Alexander III (356 BC - 334 BC) was a Macedonian king known for his invasion of the Persian Empire in 334 BC. He was born to Philip II of Macedon and Olympias. When his father was assassinated in 336 BC, the young Alexander, already known as a skilled warrior, took the throne and subjugated most Greek states that had rebelled after Philip II's death.

In 334 BC, Alexander invaded the Persian Empire in an attempt to liberate Greek cities under Persian rule; a thing his father planned to do but couldn't because of his untimely death. Not long after he had landed in Asia Minor, he was killed in the Battle of the Granicus river by the Persian nobleman Spithridates. With his death, tens of thousands of Greek-Macedonian soldiers were left on Persian soil without a leader.

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