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Al-Hakam II (Ard Marjhoola)

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Al-Hakam II (al-Ḥakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III; Arabic: الحكم الثاني‎; January 13, 915 - October 16, 976) was Caliph of Córdoba, and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III. He ruled from 961 to 976. His love of books led to many European works to be translated into Arabic. In comparison to other Caliphs in Córdoba, Al-Hakam II was a relatively peaceful ruler and tolerant of other nations sovereignty.

Rule as Caliph

Reforms by Al-Hakam II included works of infrastructure and irrigation, alongside updating the equipment and ships of the army and navy. While more colonies were planted in Ard Marjhoola, the boundaries of the Caliphate in the old world remained relatively the same. Al-Hakam had two main goals in regards to politics and conflict: First to keep land gains from his father intact (Leon and Castile to the north) and secondly to prevent other nations from reaching Ard Marjhoola (the location of which was still a state secret).


Al-Hakam II was known for his homosexuality. In regards to bringing up a heir, this was a problem. A resolution was reached by him and his advisers, by him taking a concubine who dressed in boys clothes and was give the masculine name of Jafar. The result of such was that Hisham II was born in 956, and took over as Caliph with Al-Hakam II's death.

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