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Allied Council (Twilight of a New Era)

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Allied Council, formed in 1943, was the supreme political and military directing body of the Great Pacific War.

The ministers of foreign affairs of allied countries, meet in Bombay in 1943 to discuss ways to coordinate military actions, present a common political front and prepare the terms of peace of Japan and its allies. The ministers and delegates approved and jointly proclaimed the Bombay Charter. It mainly approved the creation of a permanent body to consult and coordinate political and military direction of the war. This statement also defined the basic policies of the allies.

The basic bodies where the High Direction, the supreme directing body and forum of the Allied Council and the Allied Command Operations (in charge of military affairs). Under direction of the High Direction came a series of ad-hoc advisory councils and task committees.

Common agreements

The basics guidelines of the Bombay Charter where the following:

  • no territorial gains sought by the Allies.
  • territorial adjustments must be in accord with wishes of the people.
  • the right to self-determination of peoples. Self government will be restored to those that have lost. People have the right to choose their form of government.
  • freedom of the seas
  • Allied countries will follow the principles and treaties of the international humanitarian law. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and International Refugee Organization (IRO) will have open access and the help of authorities in their tasks
  • disarmament of aggressor nations
  • defeat of Japanese Empire and allies

Conferences and summits of the allied countries also assent complementary agreements.

  • Form of administrating occupied territories. Legal framework for creating Joint Allies Administration for the Pacific (JAAP, 1945), Joint Allies Administration of Taiwan (JAAT, 1945), and Joint Allies Administration of Korea (JAAK, 1946).
  • Establishment of War Crimes tribunals
  • Terms of the Japanese Armistice and guarantee of territorial integrity of Japanese Islands (Homeland Islands). Legal framework for the creation of the Allied Control Commission for Japan and Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP).
  • Reorganization of Nan'yō and its independence. Definition of relationship between former Japanese Islands in the Pacific and Japan. The JAAP is given powers to organize and call for elections for a constituent assembly and other representative bodies and prepare the transition to independence
  • Reaffirms the help of the ICRC and IRO and its open access and inspection of POW camps. Assigns to the said organization the duty of supervising and assisting the repatriation of Japanese POW from Chinese and allied territories. They will also assist in the return of Korean citizens to their country.
  • Recognition of the independence of Taiwan and disbandment of the JAAT.
  • Recognition of provisional government of the Korea and approval of Korea-JAAK agreement. Modification of powers of JAAK and timetable for its disbandment.
  • Agreement of self-determination of China and its historical territories. It does not include the status of the foreign concessions, that should be negotiated by the respective parties.
  • Declaration of Manila, that formaly declares the end of the Great Pacific War and reasures Bombay Charter. Adds indications on humaniarian help for affected countries and zones. It also hints on the need of a reform of the existing international security system.
  • Terms of economic help for affected countries and territories. Provides the guidelines for the provisional establishment of the Emergeny Relief and Food Agency.
  • Agenda for ways to promote and preserve world peace and security. All States, great or small, victor or vanquished, shall have a participation in this agenda.

Members

It consisted of the following states, that also where designated has members of the High Direction:

It also consisted of other allied countries that participated only in the Allied Command Operations, advisory councils, task committees, and other tasks.


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