing and President Roosevelt in El Paso. In return for damages done to Columbus, the US would help Villa establish a more democratic Mexico. By January 1914 the US-Mexican coalition had secured all of Mexico and united it under the new banner. The new Mexican flag is the green, white and red, with blue star crossed by oak leaves and motto saying "Viva La Revolution". However, events in Europe forced the US to respond.

The First Balkan War

The three Slavic allies (Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro) had laid out extensive plans to coordinate their war efforts, in continuation of their secret prewar settlements and under close Russian supervision (Greece was not included). Serbia and Montenegro would attack in the theater of Sandjak, Bulgaria and Serbia in Macedonia and Thrace.

The Ottoman Empire's situation was difficult. Its population of about 26 million people provided a massive pool of manpower, but three-fourths of the population and nearly all of the Muslim component lived in the Asian part of the Empire. Reinforcements had to come from Asia mainly by sea, which depended on the result of battles between the Turkish and Greek navies in the Aegean.

With the outbreak of the war, the Ottoman Empire activated three Army HQs: the Thracian HQ in Constantinople, the Western HQ in Salonika, and the Vardar HQ in Skopje, against the Bulgarians, the Greeks and the Serbians respectively. Most of their available forces were allocated to these fronts. Smaller independent units were allocated elsewhere, mostly around heavily fortified cities.

Montenegro was the first that declared war on 8 October (25 September O.S.). Its main thrust was towards Shkodra, with secondary operations in the Novi Pazar area. The rest of the Allies, after giving a common ultimatum, declared war a week later. Bulgaria attacked towards Eastern Thrace, being stopped only at the outskirts of Constantinople at the Çatalca line and the isthmus of the Gallipoli peninsula, while secondary forces captured Western Thrace and Eastern Macedonia. Serbia attacked south towards Skopje and Monastir and then turned west to present-day Albania, reaching the Adriatic, while a second Army captured Kosovo and linked with the Montenegrin forces. Greece's main forces attacked from Thessaly into Macedonia through the Sarantaporo strait and after capturing Thessaloniki on 12 November (on 26 October 1912, O.S.) expanded its occupied area and linked up with the Serbian army to the northwest, while its main forces turned east towards Kavala, reaching the Bulgarians. Another Greek army attacked into Epirus towards Ioannina.

In the naval front the Ottoman fleet twice exited the Dardanelles and was twice defeated by the Greek Navy, in the battles of Elli and Lemnos. Greek dominance on the Aegean Sea made it impossible for the Ottomans to transfer the planned troops from the Middle East to the Thracian (against the Bulgarian) and to the Macedonian (against the Greeks and Serbians) fronts. According to the E.J. Erickson the Greek Navy also played a crucial, albeit indirect role, in the Thracian campaign by neutralizing no less than three Thracian Corps (see First Balkan War, the Bulgarian theater of operations), a significant portion of the Ottoman Army there, in the all-important opening round of the war. After the defeating of the Ottoman fleet the Greek Navy was also free to liberate the islands of the Aegean. General Nikola Ivanov identified the activity of the Greek Navy as the chief factor in the general success of the allies.

In January, after a successful coup by young army officers, the Ottoman Empire decided to continue the war. After a failed Ottoman counter-attack in the Western-Thracian front, Bulgarian forces, with the help of the Serbian Army, managed to conquer Adrianople while Greek forces managed to take Ioannina after defeating the Ottomans in the battle of Bizani. In the joint Serbian-Montenegrin theater of operation, the Montenegrin army besieged and captured the Shkodra, ending the Ottoman presence in Europe west of the Çatalca line after nearly 500 years. The war ended officially with the Treaty of London on 30 May 1913.

The Second Balkan War

Though the Balkan allies had fought together against the common enemy, that was not enough to overcome their mutual rivalries. In the original document for the Balkans league, Serbia promised Bulgaria most of Macedonia. But before the first war come to an end, Serbia (in violation of the previous agreement) and Greece, revealed their plan to keep possession of the territories that their forces had occupied. This act prompted the tsar of Bulgaria to invade his allies. The Second Balkan War broke out on 29 June 1913 when Bulgaria attacked its erstwhile allies in the First Balkan War, Serbia and Greece, while Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire intervened later against Bulgaria, with Romania attacking Bulgaria from the north. When the Greek army entered Thessaloniki in the First Balkan War ahead of the Bulgarian 7th division by only a day, they were asked to allow a Bulgarian battalion to enter the city. Greece accepted in exchange for allowing a Greek unit to enter the city of Serres.

The Bulgarian unit that entered Salonika turned out to be a 18,000-strong division instead of the battalion, something which caused concern among the Greeks, who viewed it as a Bulgarian attempt to establish a condominium over the city. In the event, due to the urgently needed reinforcements in the Thracian front, Bulgarian Headquarters was soon forced to remove its troops from the city (while the Greeks agreed by mutual treaty to remove their units based in Serres) and transport them to Dedeağaç (modern Alexandroupolis), but still it left behind a battalion that started fortifying its positions.

Greece had also allowed the Bulgarians to control the stretch of the Salonika-Constantinople railroad that lay in Greek-occupied territory, since Bulgaria controlled the largest part of this railroad towards Thrace. After the end of the operations in Thrace — and confirming Greek concerns — Bulgaria was not satisfied with the territory it controlled in Macedonia and immediately asked Greece to relinquish its control over Thessaloniki and the land north of Pieria, effectively handing over all Aegean Macedonia. These unacceptable demands together with the Bulgarian refusal to demobilize its army after the Treaty of London had ended the common war against the Ottomans and alarmed Greece, which decided also to maintain its army's mobilization.

Similarly, in northern Macedonia, the tension between Serbia and Bulgaria due to later aspirations over Vardar Macedonia generated many incidents between the nearby armies, prompting Serbia to maintain its army's mobilization. Serbia and Greece proposed that each of the three countries reduce its army by one fourth, as a first step to facilitate a peaceful solution, but Bulgaria rejected it. Seeing the omens, Greece and Serbia started a series of negotiations and signed a treaty on 1 June 1913. With this treaty, a mutual border was agreed between the two countries, together with an agreement for mutual military and diplomatic support in case of a Bulgarian or/and Austro-Hungarian attack. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, being well informed, tried to stop the upcoming conflict on 8 June, by sending an identical personal message to the Kings of Bulgaria and Serbia, offering to act as arbitrator according to the provisions of the 1912 Serbo-Bulgarian treaty. But Bulgaria, by making the acceptance of Russian arbitration conditional, in effect denied any discussion and caused Russia to repudiate its alliance with Bulgaria.

The Serbs and the Greeks had a military advantage on the eve of the war because their armies confronted comparatively weak Ottoman forces in the First Balkan War and suffered relatively light casualties while the Bulgarians were involved in heavy fighting in Thrace. The Serbs and the Greeks had time to fortify their positions in Macedonia. The Bulgarians also held some advantages, controlling internal communication and supply lines.

On 29 June 1913 General Savov, under direct orders of Tsar Ferdinand I, issued attacking orders against both Greece and Serbia without consulting the Bulgarian government and without any official declaration of war. During the night of 30 June 1913 they attacked the Serbian army at Bregalnica river and then the Greek army in Nigrita. The Serbian army resisted the sudden night attack, while most of soldiers did not even know who they were fighting with, as Bulgarian camps were located next to Serbs and were considered allies. Montenegro's forces were just a few kilometers away and also rushed to the battle. The Bulgarian attack was halted.

The Greek army was also successful. It retreated according to plan for two days while Thessaloniki was cleared of the remaining Bulgarian regiment. Then the Greek army counter-attacked and defeated the Bulgarians at Kilkis-Lahanas (Kukush), after which the mostly Bulgarian town was destroyed and its population expelled. The Greek army destroyed altogether 161 Bulgarian villages and massacred thousands of inhabitants. Following the capture of Kilkis, the Greek army's pace was not quick enough to prevent the destruction of Nigrita, Serres and Doxato and massacres of non-combatant Greek inhabitants at Demir Hisar and Doxato by the Bulgarian army. The Greek army then divided its forces and advanced in two directions. Part proceeded east and occupied Western Thrace. The rest of the Greek army advanced up to the Struma River valley, defeating the Bulgarian army in the battles of Doiran and Mt. Beles, and continued its advance to the north towards Sofia. In the Kresna straits the Greeks were ambushed by the Bulgarian 2nd and 1st Army newly arrived from the Serbian front that had already taken defensive positions there following the Bulgarian victory at Kalimanci.

By 30 July the Greek army was outnumbered by the counter-attacking Bulgarian army, which attempted to encircle the Greeks in a Cannae-type battle, by applying pressure on their flanks.[21] The Greek army was exhausted and faced logistical difficulties. The battle was continued for 11 days, between 29 July and 9 August over 20 km of a maze of forests and mountains with no conclusion. The Greek King, seeing that the units he fought were from the Serbian front, tried to convince the Serbs to renew their attack, as the front ahead of them was now thinner, but the Serbs rejected it. By then, news came of the Romanian advance toward Sofia and its imminent fall. Facing the danger of encirclement, Constantine realized that his army could no longer continue hostilities, agreed to Eleftherios Venizelos' proposal and accepted the Bulgarian request for armistice as this had been communicated through Romania.

Romania had raised an army and declared war on Bulgaria on 10 July as it had from 28 June officially warned Bulgaria that it would not remain neutral in a new Balkan war, due to Bulgaria's refusal to cede the fortress of Silistra as promised before the First Balkan war in exchange for Romanian neutrality. Its forces encountered little resistance and by the time the Greeks accepted the Bulgarian request for armistice they had reached Vrazhdebna, seven miles from the center of Sofia.

Seeing the military position of the Bulgarian army the Ottomans decided to intervene. They attacked and finding no opposition, managed to recover eastern Thrace with its fortified city of Adrianople, regaining an area in Europe which was only slightly larger than the present-day European territory of the Republic of Turkey

The Great War

1914

On June 28th, 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated leaving Europe in turmoil. President Roosevelt still kept America on high alert but was concentrated in rebuilding Mexico. However by August, Germany launched the Schleifen Plan invading Belgium to get behind Paris. The US automatically started making loans and sending arms to France and Britain. Russia meanwhile attacked into East Prussia. Germany launched a massive propaganda campaign calling General Brusolov the "Russian Rapist". In September the French and British won at the battle of the Marne and both sides dug in. By October a peasant rebellion in Mexico was discovered to be funded and raised with German arms. On October 24th Consul Villa reported getting a message from Germany to attack the USA. President Roosevelt convinced congress to declare war on October 27th. Germany after hearing of the American statement panicked and launched a winter offensive in November. French colonials and tear gas thwarted this. In the East, Russia was pushed away from Konigsberg and forced into a retreat across Poland. The Russians, however, had major success against Austria taking Lemberg. Austria all year hadn't been able to launch a proper invasion of Serbia. Austria then began making secret promises to Bulgaria for their entry into the war on the Central Powers side.
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A Belgian scouting party outside Waterloo

1915

The first American troops arrive in France in January. President Roosevelt visits Paris along with General Pershing. Roosevelt is acting as an advisor to the war.

"I will be the Abe Lincoln of this war and for all wars under my presidency. Show no mercy to the Huns my fellow Americans, Frenchmen, British, Serbian, and Russians." -Roosevelt to the Ententes peoples, January 17th, 1915

These "doughboys" were battle hardened veterans of the Border War, some brigades even holding Mexican volunteers. Allied plans decided on a Spring offensive into Champagne and batter the Germans on the Lorraine Front. However, certain events with a hawkish Winston Churchill lead to the British retaking a battleship given to the Ottoman Empire for use against the Austrians. Germany's ship, the SMS Goeban was given to the Ottomans in support for an Ottoman declaration of war on the Entente. Ottoman forces immediately attacked into the Sinai under the belief they could take the Suez Canal. The first tactical use of aircraft was used by the British for spotting the Ottoman troops and destroying them. Russia went into action along the Caucasus Front. The Russian captured Armenia and formed a new puppet state under a Russian noble. The British then took off from Persia and Kuwait as an invasion of Mesopotamia. It didn't end up going to plan as they were stalled at Kut.

In the Balkans Austria launches another failed invasion of Serbia and a new front is opened at Salonika. Italy decided it was time to join the war and under the promise of land from France and domination of the Mediterranean, Italy joins the war on the side of the Central Powers. New fronts seemed to open every week. In the West, American and French forces stopped Italian landings outside of Monaco and Marseilles. The Italian navy was destroyed in the Ionian Sea by a combined Anglo-French task force. Italy's navy was in tatters. During the battle the Ottomans sent their only battleship, the Mehmed V (formerly the Goeban) and it was destroyed, torpedoed by an American destroyer.

TRB-WW1montage

scenes from 1915 left to right: Austrian troops attack Serbian defenses: Ottoman cavalry at Kut: Russian cavalry race through Irsurum: Greek soldiers in Southern Bulgaria: The battleship Mehmed V trails smoke after she has been hit: American 75mm cannons on the Western Front

The British with the support of several Allied nations launched an invasion of Gallipoli using ANZAC, South African, French, and Hispanic-American forces. The battle was of shock value as it had gone better then expected. By the end of the week Australian troops could see the lights of Istanbul to the Northeast. Russia's Black Sea Fleet engaged the Ottomans off of the Bosporus destroying them. The Ottomans had seriously been defeated several times both at sea and on land. In Western Anatolia, Kurdish units fighting Russian and Armenian troops near Erzurum mutinied and fled toward Allied lines. There commanding officer declared himself the ruler of the Free Kurdish Government. The Ottomans sought to stoop any revolt before it happened in Kurdistan. And thus began the start of the Kurdish Genocide and a long start for Kurdish independence. The Western Front battles had ended with massive losses for the Allies.

"They send us out to be slaughtered like animals in no-mans land. I saw all of my buddies get cut down by machine guns near Vimy Ridge. Now I'm sitting in a hospital bed with no left leg, damn kraut mortar got lucky and blew it off. I was barely alive before Sgt. Peterson dragged me and Sullivan back to our lines."-excerpt from US 8th Infantry Corporal 2nd class Harley Yeager's diary about his experiences in the war

In November, after two more attempted invasions by Austria in Serbia, Bulgaria launched a surprise attack on Serbia. In alarm the garrison at Salonika opened an offensive against Bulgarian troops in the marshes and foothills of the Greek enclave. As fighting in France, Russia and Anatolia stopped the Balkan front kept moving. The Allies suffered great losses against a more prepared Bulgarian force of 70,000 men. Czar Ferdinand, however, refused to allow his artillery to hit Salonika making Greece's entry into the war. By late December Serbia was occupied and the Central Powers began gearing up for an offensive into Albania.

1916

In early January Austrian, Italian, and Bulgarian forces crashed into Montenegro and Albania. Allied attacks outside Salonika got harder but failed every time. In Greece King Constantine went to the Allied Headquarters in Paris to demand a reason why Greece should enter the war. His answer was one of lust and conquest. Allied leaders promised Greek territory to expand from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. In return they would also gain Cyprus and some of Western Anatolia. Greece would also have control over Italian Libya. On February 2nd Greek forces stationed on the Albanian border attacked several Italian brigades on the border. Greece then sent its fleet to bombard Istanbul. In an exchange, Greece paid 5000 US dollars to Bulgaria for the giant wooden cross they planned to put on Hagia Sofia.

In the west the Germans began Operation: Gerisch (judgment). The largest artillery barrage in history had begun. Against French defenses around Verdun. The French front line trenches were destroyed. For the first time on the western front since the Marne, it was open warfare. The German were also helped when the Italians took Monaco from France. American marines landed in Sardinia quickly taking the island. From North Africa, Allied leaders planned an invasion of Sicily. They predicted that an invasion of the homeland would mean the Italian people launch a revolution and switch sides. By March the activity in Mesopotamia flared up again as the British were pushed out. As the Ottomans reached the Arabian border they were suddenly attacked by an Anglo-Arabian army of 500,000. Leading the charge was T.E Lawrence, Lawrence or Arabia. The Ottoman army was routed.

In the Caucasus Russia took several cities on the coast. However, against Germany and Austria, Russia was on the ropes. All winter they had been pushed out of Poland and the Baltic states. German forces declared the Kingdom of Poland. The Austrians, meanwhile, pushed into Romania and Moldova. Bulgaria moved its forces north. In Austria Franz Joseph dies and is replaced by Karl I.
Emperor Francis Joseph

The photographic portrait of Austria's emperor

In Summer, the British and Americans launched a massive attack on the Somme River to take German forces away from Verdun. It was hear Colonel George Patton proved himself with tank warfare. Though the Americans had some material success, the British were cut down. 1 million were killed due to bad judgment, overconfident commanders, and lack of intelligence on the German lines. The major psychological victory was purely Entente, the tank caused terror in the German lines with some battalions surrendering upon sight of the machine(s). During the battle of the Somme Irish Republicans revolt in Dublin, eventually Ireland will gain independence but Northern Ireland will stay with Britain.

By Fall and Winter Allied forces had breached Istanbul. With the help of Turk nationals, the Sultan was overthrown. American forces lifted the huge wooden cross onto the mosque which once was a church. several Greek soldiers demolished the minarets and renamed the city, Constantinople. The fighting around Verdun had quieted in the winter and unrest grew in Russia as Minsk fell under German guns.

1917

German strategy was simple for the beginning of the year, bleed the French to death and push into Northern France. It was at this time that Allied forces launched a major invasion of Sicily. Italy was caught off guard. Soldiers on leave brought tales of slaughter home from France. There is a revolution against only the government. King Emmanuel swears he has nothing to do with the war. Italy switches sides. Under a more liberal regime Italy's objective is Trieste and several mountain towns in Austria. The Anglo-Arab army pushes deeper into Iraq. An Anglo-American expedition sets out for Palestine. Zionists rally to the Britain. Eventually these all Jewish regiments will be useful in taking Palestine.

In Southern Bulgaria Allied forces destroy a Bulgarian army in Thrace. Russia experiences the February Revolution, Rasputin is shot dead and the Czar flees to Siberia. Events in Russia nearly spiral into Civil War but the Kerensky regime prevents the revolt. Russia stays in the war. Austrian forces push into Crimea. British supplied Crimean troops prevent the conquest. The Ottoman Empire surrenders as Jerusalem falls. The Kurds declare their own state even after three million of them have been killed in the Kurdish Genocide. Austrian forces in combat with the Italians drive them in Venice. The Allies launch an attack against German forces besieging Verdun. President Roosevelt returns to the USA after his "tour of duty" in Europe.

An Allied Offensive into Serbia proves successful. Bulgaria is fighting on three fronts and is running out of men. Meanwhile, Romania is conquered and more German troops are diverted from Russia to the Balkans. In Austria's higher post there is talk of negotiating peace. However, Germany threatens invasion if peace is made. Austria's army is demoralized at the fact of useless assaults on Allied lines. New Allied raids show weakness in the Western Front. The US begins mass construction of tanks. The Allies in the middle east have a hard time setting up a Turkish Republic with control of Constantinople. The Pope gets in and says Constantinople was a Christian city and will always be a Christian city. This does not concern several Zion units stationed in the city who have gotten there wish of a Jewish Palestine.

Unknown

US troops in a destroyed forest somewhere in Bulgaria

The Western Front sees a halt in operations for the pressing war in the Balkans. Northern Italy is in ruin after the Austro-German forces left behind a scorched Earth. Venice was burned to the ground. In Russia, after the loss of the Ukraine, German funded Bolsheviks launch a revolution and start a civil war in Russia. The Czar is murdered and Russia pulls out of the war. This allows the Germans and Austrians to withdraw almost two million men from Russia to other fronts. In late December, Hindenburg plans an offensive that will decide who wins the war to end all wars.

1918

As the year begins the Allies suffer a massive setback that doesn't seem to effect Germany. The Spanish Influenza takes out 200,000 soldiers from battle in the west. At this time, led by shock troops and new tanks, the Germans launch the Spring Offensive. Allied forces are caught off guard and surrender on mass. Eventually Amiens is taken along with Ypres. In the Second Battle of the Marne British troops arrive in time to halt the German attack. The Germans take what they have and dig in. What is left of the Austrian army is diverted to the Balkans after Italy declares its neutrality.

During the late Spring and early Summer the Allies launch the 200 days offensive. Germany is forced out of much of France and Western Belgium. Germany recalls all available forces from other fronts to "Defend the Fatherland". German troops in late September stop the Allies but at cost. Austria is on the verge of civil war. Austrian forces have been routed from Serbia and Allied forces now have a foothold on Bosnia. Bulgaria is forced into a retreat across its frontier. Czar Ferdinand abdicates along with Karl I. German morale also sinks after a British landing near Hamburg. The remainder of the high seas fleet sail up and down rivers to become mobile gun batteries.

WWI surrender

A South African soldier guards two German POWs after they crawl out of a bunker

By November 1918 the German army totaled some 500,000 remaining soldiers. The Germans had several tricks up their sleeves. They had rallied the remaining reserves to add another 100,000. Germany also wasn't being ravaged with an epidemic of the Spanish Flu. The Germans blamed the Communists for trying to surrender Germany. A ceasefire was what the Allies hoped for and got. Germany hoped it could continue the war but on November 11th, the German congress passed a peace act which was recognized by the Allies. The war was over with Germany's surrender.

Inter-war Era

The world has peace at last President Roosevelt has become victorious in his quest for American ideas to spread across the world. In his speech to Congress in early 1919 he came up with the idea of a New World Order, a League of Nations. He took the idea to the Allied leadership which in 1920 formed the League. But everyone knew, except the pacifists, that there would be a second war.

A troubled Germany

Germany in 1919 was a nation on the brink of civil war, the war had wrecked the population and turned the army against the government. A young soldier by the name of Adolf Hitler had joined the Nazi Party which was rising in Bavaria. The German Communist Party was also more prevalent. In the Spring of 1919 German Communists attempted a revolution to form a Spartacist republic. It was only the army that barely managed to defeat them. German military forces had been stripped of tanks, heavy artillery, and only had 100,000 men. In 1923 Hitler became the leader of the Nazi Party after the mysterious death of Anton Drexter. The Nazis in 1925 attempted an armed coup but it ended with Hitler imprisoned. During that time Hitler wrote a book titled Mein Kampf, it sells well across Germany.

Russian Events

In 1920 the western allies had pulled out of Russia. Soviet forces had poured across the Urals into Siberia. By 1922 the white Russians had been defeated. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed or USSR. Russia had to recover from eight years of war. Millions had been killed from the name of the Czar, to Russia, and the Revolution. Lenin died in 1924 leaving a power struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin won out by 1925 and Trotsky was exiled to Mexico. During a period from 1926 to 1936 Stalin spent the time rebuilding with his five-year plans. The USSR was one country that eventually would shield the Great Depression (as Soviet bankers were nearly non-existent). The Soviet military was purged of anti-revolutionaries and more liberal members. Even some photos were altered to look as if some people never existed.

Italian Threats

Italy was extremely hurt after WWI. Greece had taken Libya and Britain had occupied Northern Italian Somaliland. In 1922 a soldier, journalist, and leader of the fascist party, Benito Mussolini took power with the promise to make Italy great again. He rebuilt the nations shattered army and navy. He reinforced his fortifications along the French border and gave the air force a fleet of new aircraft. Italy by 1925 had rebuilt itself to near pre-war standards. Britain and France never took the Italian threat seriously. The ring of pillboxes, artillery positions, and trench lines on the German and Italian borders had the French a little to overconfident. Mussolini did what every dictator did, he worked alongside the people and showed he was a proud, hard working leader.

The Great Depression

Throughout the 1920s the Allies had been locked in celebration and Remembrance. In 1929 after years of reckless spending and loaning the world stock exchange collapsed when people realized they had no money left to spend or loan. Republican Calvin Coolidge had been president since 1928 yet he had no experience with this. In 1930 he decided to tackle the depression and set up job centers. However, this didn't work as rich bankers wanted to keep what they had. Huge tent towns sprang up nicknamed "Coolidgebergs". In this time widespread bombings and shootings occurred across the US and Quebec.

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American and Canadian soldiers clash with Quebecois rioters in Montreal

Quebec was interesting as it was independence movement protesters that went on the fritz and attacked the police. By mid 1931 the situation got so bad that roaming gangs of anarchists and FLQ thugs controlled Montreal and Quebec City. Eventually the Canadian Prime Minister Richard Benet called upon the US to send 5000 soldiers into Quebec. The US responded by sending Douglas MacArthur. MacArthur had one intent, to crush the rioters. American soldiers opened fire at first sight treating the Quebecois as enemy soldiers. The FLQ and the anarchists were swept aside with civilian casualties. Canada was silent after that. In 1933 a new man was going to change America, and another with Germany.

Resurgence of Power

The USA in 1933 was very divided. It was facing home grown Communist/Anarchist rebellion and unemployment was extremely high. Franklin Roosevelt, a nephew of Theodore Roosevelt was on the Democrats train aiming to restore the USA. In the election of 1932 Roosevelt won by a landslide against Republican Herbert Hoover. Roosevelt implemented the new deal. Millions were sent back to work on massive projects like the Hoover Dam, Empire State Building and even the new Nicaragua Canal and Missouri-Illinois-Ohio River Canal. The USA also began to rearm its military with more modern weapons like the M1 Garand. Roosevelt also easily won the election of 1936 as predicted.

Germany was on the brink of civil war. The Nazi party had major successes in controlling half of the Reichstag. In 1933 Chancellor Hindenburg died leaving newly appointed Vice Chancellor Adolf Hitler in charge. Hitler was greatly welcomed by the German people. Hitler was ambitious and began rebuilding the military secretly.
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Hitler supporters carry Nazi banners circa 1935

Hitler also wanted to reunite the German peoples which had been split apart by the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler wanted to accomplish what he had written down in Mein Kampf. Hitler's first territorial gain was the regaining of the Rhineland from League of Nations forces which kindly left two years ahead of schedule. However, everything changed when wars erupted in Spain and Mexico.

Proxy Wars and Territorial Gains

Mexico had been under American influence since 1914 but by 1936 there was more homegrown rebellion. In the Yucatan workers under the San Pedro Agriculture Industry refused to work for higher wages, open revolt spread across Mexican corporate labor facilities. The aging Consul Villa sent in the armed forces. The "Battle of Port Stevens" between Mexican forces, American soldiers, and Mexican rebels effectively got the USA involved. Port Stevens was a US navy base located in Veracruz. The United States under Dwight Eisenhower launched an invasion of Mexico. The US population was wondering how Mexico could repay the USA for its intervention. The USA and Mexican government quickly regained control of Mexico. Mexico offered to sell Baja California and Sonora to the USA as repayment. The US only took Baja for easier access to Hawaii. Into 1937 revolutionaries sprung up in the Yucatan with German arms. The rebels quickly regained control of the peninsula. Roosevelt not wishing for a massive guerrilla war only gave the Mexicans arms and equipment.

Abolitionist Spain

Nationalist soldiers await Franco's arrival in Burgos, 1936

Spain found itself in a similar situation. After General Sanjurjo died in a plane crash in Portugal, the nationalist and Catholic army found itself at odds with the Communist Spanish government. In 1936 Hitler offered aid to Francisco Franco's nationalists trapped in Northern Morocco by airlifting them into Western Spain. The civil war had begun. Nationalist forces with the help of 100,000 Italian "volunteers" and the Condor Legion of German f\drove the Republicans into a defensive position. Hundreds of thousands of internationals signed up to help the Republicans. They also received arms from the USA (to the democrats of the Republicans) and the USSR (to the communists). Spain was torn apart with the Basque town of Guernica wiped off the map by German bombers. The Republicans by 1938 were on the brink of collapse and was suffering infighting. In March 1939 Franco marched through Madrid, a month later Barcelona fell and the National Socialist Republic of Spain was formed.

Italy had a resurgence of imperialism. In 1935 it invaded Ethiopia to test the Leagues strength. Despite threats of military force Italy pressed on and by 1936 had conquered the nation.

Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces in Battle of Shanghai 1937

Japanese troops with gas masks take cover in Peking (Beijing), 1938

Japan in 1937 was on the war path. Hardliners took over the liberal government and carved a path of destruction through China. Millions were killed in the bloodbath. China had been in a state of civil war since 1927 but now the Nationalists and Communists fought alongside one another to stop Japan. The invasion was slowed down after the battle and "rape" of Nanjing, the Nationalists and de facto Chinese capital. US president Roosevelt issued an oil embargo on Japan in 1939 even as the League was collapsing. Japan continued its conquest of China until it was defeated in full on war.

In 1938 Austria was invaded and annexed by Germany. The Allies didn't bother with this but until Hitler wanted the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten crisis was resolved when British Prime Minister Chamberlain gave it to Hitler on a promise not to make any more territorial blunders. In March 1939 Hitler overran the rest of Czechoslovakia. In August 1939 Hitler started demanding the return of Danzig and the Polish corridor to Germany. Britain, France and America threatened war against Hitler.

World War II

1939

Germany lit the spark of a second war on September 1st when its armies invaded Poland under false allegations that Poland had attacked a radio station. The USA, Britain and France declared war on Germany. The USA sent what troops it had to France. Poland was easily overrun The Poles dispersed their tanks for infantry support. The Germans used a tactic known as blitzkrieg, it was a German version of a Great War roadrunner. On September 17th Soviet forces invaded Poland and met with the Germans near Brest-Litovsk. Warsaw was offered to surrender but refused. Hitler ordered the city's destruction. Watching the destruction overhead was Hitler himself. By the 27th all traces of the Polish army were eliminated, most fled through Hungary - which was neutral -Pto France. The Allies did almost nothing but sit and wait. At least Britain tried bombing but decided to drop leaflets to not provoke a retaliation. Arriving in France leading the AEF was George Patton, he would later distinguish himself in the coming years. The Soviet Union invades Finland in the Winter War.

1940

The Winter War ends with Soviet annexation of several territories on the border. The Phony War ends with a German invasion of Denmark and Norway. The Allies had one goal, defend. Lead by the French, Operation Verdun was a massive defensive campaign to stop a Nazi invasion. Germany launched an invasion March 1940. Pressing through the Ardennes Forest the Germans outflanked the Maginot Line. American troops attacked near Reims but were destroyed. The battle of Sedan was drawn out but the Germans marched through. The Germans also overran the Low countries. Rotterdam was completely destroyed by German bombers. Several naval ports including Antwerp were captured. Throughout Spring the Germans raced across France. On April 10th Paris was captured leaving the French government in ruins. The British and Americans were evacuated at Dunkirk and Cherbourg. The French forces vigorously defended as the Anglo-American forces evacuated. By the time German tanks rolled into those cities over 500,000 soldiers were saved. Hitler celebrated and prepared Operation Sea Lion. Meanwhile, the "Blitz" happened with the destruction of London by German bombers. American and British air forces were, however, too numerous to stop a Luftwaffe victory and German invasion.

LondonBombedWWII full

British citizens act normally despite the destruction of London

The Blitz and Operation: Sea Lion fails with massive Luftwaffe losses. Hitler now turns his attention east. In Africa the Italians attempt an invasion of Egypt but with massive losses. For the rest of 1940 the Italians and British would rage seesaw warfare across the desert of North Africa.

1941

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