The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة , Mozarabic: Khilafat Cortuba, Spanish: Califato de Córdoba,commonly known as Al-Andalus) is a nation in Western Europe.
Hispania was the first region on Europe that fell under the Islamic rule, when Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading an Arabic army, defeated the Visigothic leader Rodrigo in the Battle of Guadalete. By 715, most of Hispania was under Muslim hands, and the capital of the new province or emirate was established at Sevilla and later at more inland Cordoba.
In 732, the Umayyad Caliphate used Al-Andalus as the center of the Islamic attacks on the Franks. Two years later, Aachen fell under Islamic forces, ending the Kingdom of the Franks and starting large-scale Islamic domination over the European continent.
In April 21st of 735, the Umayyad Caliphate collapsed after a Persian revolt which established the Abbasid Caliphate, occupying all lands. The following year, the last two Umayyad survivors reach Al-Andalus, and declared themselves an independent Caliphate based on Cordoba.
This new caliphate, controlling all of Western Europe, soon started breaking from the Sunni religion which the Umayyads considered "treacherous and impure" now that the Abbasids were the official Sunni caliphs. Adopting several Christian and Jewish values and secularizing slightly, the Umayyad Caliphate established the foundations to what was to become Euro-Islam, the most liberal and secular of the Islamic sects.