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The Ali'id House (also the House of Ali, Arabic: بيت علي) was one of the two main houses ruling the Empire of Mecca together with the House of Muhammad, and descendant from Ali bint Quaraysh. They generally have been considered as the least extremist of the two branches of Medinan rulership, although some of its rulers have still been extremist.
The house of 'Ali was formed out of the Quaraysh and Hashemite 'Ali bint Hashem in 635, when he succeeded Muhammad's daughter Fatimah as leader as the Arabian Empire. Soon afterwards, some sort of balance was accorded between the two houses; generally, a Muhammadid king would be followed by an Ali'id one and so on.
The Ali'ids originally were the more extremist of both branches. 'Ali bint Hashem was king mostly because Fatimah did not want to go to war, and joined the War of Ahuramazda almost immediately. However, subsequent kings led to a consistent pattern; the Ali'ids would lead to closer relationships with Aram and the other MIddle Eastern nations while the Muhammadids would go to war.
Eventually, Muhammadid king 'Umar I got tired of the tug-of-war between the two policies. In his ascension to power in 775, he raided the Ali'id residences (all located in Mecca in opposition to many Muhammadid locations in Medina) and killed both Fatimah bin 'Ali, the leader of the house, and her son, Muhammad. Only basic morals kept him from destroying the Ali'id lineage altogether by not murdering Hussayn bin Muhammad, only two at the time.
Aram was outraged at the assassination of the Ali'ids. Fearing the death of Muhammad eventually, and a far more warlike and offensive environment to the south, they demanded that Muhammad was brought to wardening in Babylon. The Muhammadids reluctantly agreed and Muhammad was transported to Babylon in 754.
Muhammad had two children. The youngest, Khadijah, was betrothed to the Empire of Aram. The oldest, Hussayn, renounced to the claims in 811.
In 814, 'Umar died and his unpopular son was crowned. The Ali'ids seized the opportunity and marched south into Arabia. Only the year afterwards, Khadijah is crowned in northern Arabia, and the year after that in Jiddah. The Ali'ids had once again returned to their homeland in the Hijaz.
(note: the dates go as following: (birth date-starting of reign-death). In the case there was no rule, the dating goes (birth date-death))
- 'Ali Bint Hashem (599-635-650)
- Hussayn bin 'Ali (627-668-670)
- Fatimah bin 'Ali bin Hussayn (738-775)
- Muhammad bin Fatimah (750-775)
- Hussayn bin Muhammad (773-820)
- Hussayn bin Hussayn bin Muhammad (791-
- Khadijah bin Hussayn bin Muhammad (793-815-