Cold war europe military alliances map en

Europe divided after World War II.

Only two months after the end of World War II, even before the Nazi criminals could be convicted, the political pressure of McCarthy and many important businessmen forced US President Truman to declare war, with the UK and France, against the Soviet Union in order to "prevent more nations to fall in Communism".

The War would last until January 1948, when Stalin is captured and the Soviet Union dissolved.


During World War II, the Allies decided to create two distinct blocs in Europe.

A capitalist bloc, under American influence.

A socialist bloc, under Soviet influence.

After Germany's surrender, the Soviets occupied their part, in Eastern Europe. Millions of people and many countries and resources were to fall to Communism. Many American and European businessmen were worried that Communism would spread even further into Western Europe and even the US.

They organized to prevent there and found a leader. A soldier and politician called Joseph McCarthy. His hate against Communism was his greatest tool. Supported by very wealthy people, his rise to power was fast. He pressured the Senate and the President to declare war. His popularity was bigger every day in the citizens and soon the President realised he had no option.

The British and French governments joined in and a new war was starting.

Progress of the War

Reconquest of Soviet-occupied Europe

Reconquest of Germany

After the declaration of war by Truman, Stalin ordered the immediate occupation of all the city of Berlin. The Red Army mobilized as fast as possible just to be defeated at the Battle of Leipzig. The American Army opened its way to Berlin, alongside with the British from North. Berlin was reached in two weeks. The city didn't offer much resistance. East Germany is divided in a new American and British parts. The Armies go on, by East and Southeast, to free more lands.

Reconquest of Austria

French army

French tank occupies an Austrian town.

While the British and American army fight in Germany, the French go free Austria. The French reach Vienna at the same time the Americans reach Berlin. The British and American decide to put all Austria in French occupation. The French Army decides to move one and goes, in combination with the American Army, to Czechoslovakia.

The Prague Revolution and the Czechoslovakia Federation

When the French and American Army started invading the Soviet-occupied Czechoslovakia, still democratic but close to be Communist, the Czech people of Prague, afraid of a new war and new occupations, riot on the streets and start the Prague Revolution. The Communist Party's Headquarters are set on fire and people accused of cooperation with the Soviets are killed. The city falls in anarchy and the invaders are welcomed. The major cities of the country follow the example. The Czech and Slovaks organize a new republic, with two separate Parliaments, a Czech and a Slovak, that create a Federation. A Czechoslovak Army is created to defend the country from the Soviets and help to save other countries from the Soviets.

Yugoslav Campaign

From Italy, American troops go for the Balkans. From Venice, conquering Eslovenia and Croatia, and also from the South, occupying Albania in a few days also, the Americans fight with the help of the US Air Force and Navy, trying to reach Belgrade. The Yugoslav Army isn't able to keep them away from the city. The Communist government falls but many Yugoslav Generals continue to dominate great parts of the country. It takes several months for the American Army to conquer the country, even after it reaches the frontiers of the Soviet Union. The last Communist-held city to fall was Pristina, in the 8th September 1947, seven days before the United Kingdom of Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Kosovo was created.

Bulgaria and Romania

With great part of the American Army invading Yugoslavia, the revolution in Czechoslovakia and imminent invasion of the rest of the Communist Balk

King Michael I of Romania, after he allied with the Allies.

ans, along with the retreat of Soviet troops back to the USSR to protect the nation, the two nations worked to avoid invasion.

The King of Romania Michael I, supported by the people and the right-wing politicians removed the Communist government from power and started an alliance with the Americans, offering the Romanian Army to fight the Soviet Union.

In Bulgaria, a coup d'etat began in Sofia, putting in power a democrat provisional government. The government was, however, doomed to fail, beginning the Bulgarian Civil War, opposing the supporters of a republic and monarchy. American troops arrived there in January 1947.

Battle of Hungary

While the Americans and British were invading Germany, to better protect the country, the Soviet Union put a Communist government in power in Hungary. The Red Army wanted to concentrate all efforts in Poland and Hungary, defeat the Allies and then be able to recover Southeast Europe. A large number of troops were brought to Budapest, in order to prepare for the invasion. It was called by Stalin the Operation Stalingrad. However, the British discovered the plan and informed the Americans and French. A combined force of the three nations, along with Czechoslovaks and Romanians attacked the Red Army, facing a difficult and bloody battle that eventually rose in an Allied victory.

After the battle, the Communists were taken out of power and many were executed. American propaganda said "Stalin's biggest trap was dismantled" and that victory was close.

Invasion of Poland

The Allies' armies had stop for some months at the Polish border, waiting for orders to attack. Poland, the last country in the way to Soviet Union, was preparing for the invasion. The Soviet Union knew that if Poland fell, their last defense was gone. And the Allies knew that a good strategic plan was needed to conquer Poland fast.

A British diplomat gave the idea of promoting a Sanationist coup in Warsaw, weakening the country's force to then invade. The plan was well-received in the military circles and soon it began Operation Beck, the name of a Sanationist Minister before World War II. The Warsaw Revolution started. Soon, the Red Army went back trying to destroy the movement, time which the Allies use to invade the country. In the north, the Germans of ex-East Prussia also rebelled, supporting the Allies, which also helped the invasion of the USSR. Soon, all of Poland was in Allies' hands and they could move on to the USSR itself.

Invasion of Soviet-occupied Asia


When Eastern Europe was conquered, the American Army in the south of Korea started to invade the Soviet's area north of the 38N Parallel. From Seoul, American troops invaded the country fighting the Communist army. Pyongyang was captured in the matter of weeks and then the entire peninsula was in American hands. Kim Il-Sung was killed in action in the north of Korea, with one of the last resistance groups. His identity was only shown after his death. The Korea is reunified in American military control.

Kuril Islands

The Canadian and American Navies started also to conquer the Kuril Islands in North Pacific. The resistance was weak and the islands were conquered quickly. The Kuril Islands were divided between the US and Canada.

Invasion of the Soviet Union

Königsberg Revolution

After the Invasion of Poland by the Allies, the Germans of East Prussia were free from the Soviets and Polish who were trying to make them migrate to Germany. In Königsberg, the rage of the Germans who were being forced out of their lands and the fear of armed invasion propelled a revolution. The Königsberg harbour was conquered by the Germans and the Allies were able to get in the Soviet Union. Stalin ordered that the city was to be attacked by air, sea and land, but it was too late. The Royal Navy destroyed the Soviet fleet, anti-aerial cannons were placed outside the city and the Armies were already advancing when the Soviet forces arrived.

Baltic countries

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were easily occupied after the Königsberg Revolution. The people, unhappy with the Soviet occupation, didn't offer much resistance. Stalin didn't put much effort either in protecting them. There was a more important place that was in danger. Leningrad. A huge portion of the Red Army was put between the city and the Estonian fields, protecting it from the Armies. And at south, Stalin also put armies to protect Moscow from invasion.


Belarus was ruined after World War II, but it was still a part of the original Soviet Union. The Red Army was sent to defend it. The American, British and French Armies advanced, in the Spring of 1947, while the Soviets defended themselves from "The Nazi threat", as they called the advancing army. Brest was the first major city to be captured. The Allies were opening way to Minsk. After two months of rough and hard advances, Belarus had been conquered. Many American soldiers had been killed during the invasion, making the situation critical to the American Army. Stalin said: "Another one sees the true power of the people"


Ukraine, one of the most arable zones of the Soviet Union, was one of the main targets because of that. The American, French and Romanian Armies were the main invaders of the republic. With the help of many Western Ukrainians, against the harsh Soviet rule, but Stalin knew he needed to protect Ukraine. And Crimea. The Red Army was sent to Ukraine and the populations were sometimes forced to sent men to fight to protect the Soviet Union from the invasion. However, the Red Army, afraid of the Allies' Armies and the rage of Stalin if defeated, started to desert and many civil militias started to rebel the Army. After a few months of a bloody conflict, the Americans reached Sevastopol, and occupied the bases of the Black Sea Fleet. Later, the bases would be ceded to the USA and it would be created the Republic of Crimea, onde American military control.

Operation Hermes

In the US Army, the war efforts were being too expensive. They knew the Soviets planned to delay even more the Army's advance until the harsh Russian winter, like they did with

Atomic bomb 1

Mushroom cloud over Stalingrad.

the German Army, and even more deaths could happen in such an invasion. After the assassination of Truman and the call for elections of Barkley, McCarthy rises to President of the US. He approves the so-called Operation Hermes, in which the US Army was to launch two atomic bombs in Russian soil. One in Stalingrad and another in Novosibirsk. The city of Stalin and the refugee behind the Urals. In November 6 and 8, 1947, the bombs were launched and thousands of Soviets killed.The news were fast to travel in the nation and world. The Americans celebrated the imminent defeat of their enemies again, and in Europe the fear of all that power of the US climbed even further. However, weeks passed without a peace offering by Stalin. The Moscow government was still up. However, the Russians were fleeing the big cities and running away from the path to Moscow and Leningrad. Invasion wouldn't be hard.


After diplomatic efforts, the British Army was allowed by the Iranian government to pass by their territory to invade the Soviet Union by South. Without Stalingrad in their way and its major Army, the Caucasus were easy preys to the British. They went all the way until the Ukrainian frontier, and occupied the Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan and in Russian Turkistan. The oil fields in the Caucasus were now in British control. Russia's siege was to be completed soon.

Petrograd Revolution

When the American Army arrived in Leningrad, the people started to riot, attacking the Red Army soldiers and collaborating with the American Army. In a matter of hours, the Americans had conquered the city, which the locals now called Petrograd, a sign of abandoning their Communist past.

Occupation of Moscow

Moscow was put in a tight siege by the Americans, who also attacked the city by air night after night. The Red Army was concentrated in the city, and any signs of riots were easily dismissed, normally by force and killings. The people were oppressed. All men between 15 and 70 were forced to serve as soldiers. The other civilians starved to death when the food ran low in the city.  Caos began in Moscow. Children couldn't be in the streets at night or they would be killed and cooked. Houses were invaded and whoever lived there was eaten.

The Kremlin and the Red Army couldn't stop the people and the invading Army. It was Stalin himself who offered surrender. The Americans entered the city, bringing food and freedom. Stalin was arrested as the more important Communist leaders and the Soviet Union was dissolved. It was the end.


After the war, the British government advanced with the New Europe Programme. It gave Germany independence, and supported the union of the Europeans against the American superpowers. The Europeans began a Cold War with the USA, in order to keep their democracy without fear of American influence.

At the same time, in the other side of Europe, the American government started to redesign Europe. Prussia was the first country to reorganize. Right-wing movements invaded the countries, and many turned themselves into dictators.

The arms race, the fights to spread their own ideologies and to destroy the other's shaped the second half of the XX century. Wars would be fought and the world wouldn't be the same after. That was the power of McCarthy.

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