|Republic of Al-Andalus
جمهورية الأندلس (Arabic)
Republica di Andalusía (Mozarabic)
República de Andalucía (Spanish)
|Motto: Al-Jazir Subhan
|Official languages||Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Andalusian Spanish|
|Membership||Global Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
|-||President||Chayk Jamdán Abdkazár|
|-||Vice President||Fajád Almanzór|
|-||Minister of Defense||Akma Aben Aboo|
The Republic of Andalusia (Arabic: جمهورية الأندلس, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Andalus, Mozarabic: Republica di Andalusía, Spanish: República de Andalucía) also known as Al-Andalus or Andalusia is a country located in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula in western Europe with two islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Andalusia is located within a close proximity of Morocco's northern border. Al-Andalus is one of three Muslim countries in Europe, the other two being Albania and Turkey.
Andalusia has a rich history and culture, having a blend of Western European, Middle Eastern and North African influence. The area now known as Al-Andalus has experienced a civilized history dating all the way back to Roman rule, and later a back-and-forth affair between Christian and Islamic rule, until Aben Humeya and Aben Aboo initiated the successful Morisco Uprising, which paved the way for the eventual Muslim victory and consequently, control of the southern Iberian Peninsula.
During the Age of Exploration, the Andalusian Empire functioned as a major role player and global competitor, conquering and acquiring overseas territories in North Africa, East Africa, Central America and Southeast Asia. During the 1920s, Andalusia miraculously escaped the Great Depression. During World War II, Andalusia joined on the side of the Allies but during the Cold War, joined the Non-Aligned Movement.
Andalusia is currently a member of many global organizations, including the United Nations, European Union, Mediterranean Union, Arab League, Union of European Muslim Nations and the Global Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Andalusia's history mirrors that of Spain and Portugal's. Human-like remains have been found in what is now Andalusia and Spain that date back to 1.2 million years back.
During the Second Punic Wars, the Romans extended their territory to conquer what is now Andalusia and Spain around 210 BC after defeating Hannibal. The peoples of Iberia eventually began speaking the Latin language. The Iberian Peninsula was known as Hispania which is the ancient Latin-Roman name for this state. Eventually Portugal became Lusitania. Around 409 AD is when the Roman Empire would eventually decay, this is when the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula would start.
First Moorish Muslim Era
Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula would begin to take shape around 711 AD, when the area that now comprises of modern-day Spain and Portugal were conquered by Muslim armies from North Africa. They were referred to as the Moors after Mauretania, an ancient Berber state in North Africa. Andalusia's name comes from the Arabic word Al-Andalus, which some have theorized to be a corrupted term for Vandals, a Germanic group that had settled in the Iberian Peninsula at the time of Islamic conquest. Muslim rule in Iberia was not unified, with several sultanates, emirates and independant Berber-speaking states known as taifas being formed. Different Muslim armies also fought for control over Al-Andalus. Nonetheless, the Moors built many splendid and glorious structures, include one made from the remains of an old Roman temple and Visigothic church. They also built the Alhambra Palace which housed the Sultan and his queen and those of the royal status. Christians were allowed to remain practicing their faiths of course to pay an extra tax. This self-competition amongst the Arabs and Muslims themselves would prove to be a great disadvantage for them as this allowed Spanish, Portuguese and French soldiers to successfully re-capture the Iberian Peninsula and revert the people to Catholicism.
Starting in 722 AD, would be the Reconquista. This is a Spanish and Portuguese word meaning "the recapturing" in which European forced would re-capture the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim rule. While the Reconquista began in 722 AD, it should not successfully take shape until the 1400s. Europeans such as the Franks also helped in this invasion. In 1492, Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in southern Spain was destroyed and taken over. Muhammad XII refused to surrender himself, he said, "I would rather die fighting for God than to submit to Spain." Muhammad XII fought to the last bit of energy before bleeding to death in battle. Thus, Spain, Andalusia and Portugal remained under European and Catholic control. Following the Reconquista, much of the Arabic architecture remained intact in Spain. But they were converted to Catholic churches. Many of the majority former Muslims were reverted to Roman Catholicism. For a while, former Muslims were allowed to keep speaking Arabic and follow their traditional culture. Eventually that was eliminated and many speakers of Arabic were expelled from the kingdom. The reason the Moors could not hold the Spanish forces back were due to the lack of a "unified" army between the Arabs. This allowed the Europeans to reconquer the Iberian Peninsula.
Al-Andalus then became a territory of Spain, known as Andalucia. The Arabic and Islamic influence in the region simply became a remnant for a short while. Most of the population converted to Roman Catholicism. It isn't until 1540 that the Second Reconquista began.
When the Muslims lost control of Spain, King Philip signed a treaty with the Muslims allowing them religious freedom for sovereignty. However, due to Moorish and other Muslim revolts that resulted from poor treatment of Moors by Catholic rulers, the Kings of Spain retracted and began a period of forced assimilation for the Moors and Jews. The Moorish converts to Roman Catholicism were known as Moriscos, and were prohibited from even following Arab culture. The "Old Christians" however, or the Mozarabs, the Christians who lived under Moorish rule, opposed the Spanish Inquisition and housed the Moriscos. A Morisco general by the name of Aben Humeya (originally born as Fernando de Válor), his correct Arabic name Ibn Umayyah (Arabic: بن أمية), led a revolt in the Alpujarras Mountains. Aben Humeya promised the Old Christians that he'd protect them, and place them in high positions of power once he and his cousin helped the Moors regain control of the Iberian Peninsula. Aben Humeya eventually seized control of the Alpujarras Region of Spain, defeating Castilian and other European forces. King Ferdinand II of Aragon was defeated, he and his forces retreated to the northern parts where they were chased by the Morisco and Moorish armies. However, Ferdinand II and the united Christian armies of the north were able to fend off the invading Moors. Aben Humeya soon reverted to the Islamic faith of his forefathers.
Independance from Spanish Rule
Treaty of AndalusiaAfter several failed invasions and incursions into the southern Iberian Peninsula by the Spanish Christian armies, Aben Humeya signed the Treaty of Andalusia with the northern Catholic kings. This would promise that each one another would stay away from each other's territories. The Treaty of Andalusia divided the Iberian Peninsula into a Moorish-controlled south, and a Spanish Christian-controlled north.
Afterwards, Aben Humeya proclaimed himself sultan, as Muhammad ibn Ummayah (Arabic: محمد بن أمية). However, this resulted in a civil war with a prominent Muslim from Ugíjar by the name of Diego Alguacil, commencing the Morisco Civil War. Aben Humeya's cousin, Aben Aboo foiled Diego's plan, and along with Aben Humeya, the two went to battle against Alguacil's armies. Aboo emerged victorious but Aben Humeya was killed. Aben Aboo proclaimed himself the new undisputed ruler of Al-Andalus, adopting the titles Sultan and Emir was crowned as King Abdullah of Granada (Arabic: الملك عبد الله).
Aben Aboo held a funeral pyre for Aben Humeya, and promising to continue Aben Humeya's policies. One of these policies was the re-opening of trade with North Africa, as more Muslims were brought in from North Africa, many of them searching for new job opportunities. Aben Aboo also adopted Aben Humeya's son, Amád and crowned him as a prince, along with his legitimate son Belál.
Aben Aboo re-structured Andalusian politics, dividing his realm into semi-independent states, much like the way the northern Spanish Catholic monarchs did. Aben Aboo became the King of Granada. Al-Andalus was then divided into the kingdoms of Granada, Jaén, Cordoba, Seville, Málaga, Almería, Al-Basit, Valencia, Badajoz, Huelva and Cádiz.
The kings of these nations signed the Al-Andalus Pact (Arabic: الأندلس حلف), also known as the Pact of the Moors (Arabic: ميثاق المغاربة), promising to aid each other in case of any foreign attack, especially one from the Spanish northern kingdoms.
Rule of Fajád Aben Aboo the "Muslim Reconquista"
Fajád Abén Aboo, a grandson of Aben Aboo, converted to Islam and established a sultanate in Al-Andalus. Although Al-Andalus was inhabited and even ruled by Moriscos, Catholic converts from Islam and/or their descendants, the mass migration of North Africans into Al-Andalus gradually began to put Muslims at the majority once more. Fajád was influenced enough, to officially convert to Islam, the religion of his ancestors. He was coronated as Sultan Fahad I of Granada (Arabic: سلطان فهد أنا غرناطة). Fajád Aben Aboo wanted to avenge the expulsion of the Moriscos, by instigating what is known as the "Muslim Reconquista". Fajád had heard word of bitter quarreling between the wealthy Castilian Catholics and the middle class Muslims living in Al-Balansiya (Valencia). In addition, the Castilians of Balansiya tried to overthrow the Moorish and Morisco royalty of the kingdom. Those Castilian-speaking Catholics had also served under the Catholic monarchs during the Catholic Reconquista. In addition, many of the Latin Catholics of Valencia were reported to have been forming militias and trying to get into contact with the northern Catholic monarchs for aid and support. Afterwards, Hernán, the Morisco king of Valencia sent forces to quash the uprising. The the armies of Valencia, as well as those sent by the other Moorish kings, quashed the rebellion. Afterwards, by royal decree of Sultan Fahad, the Castilian Catholics underwent deportations, many were deported to the Christian nation of Spain up north. They were stripped of their wealth, and could only keep 1/4 of their assets. Their homes were given to Muslims and Moriscos. The Catholic monarchs of Spain up north invited them in as refugees.
In addition, most Roman Catholic churches in Al-Andalus were converted to mosques, with most of their clergy being forcefully converted to Islam or facing the threat of expulsion. For Catholic churches that Fahad spared, he ordered all church leadership and clergy to be led by Moriscos or North African Christians.
Sultan Fahad also banned Castilian Spanish texts, making Arabic the sole official language used in courts and education. Bibles had to be printed in Arabic, however he allowed for Mozarabic copies to be printed.
He increased the trade network with Morocco and Egypt, inviting large masses of impoverished North Africans to settle and work in the kingdom, thereby hastening and ensuring a Muslim majority in Al-Andalus.
After purging the Latin Catholics from Al-Andalus, Sultan Fahad worked to restructure the kingdom's politics. The sultan eventually solidified the unity of Al-Andalus, by designating Granada as the undisputed capital. The other kingdoms were integrated as territories known as taifas (Arabic: طائفة, plural spelling: طوائف). Previously, the term had referred to independent Muslim kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula prior to the Catholic Reconquista. The rulers of taifas under Sultan Fahad were known as taifs.
This era became known in Andalusian history as the "Reconstruction of Al-Andalus", period of economic, social and political stability. Muslims, Christians and Jews coexisted in the kingdom. In addition, Sultan Fahad also invited many Coptic Christian migrants from Egypt, who wanted to flee from persecution carried out by the Turkish rulers of Egypt, initially ending the rumors and allegations that he was carrying-out vengeful persecutions against Christians in Al-Andalus.
Second Andalusian-Spanish Wars
In the 1500s, the Spanish Empire had grown powerful. Waleed, the Sultan of Al-Andalus saw Spain's growing power as an imminent threat, and feared that the Imperial Spanish Army would launch a ground invasion of Al-Andalus in an act of vengeance for Aben Humeya's victory against them.
The Spanish Empire wanted to convert the natives of its conquered territories to Roman Catholicism. Knowing this, Sultan Waleed built massive fortifications and military defenses in northern Al-Andalus. He sent scouts to spy on Imperial Spanish activity. In addition, Sultan Waleed purchased weapons from the British Empire, an enemy of Spain - knowing that his military's equipment was outdated compared to the superior weaponry of the Imperial Spanish Army. In addition, Sultan Waleed ordered civilians to remain heavily armed, and keep weapons, ammunition and anything that could be used to fight back.
In 1532, Sultan Waleed's fears had come to fruition. Andalusian scouts had tried to send warnings to the sultan of the coming Spanish invasion, but were killed by Spanish coverts. On the night of September 3, 1589, Spanish armadas pounded the western coasts of Al-Andalus. On September 5, there was another attack, this time in the north. Thanks to Sultan Waleed's implementation of civilian armament, as well as Spain's war against the Portuguese monarchs, the Spanish attack was decisively repulsed.
In a fit of rage against the Spanish Empire for breaking their treaties with Aben Humeya and Aben Aboo, Sultan Waleed used his wealth to fund expeditions, and join in the race for overseas colonial territory in the New World. Sultan Waleed hired a Jewish sailor by the name of Abu Yusuf to go commandeer the Andalusian galleons. Sultan Waleed sent traders, conquistadors, architects and Islamic missionaries.
Thanks to the Andalusian participation in the worldwide colonial race, Al-Andalus ended becoming the second largest global Muslim empire, second to the Ottoman Empire.
AfricaIn 1592, Sultan Waleed funded the first Andalusian expedition, into North Africa and East Africa. Waleed built positive relations with the realms of Egypt and Sudan. Now, Sultan Waleed moved to help the various Somali and Afar sultanates fight the Abyssinian Empire in East Africa. In 1597, the Moorish conquistadors, along with their Somali, Moroccan and Egyptian allies, conquered Addis Ababa to establish the Wilayah of Al-Habasha (Arabic: ولاية الحبشة). The succeeding sultan, Fadil I divided the territory among his brothers as well as the Egyptians and East Africans that helped Sultan Waleed conquer Ethiopia. Fadil I sent Islamic missionaries artists and architects into Addis Ababa. Under the reign of Sultan Fadil I, the Moorish conquerors continued their architectural legacy, building massive and beautiful palaces in Addis Ababa.
When Sultan Fadil's brother, Prince Hidayat died in 1600, he began to target the native Ethiopian population to convert to Islam. Moorish missionaries were successful in converting a native Ethiopian chief to Islam, giving him the name Amjad. Rather than placing his brothers or those of the Ibn Umayyah dynasty into power, he gave control of Addis Ababa to Amjad. Prince Amjad led a very influential rule in Addis Ababa as its second Walī of Al-Habasha, and established himself as one of the most powerful and influential Ethiopian rulers.
During Amjad's rule, saw the introduction an Arabic alphabet for the Amharic language. Amjad also funded the building of large mosques in Addis Ababa. After failed attempts by Ethiopian Christians, with Spanish help to take Addis Ababa from Muslim rule, the Christians would re-take Addis Ababa and Ethiopia by 1754, expelling most of the Muslims. The Muslims would all flee to Somalia, Egypt or Andalusia.
Central AmericaKnown as Abu Yusuf's Voyage, the Andalusians eventually reached the city of Tenochtitlan in Mexico, which had already been captured and conquered by the Spaniards. However, Tenochtitlan's governor already had developed an avid hate for the Spanish Crown. The Moorish conquistadors were surprised to find the high existence of Morisco women in Tenochtitlan, promising to avenge their misery at the hands of the Spaniards. A conquistador by the name of Nasr ibn Amir crushed the Spaniards and their Mexican cohorts for control of Tenochtitlan.
The Moorish conquistador Muhammad Abu Walid eventually supplied Tenochtitlan's resistance force, and swiftly defeated Spanish soldiers in the area. In addition, one of his missionaries successfully converted Tenoctitlan's goveroer to Islam, crowning him as Sultan Saladin, named after the famous Kurd that conquered Jerusalem. This has established the first and only Islamic state in Latin America. The Moorish rulers brought with them the Arabic and Mozarabic languages, instructing the peoples of Tenochtitlan in Arabic. Groups of Jewish settlers also accompanied the Moors, and established communities in Tenochtitlan. These Jews also brought and hastened the presence of the Arabic and Mozarabic languages in Mexico (though their Arabic was brought in a unique dialectal form known as Judeo-Arabic), as well as the Hebrew alphabet and the Ladino language. Saladin eventually also became the Walī of New Andalusia.
Spanish conquistadors made many attempts to fight the Moorish conquistadors, resulting in a proxy-war between the Sultanate of Andalusia and the Spanish Empire. The Moorish conquistadors ended up victorious, and retaining Tenochtitlan's sovereignty from Spanish rule since the Spaniards also had revolts and rebellions in their South American and Caribbean territories to worry about. The sultanate ended up existing as a colony of Andalusia.
Southeast AsiaWith their newly conquered territory in Central America, the Moors and their Mexican allies were now free to make a push towards the Asia-Pacific Region. Sultan Waleed sent more fleets of Andalusian armadas and galleons, using Mexico as a stop-over. Muhammad Abu Walid was chosen to lead the conquest, and Prince Hashim was chosen to lead the voyage, commencing what is known as Hashim's Voyage. In 1623, the Moors arrived in the Port of Ambon in the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. They then continued northwards, reaching the Philippine island of Mindanao. The Moorish conquistadors were dismayed to find the Philippine and Maluku archipelagos under Spanish rule, however were to pleased to find a strong Muslim presence in these islands. However, the Moors were still very angered to see the Moro Muslims of the southern Philippines (today Bangsamoro) and the Maluku Archipelago (namely the Ternateans and Tidorese) quarreling. They were even more surprised at the fact that Mindanao's people were referred to as Moors or Moros by the Spaniards. Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat, the feared Sultan of Maguindanao was instrumental in helping spearhead the Moorish conquest of Mindanao and helping the conquistador Muhammad Abu Walid flush the Spaniards out of Mindanao and the southern Philippine archipelago. Abu Walid and Sultan Kudarat were two of the most feared rulers of the southern Philippine archipelago.
The Iberian Moors would help their southern Philippine counterparts wage war against the Spaniards. In this case, the various sultanates of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, Palawan and the Maluku Archipelago were established as protectorate and colony states of the Andalusian Empire. In addition, the Moorish troops drove the Spaniards out of Ambon City, however they maintained peace with Portugal, another enemy of Spain.
Third Andalusian-Spanish Wars
During the 1800s, the Spanish Empire would again make an attempt subdue Al-Andalus to avenge for Aben Humeya and Aben Aboo's successful liberation against the Catholic Spanish monarchs in the 1500s. Tired of Spain's constant threats, Sultan Ibrahim formed an alliance with Napoleon Bonaparte of France, and even sent Andalusian soldiers and conquistadors to help Napoleon Bonaparte's French army conduct various raids and offensives in Spain.
Successfully conquering Spain, Bonaparte gave a share of land to Sultan Ibrahim, extending the northern borders of Al-Andalus north into including all of Toledo, 142 km north beyond the borders set forth by the treaty signed by Aben Humeya and the Catholic monarchs. Toledo was then integrated into the Andalusian Empire as the Taifa of Toledo, coincidentally, an independent Berber Muslim kingdom of the same name had existed in Toledo from 1010 to 1085, with many of the structurs built during its era at the time of the Andalusian and French capture of the city.
After Toledo was taken, Sultan Ibrahim continued the Moorish inquisition against the Spanish Catholics, expelling most of the Spanish Catholics and dispersing them throughout Toledo be under watch and supervision of Muslim authorities. However, due to his alliance with the French, Sultan Ibrahim allowed French Catholics greater freedoms. He expelled Spanish Catholic clergy from cathedrals, either replacing them with French clergy or just converting the cathedrals to mosques overall and installing Islamic muftis and imams to replace the Catholic clergy.
Upon seeing sight of the Puerta de Bisagra, a historical Moorish fort built in the 10th century, Sultan Ibrahim proclaimed, "We have reclaimed what is ours. Now let us show the world who it belongs to."
Sultan Ibrahim solidified and symbolized the Moorish reconquest of Toledo by establishing the seat of Toledo's taifs in the Puerta de Bisagra. In addition, he ordered many of its Spanish and Catholic ornaments to be ridden of. They were either destroyed or given to French Catholic churches. Many of them today are available on display in the Museum of Toledo.
Eventually, Sultan Ibrahim embarked one of the biggest pogroms of Andalusian nationalism. While not "officially" banning Spanish in Al-Andalus, Sultan Ibrahim commanded that all the cities and geographic names of Al-Andalus be changed to their Arabic and pre-Reconquista names. In addition, Sultan Ibrahim made Arabic the language spoken in the courts, and commanded that children be educated in Arabic in the same way that King Ferdinand of Aragon forced children of the Moriscos to be educated by priests, and in Spanish.
Sultan Ibrahim actively promoted Arabic language, and it studies. Berber may have also been promoted.
World War I
During the First World War, Al-Andalus did not see any fighting on its soil. However, due to the fierce fighting in France, Sultan Omar I feared that the fighting could possibly spill over, with Spain to be a major contributor. Sultan Omar I passed the National Defense Act of 1915, making massive monetary contributions to the country's military forces.
Miraciously, Al-Andalus would escape the bloodiness of World War I. However, Omar I decided to continue the military buildup, fearing that one day, the country would not get so lucky. He passed the National Defense Act of 1923, a continuation of the 1915 act.
In his speech given from the Supreme Moorish Palace in Cordoba, he said,
"It is important to note, that we, have been blessed by Allah to escape the horrific violence of the Great War. However, Allah cannot do everything for us, but he will always be with us, and he will always help us. One day, we will not have the luxury of being physically protected from war, from the evil ambitions of a foreign nation, and Allah will expect us to take up arms and fight for our country. He will help us, only if we do our part. I will not hesitate until the day that our country is being pounded by foreign troops to build up our defenses. I will do this now. I will prepare our nation now. Now is the time to stand up for this great nation and sacrifice to protect her very existence as a free and mighty nation!"
In the 1923 act, all princes and taifs in the kingdom were to undergo military training, and to be taught military leadership. In addition, Omar I also established militias to undergo combat training. Males aged 18 and up were encouraged to take their skills further and join the Royal Andalusian Forces.
The military became the country's highest source of propaganda. Sultan Omar I was taken a particular interest in the military technology of the Russian Empire and its short-lived successor, the Soviet Union. In 1926, the Royal Andalusian Forces purchased Soviet military technology. In 1928, this took a halt due to the Third Russian Civil War, in which the communists and socialists were overthrown, and the restoration of a monarchy in Russia. Even with the new Russian monarchy in power, Sultan Omar I continued to purchase and acquire military technology from Russia.
By 1929, the Royal Andalusian Forces was the biggest military force in all of the Iberian Peninsula. The cities of Toledo and Albacete were considered the biggest military centers of Al-Andalus.
Moorish Civil War
During the 1930s, socialist takeovers of Italy, Germany and Spain were influencing Al-Andalus. Basher Alguacil, a descendant of Diego Alguacil, waged war against the sultan and the Royal Andalusian Forces. In 1933, Basher Alguacil formed the Andalusian Republican Army.
However, Alguacil's advisor and older brother Ahmed Alguacil, split from Basher's group to form the Andalusian People's Army, due to disagreements between socialist ideologies and how to handle the transition from a monarchy to a republic. Basher wanted a radical and military coup of the sultan, while Ahmed preferred a peaceful transition.
In addition, Ahmed also warned Basher against instigating an armed revolt against the Iberian Peninsula's largest military. Ahmed warned Basher that the ARA would be easily crushed by the Royal Andalusian Forces, and this it had even "less than a quarter" of the means to fight the biggest military force in all of the Iberian Peninsula.
In 1934, Basher Alguacil's forces were discovered by units of the Royal Army Scouts, resulting in the capturing of 47 officers of the ARA. This would lead to Basher's eventual downfall. The ARA had not yet been fully armed and/or prepared for combat; refusing to consider surrendering, Basher was forced to immediately declare war and engage in combat against the Royal Andalusian Forces.
Fighting began in 1934, but would really begin to escalate in 1935. Ahmed Alguacil of the APA set up armed cells, however, decided not to deploy militants, adopting a defensive stance.
An angered Bashir promised retaliation against Ahmed, after he was "finished" with the sultan. This resulted in a three-way war between the RAF, ARA and the APA. The fighting lasted for three years, with the socialists heavily disadvantaged. The air force also helped route out and defeat the militants. The ARA was miserably defeated, with more than 2003 fighters finally surrendering to the Royal Andalusian Forces in 1938. Basher Alguacil went into hiding, however was found trying to flee to Spain up north.
Basher was given an ultimatum, to be spared of the death penalty by execution, and simply face prison time if he surrendered. Basher made a deal with the Royal Andalusian Forces to spare all of his officers and fighters from the death penalty if he surrendered. Sultan Omar II's vizier, Prince Kaled agreed, Basher Alguacil's punishment was imprisonment for three years. Ahmed eventually took over leadership of the ARA, becoming leader of two socialist groups. In 1940, he gave leadership of the ARA to Algalil Saáb, one his head officers. Algalil's cousin, Mamoud Saáb, eventually switched over from the APA over to the ARA.
World War IIAl-Andalus joined on the side of the Allies during World War II. During the wake of the Second World War, Spain's government turned increasingly socialist. Its dictator, Francisco Franco eventually formed an alliance with Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany and Benito Mussolini of Italy.
Fearing that the Spanish regime would use its alliance with Hitler for another major war with Al-Andalus, Sultan Omar established defensive bridges in the northern borders of Al-Andalus. Though Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler both assured Sultan Omar that Al-Andalus would be kept out of their sights.Groups of Royal Army Scouts, led by Prince Ahmad reported back to Sultan Omar that Spanish forces were amassing north of Al-Andalus. As a result, Sultan Omar amassed and mobilized the Royal Andalusian Forces for combat, established heavily fortified defenses in northern Al-Andalus as the country's economy shifted towards a wartime economy. Steel factories were re-focused to developing weapons and war supplies. Sultan Omar already had earlier suspicions that the socialist uprising in Spain would trigger another inevitable war with Al-Andalus. In 1941, the Spanish forces, supplied by Nazi Germany, began their invasion of northern Al-Andalus using Nazi-style blitzkriegs, what the Spanish Army referred to as "Toros Relámpagos" literally meaning "lightning bulls". Despite being militarily supported by Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler disagreed with Francisco Franco's decision to invade Al-Andalus. During a conversation with Henreich Himmler, Adolf Hitler went as far as to say, "Francisco Franco is one stupid man. He better pay us back with a victory in Al-Andalus."
Throughout 1942, the Imperial Spanish forces launched ruthless lightning bull attacks against important military positions in Al-Andalus, eventually overwhelming many Andalusian troops. They overran or captured much of the northern defenses in Al-Andalus by storm. In addition, Nazi-supplied Spanish warplanes bombarded key Andalusian cities. However, Franco gave the Spanish Air Force orders not to bomb important historical landmarks in Al-Andalus. The Andalusians also lacked the proper military equipment to face the might of the superior Nazi military weapons, as the Humeya Division tank forces were annhilated by Spanish Panzer Groups. The Andalusians did not have a sufficient air force, were only beginning to test their new air force. Many of the Andalusian war planes were annihilated in swift air battles against the German-supplied Spanish Luftwaffe.
Al-Andalus began to rely on paramilitary groups, namely the Andalusian Republican Army, Andalusian People's Army and the up-start Moorish Resistance Force, which was formed shortly after Basher Alguacil's release from prison. Prince Khaled offered Bashir and his inmates complete freedom, if they fought against the Spaniards. Basher and his inmates agreed, and thus, formed the Moorish Resistance Force (Mozarabic: Fuerza di Mocavema Mora, Arabic: قوة المقاومة مغاربي). Despite the Spanish forces initially starving Al-Qurtubah, the Andalusians fought with a stubborn resistance. By 1942, most northern Al-Andalus had been successfully taken over by the Spanish forces. In addition, Adolf Hitler was getting impatient with Francisco Franco, and told him that Al-Andalus had better be completely conquered by the end of 1943 through 1944.
Thanks to Franco's order not to bomb historical sites, these were used as a forts by anti-aircraft squads. Knowing his plan backfired, Franco ordered careful ground assaults against historical sites.The once-successful invading Spanish forces continued to suffer defeats, at the hands of stubborn Andalusian resistance. In addition, Egyptian, Algerian and Moroccan volunteers joined the Andalusian resistance. As the Battle of Normandy raged, Allied forces airlifted supplies to the Royal Andalusian Forces, as well as the various guerrilla and paramilitary groups.
In addition, many Spanish citizens had begun to form paramilitary groups to overthrow Francisco Franco's regime, initially worsening his situation and ensuring his complete failure to invade Al-Andalus. These paramilitary groups supported the Andalusian resistance. In northern Al-Andalus and southern Spain, some groups united to form the Iberian United Revolutionary Resistance Force.In August of 1944, Adolf Hitler cut off military supplying to Franco's army, since he was already dealing with the Allied invasion. Plus, Franco and Hitler were already having bad political relations and disagreements, as the two nearly went to war against one another. Hitler has actually contemplated on overthrowing Franco. In September of 1944, after liberating France from Nazi Germany, the Allies began to mobilize for a push to liberate Spain from Franco's rule. Along the way, they met Spanish guerrillas who shared the intent of overthrowing Franco. When the Allies liberated Barcelona, they were met with resistance leader prince Juan III or Infante Juan of Barcelona. The Allies and the Spanish resistance eventually crowned Juan III as Spain's new king.
The encirclement was complete, with the Andalusian forces pushing the Spanish up north and the Allies pushing from the north, Francisco Franco fled. The Andalusians continued the invasion into southern Spain. Franco was eventually found by a mix of Andalusian soldiers, and Spanish resistance militants.
With the coronation of King Juan III of Spain, Francisco Franco was placed under military arrest. In addition, all of his officers and soldiers were also placed under military arrest.
The Allied victory eventually marked a new turning point in the history of Al-Andalus and Spain, with Sultan Omar and King Juan III signing the Treaty of Iberia, marking a new age of friendship and cooperation between the two countries, the first such act in over centuries. World War II was known to have ended the bitter rivalry between the two nations. The war was thought of many as a continuation of the bitter history between the Moors and Catholics, Francisco Franco made it clear that religion was the last of his concerns. Franco's true plan and intent was to establish a puppet socialist in Al-Andalus.
While in prison, Franco told officers, "Everyone accuses me ot trying to repeat the Reconquista. They are as right as saying pigs fly, I never did that, it was never my intention. Had I succeeded in conquering Al-Andalus, I could seriously could have cared less who prayed in a mosque, or a church or a synagogue."
During the Cold War, Al-Andalus joined the Non-Aligned Movement. In addition, the Andalusians joined on the side of the Palestinians and Arabs during the Arab-Israeli Conflict.
During the Vietnam War however, the Andalusians decided to send troops to fight the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army after a group of Andalusian diplomats and a military journalist and captured and killed by the Viet Cong and the NVA. Despite fighting alongside the western allies, Sultan Omar II said that the Andalusians were fighting for their own reason, and while they would collaborate and work with American and western forces, they do not consider themselves part of that coalition.
Founding of the Republic of Andalusia
During 1975, Sultan Omar II abdicated the throne amid the non-violent and non-confrontational Peaceful Democratic Revolution (Arabic: الثورة الديمقراطية السلمية), that sought to transition the Andalusian political system from a monarchy to a presidential democracy. Mamoud Saáb, who led the revolution and who fought as a member of the Andalusian Republican Army during World War II, was elected as the first President of the Republic of Al-Andalus. Sultan Omar II remained prominent by being elected as the country's first Minister of Defense.
President Mamoud Saáb initiated many economic reforms, initiating many welfare policies. Saáb also worked to improve political relations with Spain and Portugal.
A lesson learned from World War II, President Saáb and Omar II increased military and defense spending in the country. Concerns were raised when Omar II proposed acquiring nuclear weapons, however they both abandoned the project. However, the Andalusian Armed Forces continued to advance rocket technology, spawning the H-1 Ballistic Missile, a variant of the Soviet V-3 Rockets. The Andalusians would later supply the Egyptian and Syrian armies with H-1 Missiles in their war against Israel.
In 1990, as a result of Israel's military actions in the Middle East, the Andalusian government closed off relations with Israel. President Tamír Amád and Minister of Defense Daúd Obidála ordered the shutdown of the Israeli embassy in Al-Qurtubah. He also ordered the evacuation of Andalusian diplomats and ambassadors in Israel, they evacuated a day before president Amád made the public announcement.
During the Russo-Islamic War, Andalusia announced that it would help the Imperial Russian Armed Forces fight terrorists.
During the 2010-2011 Arab Spring, President Abdúla Aboo Jámza of the Moorish National Party denounced the actions of rioteers and protesters against various leaders in the Arab World. Aboo Jámza stated his intent to create a "Moorish spring", in what he referred to as an "Arab Spring" of another type, a non-violent one. President Aboo Jámza rather enhanced Andalusian nationalism, encouraging Andalusian citizens to embrace their country, their heritage and their history. Due to his denouncing of the Arab Spring, Aboo Jámza was put under media scrutiny, but despite this - he remained largely popular and supported in the country.
Aboo Jámza embarked on a series of nationalistic cultural shifts, including the promotion of Andalusian Arabic as the country's main language, while Mozarabic, Standard Spanish and Standard Arabic remained official languages.
In addition, Aboo Jámza attempted to unify all the religious groups of the country, by including Christian and Jewish holidays as public holidays, in addition to the Islamic ones. However, Aboo Jámza once more went under media scrutiny when he stated that he rejects the Syrian Opposition to Bashar al-Assad's regime, and for calling the Muslim Brotherhood a "terrorist organization".
The King of Spain was positive and complementary of Aboo Jámza, stating that the Spanish Monarchy was willing to assist the Andalusians to all external and internal threats. Under Aboo Jamza's presidency, Andalusia escaped the violence of the Arab Spring and became ranked as the safest Muslim country of 2011.
Aboo Jámza's term ended in 2011, and he came down as one of the most respected leaders of Andalusia. In the 2011 Andalusian Elections, Chayk Jamdán Abdkazár of the Moorish National Party, Aboo Jámza's Minister of Defense during his presidency, won the elections and would become the next President of Andalusia.
Modern Day Politics and Administrations
Today Andalusia is a presidential republic. Andalusia's elections take place on a five-year term, and is a unicameral legislature.
Al-Andalus is divided into political administrations known as taifas (Arabic: طائفة ṭā'ifa singular, plural: طوائف ṭawā'if). The term originated for the reference to independent Muslim kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula after the fall of the various imperial dynasties and prior to the Christian Reconquista.
Andalusia has been under the powerful influences of the Aben Humeya, Abén Aboo, Alguacil, Alazéd and Saáb families. The Aben Humeya (correct spelling Ibn Umayyah) and Abén Aboo families are descendants of the Umayyad rulers. Andalusia's current president is Alkazím Assad of the National Moorish Party. Other influential political parties include the Liberal-Progressive Party of Al-Andalus, the Communist Party of Al-Andalus and the Islamic National Party of Al-Andalus.
However, historically, Andalusia has had trouble dealing with some political turbulence between families and clans. The most noted rivalry are than of the Aben Humeya and Alguacil families, whose rivalry dates back to the civil war between the two Morisco leaders of the same names.
MilitaryThe Andalusian Armed Forces (Mozarabic: Fuerzas Alcotas di Andalusía, Arabic: القوات المسلحة الأندلس, Spanish: Fuerzas Armas de Andalucía) forms the armed wing of the government of Al-Andalus. It consists of the Army, Air Force, Navy and Constabulary. Major foreign suppliers of the Andalusian Armed Forces include Russia, United States, United Kingdom and Germany.
Unlike other presidential republics, the president does not assume the title of Commander in Chief. That job is given to the Minister of Defense, who is elected separately, and must have military experience.
The country's armed forces contains a total of 128,456 active personnel, and 102,038 reserve personnel.
Andalusia's armed forces is divided into five main Regional Commands, which act the largest military division in Andalusia. They are the Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western Commands and the Overseas Command, which deals with all military forces stationed overseas beyond Andalusian territory.Ever since World War II, the Andalusian government has placed an emphasis on keeping a strong modern military with technology up to date. It has active Armadas (or war fleets) operating in the Mediterranean Sea as well as its western coasts, to combat piracy from North Africa and East Africa. While the Andalusian naval Armadas had historically focused on fighting the Spanish naval Armadas, its focus has taken a tremendous shift in combating terrorism and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Andalusian Navy has two active major naval installments, the Mediterranean Flet which operates in the Mediterranean Sea. After incidents involving Somali pirates and capturing of Andalusian diplomats and merchant sailors in 2012, the Ministry of Defense under Akma Aben Aboo's leadership approved for the creation of an installment in the Gulf of Aden. Via a treaty signed with the governments of Somalia and Yemen, the Aden Divisions were created, as the first Andalusian naval ships entered the Aden Archipelago in December 5, 2012. In 2014, more Andalusian naval forces, equipment and ships were moved into the Aden Archipelago, to form the Aden Squadron, which while not yet a fleet, is independant from the administration of the Mediterranean Fleet. The Mediterranean Fleet operates under the the Southern Command of the armed forces and the Aden Squadron operates under the Overseas Command.
Andalusia boasts of its long naval history, and has built a reputation for having one of the world's most advanced navies. During the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Andalusian Navy provided vital aid to the Egyptian Navy in scoring mant key tactical victories against the Israeli Navy.
In 2004, Andalusia chose not to participate in the Iraq War. Politicians and military leaders from the western world ridiculed the Andalusian government as being "selfish".
About 85% of Andalusia's people are Moorish people. The Moorish people are defined by the government as any of the following: a Muslim who has their ancestry traced to either North Africa or the Iberian Peninsula, or an Andalusian-born citizen of North African ancestry. The second-mentioned definition is a stark contrast to the historical use of the term Moors, as being exclusive to Muslims. This would mean that the Morisco people, the Catholics of Al-Andalus, descended from Muslims who converted to Catholicism during the Spanish Reconquista, are considered Moors according to the Andalusian government. In 2010, members of the Aben Humeya family were included in this group, as the Umayyads are not North African in origin, but of Arabian descent. The other group are the Mozarabs, the non-Muslim and non-Moorish natives of the Iberian Peninsula. The word Mozarab comes from the Arabic term "Musta'arab" meaning "one who adopts Arab ways". This was used to refer to the Christians under Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula, and was later used by the Andalusian government to refer to the non-Moorish Catholic natives of the Iberian Peninsula. Mozarabs account for approximately 10% of the total population. Sephardic Jews account for 5% of the total population. There is a on-going debate as to whether Sephardic Jews should also be included in the Mozarab ethnic group.
Ethnic identity is often a point of controversy, as many of the Moorish people consider themselves to be Arab, and pan-Arab sources consider them as so. Other sources label them as a separate ethnic group, that evolved from a mixture of North African and Iberian people. Palestinian nationalist Yasser Arafat refers to them as "fully Arab".
Currently Mozarabic, Andalusian Arabic (also known more commonly as Andalusi Arabic) and Andalusian Spanish are the national languages of Andalusia, with Standard Arabic and Standard Spanish reserved as official languages. Andalusi Arabic is a dialect of Maghrebi Arabic, that bears similarities with the Moroccan and Tunisian dialects. It is spoken by the Sephardi Jews as dialect known as Judeo-Arabic. Many historians claim that Crypto Jews played a key role in saving Andalusi Arabic from extinction during the Spanish Inquisition against the Jews and the Moors. This can be attributed to famous rabbi Abu Moshe, who is said by many to have taught the children of the oppressed Moriscos spoken Arabic. Many members of the Coptic community can speak Egyptian Arabic, in an act of pride in their Egyptian roots.
Mozarabic, an Ibero-Romance language, is spoken as a native vernacular by most of the people. The name comes from the Arabic word musta-arab meaning "one who adopts Arab ways", and was actually used to translate between Arabic and Spanish or other Romance and Latinic languages. Despite being classified as the language of a Muslim country, Mozarabic was not historically natively spoken by Muslims or Moors, but by the Christian Mozarabs. Over the course of history, due to interfaith interactions, as well as contact with other Latinic civilizations such as the French, Spaniards and Portuguese, the people of Al-Andalus began to favor Mozarabic over Arabic, due to convenience. Arabic became gradually reserved for the royalty and elite. By the time World War I took shape, approximately 56% of the people of Al-Andalus spoke Mozarabic, yet Arabic continued to be the national language of media and of overall prestige. The Mozarabic language contains a heavy infusion of Arabic, Persian and Turkish words, as well as some of other Romance languages such as Spanish and Portuguese. Mozarabic is often jokingly known as "Muslim Spanish" or "Iberian Arabic-Spanish". Mozarabic is currently written in the Latin script for the most part, it was historically at one point, written in the Arabic script (known Almajiado), and there are plans to re-introduce the Arabic script into official usage. In 1995, the Andalusian government tried to re-introduce the Almajiado script into usage for Mozarabic. However, most students and elders had difficulty learning it. In 2010, then-president Abdúla Aboo Jámza approved the official use of Almajiado for the Mozarabic language. This would make Mozarabic the only spoken Latinic and Romance language that utilizes the Arabic script. In addition, the Jews of Al-Andalus also write Mozarabic in the Hebrew script.
Although Arabic has always been spoken in Andalusia, particularly Andalusian Arabic, Standard Arabic was the chosen official dialect. However in 2010, in an act of Andalusian nationalism, President Aboo Jamza funded the establishment of the Andalusian Arabic Academy in Al-Qurtubah, to standardize and regulate Andalusian Arabic. Aboo Jámza officially changed the country's national language to Andalusian Arabic in June 6, 2011, reserving Standard Arabic as a second official state language. Andalusian Arabic, though spoken only by approximately 27.8% of Andalusians, is well-understood by many more people, due to its overwhelming influence on the Mozarabic language and the Andalusian dialect of Spanish. Aboo Jámza paid scholars and linguists to educate the public, and promote Andalusian Arabic as an official medium.
The same can be said of Spanish, while Andalusian Spanish is the vernacular spoken, Standard Spanish has always been the officially recognized. A year after Andalusian Arabic replaced Standard Arabic, Aboo Jámza funded the establishment of the Andalusian Spanish Academy, to standardize and regulate Andalusian Spanish. The language has striking resemblances to the Mozarabic language, to where it can be mistaken as Mozarabic. This dialect is spoken as a second or third language by at least 79% of Anadalusia's population.
Other languages spoken in Andalusia include Berber and Ladino. Many of the historical taifa dynasties, as well as the Almoravid and Almohad empires were of Berber background. Though the Berber language did not enjoy the same revival as Arabic at the time of the Morisco Revolt, it was revived via mass migration of North Africans to Al-Andalus. Approximately 5.3% of Andalusians report having some form of fluency in Berber, another 10.2% reported in having some form of understanding of the Berber language.
In addition to Judeo-Arabic and Mozarabic, the Sephardi Jews can also speak Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish.
Under Article 3 of the National Constitution of the Republic of Al-Andalus, citizens of the country are granted Freedom of Religion. Jizya taxes on non-Muslims were abolished when Al-Andalus transitioned to a republic in 1975. Andalusian citizens generally enjoy freedom of religion, as the country has one of the highest rates of coexistence and cooperation between people of different faiths.
However, a 2010 court case, Yusuf v. Taifa of Granada allowed the governments of taifas to establish their own religious laws, as long as it complied with Article 3, and did not violate others' rights to worship as they choose.
About 63% of Andalusians are Muslims, particularly the Sunni branch. Many are also followers of Ibadi Islam, a Sunni section originating from North Africa. Though while there is no official state religion, the Andalusian government recognizes all Islamic holidays as public holidays. However in 2010, this was amended, and the decision to publicize religious holidays were transferred to the jurisdiction of the governments of the taifas themselves. Towns and municipalities are also given the right to forbid pork and alcohol sales. Public schools also close during important Islamic holidays, such as Eid al-Fitr, and shorten hours during the month of Ramadan.
The second largest group are the Christians, particularly Roman Catholics. These people are either classified as Moriscos (which is a sub-group of the Moorish ethnic group) or Mozarabs (the native Iberians) by the Andalusian government. The former term was used to refer to the Mudéjars (Muslims under Catholic rule) and their descendants that converted to Roman Catholicism. The City of Al-Qurtubah contains an independent Archdiocese, known as the Archdiocese of Al-Qurtubah (Mozarabic: Abreze de Cordóba, Arabic: أبرشية قرطبة, Spanish: Arquidiócesis de Córdoba), where it is under the jurisdiction of Bishop Hernán Abdulaziz. Historically, much of its clergy consisted of Castilians. However during the rule of Fajád Aben Aboo, Moriscos, Mozarabic and North African Christians slowly began to integrate and infiltrate into the clergy, thanks to in part by Fajád's expulsion of Latin and Spaniard clergymen. In addition the Moorish sultans also carried out persecutions against Castilians, and even deported them to Spain up north. Only the Mozarabic Christians, the Castilians and other Iberian Christians who followed Moorish and Arabic influence, were spared. By the 1700s, the entire clergy of Andalusia's Catholic churches were of Middle Eastern, North African, Morisco or Mozarabic background.
The Catholics of Andalusia follow a unique blend of Catholicism, and practices from their Muslim counterparts. Following the Morisco victory over the Spaniards, most Moriscos kept Christianity with elements of Islam as cultural practices. The Catholics of Andalusia today have retained this unique cultural form of Catholicism. Like their Muslim counterparts, Andalusian Catholics do not eat pork (with the exception of the ethnic Castilians in the country), pray in their churches five times a day, and wear Moorish attire as well. At one point, the Catholics of Al-Andalus had contemplated on founding a new branch of Catholicism known as the Mozarabic Catholic Church, others suggested naming it the Morisco Catholic Church or the Moorish Catholic Church.
The other Christian group are followers of the Coptic Church. During Sultan Fahad's rule, he allowed many Copts to settle in Al-Andalus to help rebuild and restructure the kingdom. Granada has the biggest Coptic community in Al-Andalus, numbering approximately 404,938, out of a total of approximately 1.23 million Copts in Al-Andalus. The Copts make up a majority of the noticeable Egyptian Andalusian community.
Ironically, while Islam is considered the main cultural religion of Al-Andalus, Christianity was the majority being practiced at the time of Al-Andalus' founding as a unified entity. Its first king was a Roman Catholic.
It is during the reign of Aben Aboo, that massive trade with North Africa encouraged mass migration of Muslims to Al-Andalus, in which they would again, form the majority.
Aben Aboo's grandson, Fajad converted to Islam and eventually established the Sultanate of Al-Andalus. King Fajad re-introduced the Islamic politics into the kingdom. However, he also created freedom of religion for Christians and Jews, and lowered the jizya taxes they had to pay.
The third largest group are the Jews, who are Sephardi Jews. They are classified as so by the Andalusian government. Like the Muslims, these Jews were also forced to either convert to Catholicism, practice Crypto-Judaism or be expelled in 1492. Most Andalusian Jews live in the Alpujarras, with a large in Al-Qurtubah and Granada.
Many Jewish Andalusians claim to have descent from Maimonides, the Ibn Maymun family forms one of the most prominent families of Andalusia.
Because of northern Morocco and southern Andalusia's close proximity, Andalusia is prone to entrants of illegal migrants from Morocco, most tend to be Muslim.
In 2012, about 2,003 illegal Moroccans living in Malaga were deported back to Morocco. In 2013, an additional 349 illegal Algerians living in Al-Malaqah were deported. Piracy and crime has become a rabid problem among the illegal North Africans residing in Andalusia, with most cases of violent crimes and assaults being attributed to undocumented North African settlers in Andalusia.
The Andalusian Navy, as well as the Andalusian National Immigration Security have proposed to deport more than 8,430 illegal Moroccans and Algerians living in Andalusia.
However, opponents of these proposals, mostly members of the Liberal-Progressive Party and the Islamic National Party oppose such a plan, but for different reasons. Liberal-Progressives oppose it, in favor of allowing the undocumented North Africans to settle and find new opportunities at new lives. Islamic Nationalists argue that the North Africans are brethren via Islam, and are bound together with the Andalusian by a common culture, history and religion.
There have also been ethnic issues in Andalusia, regarding people of Castilian ancestry which had persisted through ever since Aben Aboo established his rule.
People of partial or notable Castilian ancestry in Andalusia undergo ethnic discrimination, and the teaching of Castilian as a native language is highly discouraged, the use of the term "Spanish" to refer to Andalusians is seen as social taboo in Andalusia.