The Emirate of Al-Andalus (Arabic: Imārah Al-'Andalus), or Al-Andalus, was an Islamic state and dominion governing (at its peak) all of the Iberian Peninsula, much of southern Gaul, Sardinia, and Corsica. The emirate originated as a region of the Umayyad Caliphate from 711 to 722, when it was granted independence due to logistical concerns among the leadership of the caliphate. After it gained independence, it continued cooperating with the caliphate to expand the Islamic world into western Europe.
Under the rule of the emirate, Christians and Jews were forced to pay the Jizya (tax on non-Muslim religions), convert, or be killed. Outside of this one, albeit severe, lapse in religious freedom, minority religions were granted a great degree of freedom and safety. Al-Andalus saw the expansion of Muslim literature, science, technology, etc. into Europe, allowing for more favorable views on the state from outsiders, weakening fervor during the Grand War of Europe.