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The Alaskan Wars (Russian: Аляскинские войны, Alyaskinskiye voyny) were a series of revolutions and civil wars which took place across contemporary Alaska between 1917 until 1942. These wars were in direct to World War I and growing resentment towards the Russian Empire. Originally and war of independence, the subsequent revolution and collapse of the Russian Empire spilled over into a decades-long civil war between the pro-independence colonists (colloquially referred to as the Blues), the pro-imperial refugees (the Whites), and pro-communist revolutionaries (the Reds).
Russo-Japanese War and State Duma
- The Russian Empire is able to defeat the Empire of Japan. This is due to more Russian ports in the Pacific Ocean that are able to continually attack Japan to the point that they could no longer fight.
- Despite their victory, a series of rebellions occurs across the Russian Empire. This is especially true in Russian America, who suffered the most from the war against Japan.
- The rebellions are stopped across Eurasia, but the Russians are unable to gain complete control in North America. To prevent the loss of the territory, the Russian Empire agrees to give Russian America autonomy and a democratic parliament (the State Duma).
- Despite the hopes of a Commonwealth-like situation happening in Alaska, Tsar Nicholas II reserved final say and the right to dissolve the parliament. This allowed the Russian Empire to keep de facto control over the territory. This situation is comparable to OTL's State Duma.
- Because the Revolution of 1905 fails in Eurasia, the State Duma of the Russian Empire is never established. Because of this, the February Revolution is butterflied out of existence. Instead, the October Revolution (or possibly earlier) marks the beginning of the Russian Revolution.
- Nikolai Sudzilovsky would be a member of the State Duma and an active voice in favor of Alaskan sovereignty. He may be exiled due to his socialist leanings (as in OTL).
- Those who were in favor of Alaskan sovereignty were collectively referred to as Amerikaniki (Американики, lit. "Americanists"). The movement was divided between those who favored a Commonwealth-like status for Alaska and those which favored completely independence.
- Those that favored remaining in the Russian Empire were known as Sootechestvenniki (Соотечественник, lit. "Compatriots"). They believed Russian America was no different than Siberia and that the Russian Empire should remain a single nation.
Revolution and Civil War
- As with the rest of the Russian Empire, the majority of those in Russian America were quickly loosing support for World War I. This would become more pronounced following the decision to recruit more Russian Americans to fight and die in Europe.
- By March 1917, the two factions of the State Duma agree to unilaterally declare their independence as the Alaskan Republic. The Russian Empire refuses to recognize the independence of Alaska, but is unable to recapture the territory due to the situation in Europe. Following the October Revolution months later, Vladimir Lenin recognizes Alaska's independence.
- Without a "common foe" to be angry at, the varying factions of the Alaskan State Duma begin to despise one another and bicker over the nation's future.
- By early 1918, the predominantly liberal governorates of southern Alaska grew weary of the government in New Archangel (which continued to be controlled by the pro-Empire factions). After months of no change, the southern governorates proclaimed their secession as the Oregonian Republic. New Archangel refuses to accept this declaration, yet fails to recapture the territories.
- During the same time, the Russo-dominated government in Columbia is overthrown by the Anglo majority. Rather than continuing to cooperate with either Alaska or Oregon, they opt to declare their independence as the Anglo-dominated Commonwealth of Columbia. The new nation quickly claims the Anglo-populated regions of Kootenay and New Caledonia (the former remains Oregonian after they agree to recognize their independence).
- By the early 1920s, all of Russian America became overwhelmed by waves of refugees fleeing the Russian Civil War. Angered by the economy because of immigration and years of war, many began to protest for change. With some of the protesters being backed by Communists, the Russian American states moved to suppress the protests and regain order.
- Across Sonoma, the soviets are able to achieve total control over the region. These soviets collectively agree to declare their independence as the Sonoman People's Republic.
- The suppression of riots in New Archangel and Nikolayevsk soon turned into a bloody conflict. Communist sympathizers regroup in Nushagak and proclaim the establishment of the Alaskan Socialist Republic. The new Communist government quickly moves to capture New Archangel and beyond.
- With the advance of Communism into North America, the New Archangel government unanimously appoints Nikolai Nikolayevich Romanov to the presidency and give him special powers to fight off Communism.
- The New Archangel government is able to effectively fight off the Communist forces. After years of fighting, the Alaska Range and the Aleutian Range effectively act as the de facto boundaries between the competing governments.
- Along with the Reds and the Whites, there would exist a third faction within North America. Known as the Blues (синегвардеецы, sinyegvardyeyetsy, lit. "Blue Guardsmen"), this faction was heavily influenced by the United States. Unlike the Reds or the Whites, the Blues were less idealistic and more centrist. They favored democracy, federalism, and liberalism. The Blues and the Whites would later ally themselves against communism, as well as both shaping the layout of Alaska today.
- It should be noted that Sonoma was never a communist state. Despite having a socialist and soviet-based government, Sonoma championed democracy and encourage public input. Effectively, Sonoma's government is more comparable to that of Kronstadt during the early years of the Russian Revolution.
- There initially was wide support for the establishment of a "Russian American Empire" in New Archangel, with Grand Duke Nicholas (the Younger) becoming the new Tsar. This was ultimately scrapped as a means to appease those that favored Alaskan independence and republicanism. As a compromise, the Grand Duke was appointed to the presidency and given special powers.
Reunification and Conclusion
- Following the death of Grand Duke Nicholas in early 1929, the White-dominated government in New Archangel began to loose the support of the people (many of whom opposed the far-right policies of the government throughout the 1920s).
- Seizing the opportunity, the Blue Guard captured New Archangel and quickly formed a new government based on democracy and liberalism. Among those in the new government was Mikhail Luchkovich (the first president of the ADFR).
- The new government began talks with Columbia, Oregon, and Sonoma on the reunification of Alaska. Killing two birds with one stone, the benefits of reunification included economic stability and security from Communism.
- These talks were accelerated following Black Tuesday and the beginning of the Great Depression. Knowing the chaos from the past decade, it was believed the combined efforts of Russian Americans would benefit the nation.
- The Alaskan Republic and Oregon establish a temporary confederation in late 1929. This is formalized into the Alaskan Democratic Federative Republic in 1931 with the ratification of the first constitution.
- Columbia and Sonoma are admitted into the ADFR within a few years. While Sonoma was optimistic for the new nation, the Doug-controlled government of Columbia was initially hesitant of becoming part of a Russian-majority nation. The deciding factors for Columbia's admission were solely economical.
- The governments of Mikhail Luchkovich and Taras Ferley initially hoped to win over the Communists to join peacefully. These moves were opposed by common Alaskans, who viewed their government as sucking up to the Communists.
- Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the Communist government in Nushagak quickly lost their lifeline and only ally. The instability of the Nushagak government quickly turned into border clashes with the ADFR. In order to save face, the Farley government declares war and invades the Alaskan Socialist Republic. The Communist forces are overwhelmed and the government opts to flee across the Catherine Archipelago to the USSR. The ASR is quickly occupied and annexed into the ADFR.
- The territories of the [former] Alaskan Socialist Republic is subjected to treatment comparable to the Southern United States during the Reconstruction Era. Vasily Kardash — a former soldier of the [Alaskan] Red Army and future President of Alaska — would become the first post-Reconstruction Governor of Shelikof (the self proclaimed successor to the ASR).
Competing Governments during the Revolution
- Alaskan Republic (Аляскинская Республика) (1917-1929)
- Oregonian Republic (Орегонская Республика) (1918-1929)
- Commonwealth of Columbia (Колумбийское Содружество) (1919-1933)
- Sonoman People's Republic (Сономинская Народская Республика) (1921-1935)
- Alaskan Socialist Republic (Аляскинская Социалистическая Республика) (1921-1942)