The All-Union Central Executive Committee (Russian: Всесою́зная Центральный Исполнительный Kомитет Vsesoyúznaya Tsentral'nyy Ispolnitel'nyy Komitet) is the highest governing body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the All-Union Congress of Soviets. The Central Executive Committee deciding all but the most important issues, such as amendments to the Soviet constitution, which are left to the full Congress only. Under the Soviet constitutions of 1924, 1936, 1946 and 1979, the Central Executive Committee is granted with great lawmaking powers. In practice, however, it functioning as a rubber stamp for decisions already made by the All-Union Communist Party.

The Presidium carrying out the day-to-day operations of the Central Executive Committee when it is not in session. The Presidium is elected by the Central Executive Committee at the first session of each following convocation. The deputies of the Presidium are appointed for the duration of the term of office of the Central Executive Committee. The Presidium of the All-Union Central Executive Commitee is consisted of a chairman, 15 deputy-chairmen (one from each republic of the Soviet Union), a secretary, and 20 members. The Presidium is accountable to the Committee for all its activities. The Presidium ceremonially appoints the members of Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union with the recommendation from majority of the deputies on the Central Executive Committee. The chairman of the presidium is the de jure head of state of the Soviet Union.

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