Of all continents, Africa has suffered most during the Caroline Era. Ukimwi has directly or indirectly killed the majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa no longer needs to pursue its policy of apartheid, though it is officially still in place, due to the death of all its non-white population and has expanded its territory into the depopulated Front Line States. North-east Africa is also now uninhabited due to the nuclear holocaust of the Third World War. Other African states have also expanded their territories into the now uninhabited adjacent countries.