You may declare a war on any country at any time. You may have any NPC declare war on you as long as it is plausible. Small border expansion can (But is unlikely to) be completed without a war algorithm, but major expansion or invasions require the war algorithm to be completed. In order to declare war, you must specify what country is under attack.

An algorithm for war has been developed and is used in any war involving a player. This includes player-versus-player wars and player-versus-NPC wars. Everyone should try to copy the algorithms and construct their own. These algorithms are final. Disregarding the outcome of the algorithm will result in a ban!

In cases of civil wars, other wars where both factions are controlled by the same player, or in an instance where the players controlling the lead nations agree to a fixed outcome, algorithms do not have to be used.

You are not allowed to break off territory into new vassals or vassalize new nations in the middle of a war to increase the nations on your side. Wars can only be retconned if all players involved agree to do so.



Location goes by capital city. (May go by a Colony's Capital if it is a major Colony which can support a war or be a base.)

  • at the location of the war: +25
  • next to the location of the war: +20
  • close to the location of the war: +15
  • far from location of the war: +10
  • other side of the world: +5
  • Antarctica: 0

Tactical Advantage


  • No defenses, open field, etc: 1
  • High ground/ambush: 2
  • Tribal Ambush/Unconventional Warfare (Only works for Tribes against higher tiered civilizations): 3


  • No defenses, open field, etc: 1
  • High ground/ambush: 2
  • Siege Equipment: 5 (must be explicitly with the army and stated in the post.)

A country receives high ground/ambush if: 1) The battle location, or area where the army in question is located, has a high topographic prominence, meaning it is surrounded by areas of significantly lower elevation. Even plateaus count, but it must be so that the enemy has to climb the mountain to capture the location. 2) The defenders are meeting a force invading from the coast. This means in all invasions involving crossing water in boats/ships and meeting an enemy immediately at the beach starts at this level.

Nations Per Side on the War

  • L for Leader (+5) M for military aid (+3), S for supplies (+2), C for Cultural (+2) ,V for vassalization or subordination (-2) and then W for withdrawal (-1). Along with this nations having more than two personal union nations involved (Leading) in the war will get an additional -2 per union state involved. The same applies for having three or more Leading vassals involved in the war which each will equate to -2 in an algo per vassal. This has it so many nations from say a large empire could have troops and supplies drawn in from its entire empire, but only have the relevant areas involved through the L system
  • In the case of a Coalition war this limitation is per leader and not grouped together with all leaders. So France, Britain and Spain could all have their respective blocs involved and would not be penalized. 
  • When the final scores are added up the Nations per side score is calculated by dividing the final total by the # of involved nations on your side 

Military Development

  • Country has developed military: +2 for each turn dedicated to military or military technology in the last 20 years gets you the basic military development score.
  • The military development scores for both sides will be completed, then the larger side will be divided by the smaller one. The result, rounded to the nearest whole number, will be the number of points the higher scoring side gets on the algorithm. The lower scoring side gets none.
  • Navy was mentioned = full mil turn.
  • Navy was not mentioned = score cut in half.


  • Country has developed economy: +2 for each turn dedicated improving the economy in the last 20 years.
  • A nation can get economic bonus points for controlling crucial trade routes and locations (NOTE: you must control the entire coastline of the region to obtain the bonuses for the regions) Cities can rise and fall between +1 and +2 on the list but no city will reach +3. Economic Bonus can also be applied after division for certain things like larger economy, Rapid industrialization, etc.
  • Bonuses like larger economies also are brought into account.

Locations Bonus


  • -Straits of Gibraltar (Hispania)
  • -Suez and Central American canals (when built)
  • Gulf of Mexico


  • -Sea of Marmara (Imperial Rome)
  • -Øresund (Scandinavia)
  • -Malacca Straits (Ayutthaya)
  • -Cape of Good Hope (Hispania)
  • -Red Sea Opening
  • -Hawaii
  • -Fiji
  • -Cuba (Hispania)
  • -English Channel
  • Hudson Bay
  • Great Lakes


  • -Genoa (Genoa/Hispania)
  • -Venice (Venezia/Hispania)
  • -Antwerp (Netherlands)
  • -Lubeck (Hansa)
  • -Alexandria (Egypt)
  • -Shanghai (Hispania)
  • Nanjing
  • Hangzhou
  • New York City (Scandinavia)
  • New Orleans (France)
  • Boston (Britannia)


  • −Lisbon (Portugal)
  • −London (England)
  • −Stockholm (Scandinavia)
  • −Elsastat (Scandinavia)
  • −Seville (Hispania)
  • −Constantinople (Imperial Rome)
  • −Aleppo (Mamluks)
  • −Baghdad (Mansuriyya)
  • −Barcelona (Hispania)
  • −Samarkand (Tartary)
  • −Delhi (Delhi Sultanate)
  • −Kozhikode (Kozhikode)
  • −Khambhat (Hispania)
  • −Mombasa (al-Swahili)
  • −Mogadishu (al-Sumal)
  • −Lanzhou / Xi'an (Ming)
  • −Guangzhou / Hong Kong 
  • −Yokohama (Contested)
  • −Nagaski (Fusahito)
  • −Cuzco (Inca/Spain)
  • −Tenochtitlan (Before canal) (Aztecs/Hispania)
  • Chicago
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Sao Paulo
  • Buenos Aires
  • Seattle
  • Portland
  • San Francisco
  • Charles Town
  • Miami
  • Montreal
  • Ottowa
  • Winnepeg

Economic Bonus:

  • Much larger Economy: +10
  • Larger Economy: +5
  • Equally matched economy: +2 (to both nations)
  • Smaller Economy: -2
  • Receding Economy: -3
  • In Golden economic age: +3
  • Larger Trade/Colonial Empire: +5
  • These bonusus are added to the Economic development category

Military Modifier: 

  • Has not lost any of the previous three wars: +10
  • Has Naval dominance: +10
  • More total troops than enemy: +5
  • Nation is fully mobilized for war: +5 (must be specifically said in turn)
  • Nation has a moderately sized armed forces: +3 (60,000 to 20,000)
  • Nation has a small armed forces (20,000 or below) -2
  • Lost more than two recent wars: -3
  • Smaller armed forces: -3
  • Much Smaller armed forces: -5 
  • Nation was not initially mobilized: -10 (no active troops or preparedness. Major powers are immune to this except for special cases, See German invasion of the USSR
  • These Modifiers are added to the Military Development Category.
  • If a negative score just divide it by 2 for safety's sake.


  • +1 for every turn that it is built up
  • It only counts for the defender in an algo
  • Only Home defenders Infrastructure counts (France can't use its infrastructure to save the Byzantines - it makes no sense)
  • Defensive wars may take no more than 2-3% of an attacking nations (if plausible) territory. In order to seize more territory an offensive algo would have to be made as a counterattack. These algos would all fall under a singular war (so a recent wars modifier does not apply) Some exceptions apply (Defending nation is a superpower which would assuredly win) (Attacker has nothing left following the attack)


  • Expansion: -1 for every turn used for non-colonial expansion in the past 15 years


  • Economic (Gains land, resources, etc): + 3
  • Aiding Ally: + 3
  • Defending territory not owned by nation more than 20 years: + 4
  • Defending territory not part of heartland but held for more than 20 years: + 5
  • Taking territory of similar culture but not part of nation: + 5
  • Pre-emptive Strike against a nation rapidly building military forces: + 5
  • Taking back territory recently held by nation but since lost: + 6
  • Aiding Social/Moral/Ideological/Religious Kinsmen who are being oppressed: + 7
  • Attacking to enforce political hegemony: +7
  • Defending Heartland from attack that will not cripple/ destroy nation: + 5
  • Defending Core/heartland from possibly fatal attack + 9
  • Defending from attack that will wipe out nation and culture: + 10 (pre-nuclear era), + 15 (post-nuclear era)
  • Defending from nuclear armed nation that has a motive over 5 and has not yet used their weaponry: + 10
  • Defending from nuclear armed nation, regardless of motive, that has used said weaponry: + 15
  • Warning: Negative motive scores are possible!!
  • Due to the implausibility associated with nations winning on motive alone only one nation may have a heavy hitter motive. (Motive over +5) 


  • Single Nations:
  • Non-democratic Government supported by people: + 4
  • Democratic government supported by people: + 5
  • Government not supported by people: - 10
  • WAR not supported by people (democratic) : - 3
  • WAR not supported by people (non-democratic): - 2
  • Troop Morale high (requires motive over 5, chance over 4, and stronger development scores in at least one category): + 5
  • Troop Morale low (any of the above: chance below 1, lower development scores in all categories, recent war penalty over 8): - 5
  • Fighting Guerrilla War: -5 attacker, + 1 defender
  • Multiple concurrent wars: -15
  • Coalitions:
  • Democratic or democratic-supporting nations: +6
  • Mostly non-democratic nations: -3
  • High Morale (same criteria): +6
  • Low Morale (same criteria): -6
  • Unpopular war in multiple nations: -3 per nation wherein the war is unsupported
  • Guerrilla: -10 Attacker, -2 Defender
  • Nations fighting multiple concurrent wars: -10 per nation
  • Supported government modifiers also only apply to player nations (Main nation and Personal Unions not Vassals) unless otherwise specified by a Moderator

If there are multiple motives, the one told to the army will be selected. 


0 to 9 points will be awarded to each person based on chance. Factors will be the opponent's edit count (on Althist's main articles. The main articles' edit count can be found in Edicount Page. and the precise time when the country declares war or acknowledges the other's declaration of war. The product of the non-zero digits of the time by UTC (0:00 yields 1) will be written as a percentage of the opponent's edit count at the exact time of the declaration. The result is multiplied by pi and the hundredths digit is the amount of points that person gets (e.g. 123.8377% yields 3).

  • Edit count = x
  • nonzero digit in time*nonzero digit in time = y
  • x / y * pi = z
  • Chance = Hundredth place of z

For NPCs, the chance will be defined as the thousandth place of z, using the exact same algorithm as the player nation.</p>

NPC Bonus

In every very year that a NPC nation is not at war or expanding, or having a disaster, it will build up one of the three (military, infrastructure and economy). The number of total buildups will be divided into the three categories as evenly as possible, with preference going infrastructure > economy > military.

Ex: If a nation (ex: Moravian Serbia) existed for 11 years, or spent 11 turns not doing anything, this would mean that the infrastructure and the economy were updated in four turns, and the military in three.

Special NPC Bonus nations

Some Non Player Countries are stronger than others, usually because these nations used to be part of a powerful empire, hence they are stronger than normal NPCs.

This bonus is worked out like the normal NPC bonus, where in every very year that a NPC nation is not at war or expanding, or having a disaster, it will build up one of the three development areas (military, infrastructure and economy). The number of total buildups will be divided into the three categories as evenly as possible, with preference going infrastructure > economy > military with their final score being divided by two then rounded to the nearest whole. However, the special NPC bonus doesn't divide by two, so it is just the number of total buildups.

E.g. If a nation existed for 15 years, or spent 15 turns not doing anything, this would mean that the infrastructure, military and the economy were updated in five turns each. The NPC nation would receive fifteen points of bonus, five for each department (economy, infrastructure and military).

Nation Age

Goes by the last major change in the system of government.

  • Newborn nation (less than 5 years since gov change) =  -10
  • Young nation (5–25 years since government change) = -5
  • Maturing nation (25–75 years) = +0
  • Mature nation (75–200 years) = +5
  • Old nation (200–300 years) = +0
  • Ancient nation (300–500 years) = -5
  • Antique nation (more than 500 years) = -15


  • The population score is the number of digits in the population + the additional bonus, which is below:
  • +2 to the larger nation that is less than five times the population of the smaller.
  • +10 if the larger nation is between five and ten times the population of the smaller.
  • +20 if the larger nation is more than ten times the population.

Recent Wars

  • -2 for Leadership in any war in the past 15 years.
  • -1 for and Military or supply support in the past 15 years


All nations get a +10 on this (Nations as in side, if two nations are participating, such as one sending supplies and military, there is still only a +10 for the side).

Number of Troops

  • Friendly soldiers / Enemy soldiers.
  • Friendly ships/ Enemy Ships
  • Troops and ships must be in a plausible amount for your nation. No troop spamming this will be paid attention to and mods will edit to reflect your nations true troop potential (no armies of 25 million guys even if you have the population of China, its just not doable)
  • Naval battles must be conducted in the invasions of major territory overseas or in regards to attacking a major Naval Power. Major nations may not have a surface navy for whatever reason (German U-Boat fleet) and this can be circumvented. 

Treaty Breaking

  • Attacker breaks non-aggression pact/treaty: -5
  • Attacker breaks alliance: -10

Example Algo:

  • Location: next to the location of the war: 4
  • Tactical Advantage: Siege Equipment: 5
  • Nations Per Side on the War: +4  Castile (L) +5 Aragon (M) +3 Portugal (M) +3 = 11/3 = 3.6 = 4
  • Military Development: +10 20/2 = 10 (10 years of development)
  • Economic: +7 20/3 = 6.67 = 7 (10 years of development)
  • Expansion: N/A (no expansion)
  • Motive: Total: +11 +7 (hegemony) +4 (non Dem supported)
  • Chance: Chance :4
  • Edit count = 95
  • 2 * 1 * 5 * 6 = 30
  • 95 / 30 * pi = 9.94
  • NPC Bonus: N/A
  • Special NPC Bonus nations :N/A
  • Nation Age: Mature nation (75–200 years) = +5
  • Population:Total: +9 +7 (7 million) +2 (to the larger nation that is less than five times the population of the smaller)
  • Participation: +10
  • Number of Troops: 15,000 / 7000 = 2.14 = +2
  • Theaters of War: 0
  • Total: 71
  • Location: +5
  • Tactical Advantage: High security Fortress City walls +4
  • Nations per side: Morocco :+5 (L) +5/1 = 5
  • Military Development: 4/2 = +0
  • Economy: +0
  • Infrastructure: 5/2 = 2.5 = +3
  • Expansion: -0 (no expansion)
  • Motive: Defending heartland from non fatal attack +5
  • Chance: +5
  • Edit count = 335
  • 2 * 2 * 1 * 6 = 24
  • 335 / 24 * pi = 43.8
  • Nation Age: Old nation +5
  • Population: +6
  • Participation: +10
  • Recent Wars: -1 (war with Algiers)
  • Troops strength: 7000/15,000 = 0
  • Theaters of War: 0
  • Total: +47

Currently Castilian victory. Castile can take ((72/(72+42)*2)-1 = 26.31% of Granadan territory at most, and can decide how long the war lasts. Castile's player will have the war last four years, so they can gain up to (26.31)*(1-1/(2*4)) = 23.02125 of Granada's territory (needs an update but I've got class)


The equation for gains from war algorithms is (p)*(1-1/(2x)), where x is the number of the years the war goes on and p is the amount of territory determined by the algorithm ((y/(z+y))*2)-1 where y is the winner's score and z is the losers). So if your war lasts one year, you only get 50% of the territory, but if you let the war last five years, you get 90% of the territory. The minimum amount of territory you can win from an algorithm is 1%, otherwise it is a percentage of the loser's territories to two decimal places e.g. 13.69% not 13.69242%.

A great calculator for this is you just copy and paste the equations into the box and replace the letters with the numbers for that specific war. And then you just copy the answer to the main page. Or folks, just use Google. Their automatic calculator is a great aid in working out all this.


  • If your nation has recently had a popular revolt soon after a new weak government was formed (like Adolf Hitler or Napoleon Bonaparte) your score is multiplied by 1.5 for all wars in the next ten years. However, you cannot have multiple popular revolts of this nature in a row without government changes in between.
  • Nations in civil disarray cannot take territory in wars. Instead of the final results algorithm being (p)*(1-1/(2x)), they will have it be (p)*(1-1/(x)). This will require wars there to last twice as long to gain the same amount of territory, as it will take longer to subdue them because they are used to civil conflict. The amount of initial territory you can take from them is multiplied by *1.5 due to lack of unity.
  • City-states get a *0.5 modifier for the amount of territory they lose in the initial results algorithm and can take territory as long as the nation they take it from has territory to take close enough for the city-states to rule without it being considered a colony.
  • If you take 33.33% of your opponent's territory or more, you can topple their government and do whatever is plausible to their nation that you wish.
  • It may be implausible for a nation to take or lose the full amount of territory listed in the algorithm.
  • You can add together winning percentage scores in order to total 33.33% if all of the wars happened within a 30 year period. Meaning if in two wars with 14 years between them both score 17.00%, then added together we get 34.00% which is enough for the losing nation's government to collapse. You can use any number of wars as long as they take place in the 30 year period. This 30 year period starts from the end of the first war. The nations must be the same nations fighting in all of the wars for this rule to apply. For example, if Venice invades Aquileia and wins by 28.50%, Austria cannot use the 28.50% combined with their war victory of 21.28% against Aquileia. The exception to this rule is if the original nations are both part of a larger coalition of nations e.g. Austria and Venice invade Aquileia. Sending military aid or supplies does not count as being part of the coalition.

Coalition wars

For a coalition algorithm, all of the nations that have declared full-on war would have their own algorithm section (with them being the leader, their nation age and military build up, etc.) but because it is a coalition some of the scores for each side are worked out differently than in the usual algorithm.

These differences are that location, motive and nation age scores are done as an average of the coalition, e.g. Nation A has a location score of 4 and Nation B has a location score of 2. Thus (4+2)/2 = 3, meaning the location score for the coalition of Nations A and B is 3.

All other scores in the coalition war is a total of each nation's individual score e.g. Nation A has a military development of +5 and Nation B has a military development of +3. Thus the coalition of A & B has a military development of +8. Also strength, military development and economic development scores are still divided by the other side's score for that category. Chance is a single score done using the data from the player that started the war in the first place and the player who they declared war against. Ergo, the first players on each side.

Furthermore, if only one nation has a bonus (e.g. an industrialization bonus, height bonus, popular revolt bonus, etc.) then it cannot be applied to the entire coalition as all nations in the coalition may not be as industrialized as the other side. You need a Super majority of 75% to gain these sort of bonuses, e.g. eight nations of your ten-nation coalition have a popular revolt bonus, meaning the whole coalition gets the bonus. This does not apply to Locations Bonus (Gibraltar, Venice, Cape of Good hope etc etc)

Another difference is the result of a coalition war: all the nations on each side are added up together, and the winning side gets to take territory from each nation. However, the nations that do better on each side would get more, while nations that did really bad may be temporarily occupied.

Nations can only leave the coalition war if both sides agree to it, meaning separate peace agreements can be formed between nations in either side. If both sides don't agree to the peace then that nation is still in the war as the other side will still be attacking them.

In the situation revolving around Defensive wars, an offensive algo would be required for any counterattack to gain territory in any situation.

Theaters of War

Theaters of war are to prevent a single overall algo from deciding a war that has multiple fronts. If there is a major global colonial war going on between France and England, there would be the potential for two or three theaters of war is not more which requires multiple algos. The algos are calculated the same except the capital of the nearest colony is used rather than the capitals of England and France. This means that the Capitals of New France and New England would be used for the algo. However, the development of the mother country would be used (as these are still nominally part of the mother country.) The colonial nations age would also be used in this (government changes can happen in colonies). The bonuses economic or otherwise still count as well. However in terms of Colonies being able to fight independently, if the colony is over 100-120 years old the Colonies would be able to fight independently due to their established status and larger population base, but unless supported from the mother country, are limited by the forces and resources they control.

There are also modifiers to the algo that apply to wars like this. If there is a war being fought on multiple fronts then negative points can be assigned according to how many fronts the nation is involved in.

  • 1 front: -0
  • 2 fronts: -5
  • 3 fronts: -7
  • 4 fronts or more: -10

Along with this the 15 theaters are denominated as such. These will be used to consider the multiple fronts to a war like the case of WW2 where there was North African, Western European, Oceanian, and Eastern European front being fought by multiple powers. This also prevents an algo in which Say France falls to England, but English colonies lose to the French ones, this leaves the Colonies with an attempt to negotiate the peace (headed by the French government) with England who would more than likely accept the peace if there was a risk to losing all the colonies. As per the fact that many colonial powers could easily fight out of their colonies with impunity, Major Colonizers may fight out of one major colony and one minor colony or two minor colonies with no detraction to their scores, Minor can fight out of either one major colony, or one minor colony, Other colonizers get nothing.


  • Western Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • Northern Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • Eurasia
  • Central Asia
  • East Asia
  • India
  • Oceania
  • North Africa
  • South Africa
  • East Africa
  • West Africa
  • Colonial North America (until 1750)
  • Colonial South America (Until 1750)

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