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|Empire of Aegypt|
Αυτοκρατορία της ΑιγύπτουTimeline: Principia Moderni III (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Egypt
Alexandria and Egypt
1621 - 1627
"We walk by faith, and not by sight."
"Εμείς με τα πόδια από πίστη, και όχι με την όραση."
(From Corinthians 5:7)
Map of Aegypt, in 1625
(and largest city)
|Other cities||Cairo, Giza|
|Official languages||Bohairic Coptic|
|Regional Languages||Sahidic Coptic
|Government||Constitutional Hereditary Monarchy|
|-||King of Aegypt||Kapakos I|
|-||Royal House||House of Girguis|
|-||Union of Egypt and Alexandria||April 14, 1621|
|-||1630 census||19,729,194 (Aegypt Proper)|
|Currency||Aegyptian Grigorian ()|
|Patron saint||St. Mark the Evangelist|
The Empire of Aegypt (Grecized Coptic: Αυτοκρατορία της Αιγύπτου, Bohairic Coptic: ) was a nation in the Middle East and Northern Africa. The Empire is bordered to the west by Roman Banu Sulayam and the Sahara Desert, to the south by the various Nubian states, to the east by Damascus and the Red Sea, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea.
Aegypt is the most powerful, technologically advanced, and wealthy nation based in Africa due to its European ties as well as the presence of the Philadelphi Canal, through which approxiamately 25% of world trade flows. Aegypt is a Christian state, following Oriental Orthodoxy and the Coptic Church.
Evidence of the first Aegyptian civilizations come from rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases from the 10th millennium BC. This culture of hunter-gatherers and fishermen was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. As the Sahara was formed by over-grazing, early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.
By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture began to develop in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. At the same time, Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.
A unified kingdom was founded 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. These thirty dynasties would be divided into three Kingdoms (the Old, Middle, and New), and Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC., which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyramids.
The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years. Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Middle Eastern Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.
The New Kingdom, c. 1550–1070 BC, began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.
The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.
The last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony, who had died in her arms (from a self-inflicted stab wound) after Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians, often caused by an unwanted regime, and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest.
Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the 1st century. Diocletian's reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639–42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs. When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity.
Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about AD 1250. By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies.
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In 1457, the death of Ahmed-ad-Din Yusuf saw rival factions collapse al-Mashriq. The major Amirs and Emirs, as well as the Mamluks who had been largely marginalized under al-Mashriq and the Mamluk Sultanate, began to form coalitions and engage in small fights throughout the naitonside. Eventually, a Mamlukean commander named Aswad ended up seizing control over Cairo. His Assafi'ist beliefs led to his desire to pacify militant Islam that was flaring at the time. His Sultanate of Egypt would continue until 1475 and the end of the Reclamation of Egypt.
Alexandrian and Roman Egypt
In Alexandria, Muslim crowds, backed by a local Mamluk force, killed a Coptic woman named Hypatia in 1457. This led to widespread protests and eventually, the establishment of an organized movement in the city to create a Coptic-led state. Support came quickly from Castille, Venice, Rome, and Caucasia which allowed the establishment of a free nation at the Nile Delta in 1458.
1626 terror attacks
The government is a constitutional monarchy, based upon Roman law and the Constitution of Alexandria.
Following the example of the Mamluk Sultanate, all Aegyptian states since have engaged in detailed censuses in order to determine the population of their nations within a certain degree of accuracy. Currently, a census takes place every decade. The census records such information as number of Copts and number of Muslims, as well as the location of the citizenry.
- Of Christians...
- Coptic Christian/Other
- Coptic Christian/Other
- Of Muslims...
1630 Census Reports
- Total Population: 23,037,449
- Aegypt Proper: 19,729,194
- Nobatia: 3,256,098
- Katrina: 32,395
- Milh: 10,460
- Nestoria: 9,302
- Port Sahel: 6,446
The main agricultural goods are: cotton, rice, wheat, sugarcane, sugar beets, and onions.
Nile River, Alexandria workshops
One of the major strengths of Aegypt as a major trading power is both its rich naval and mercantile tradition and also the various seaports from around the world.
Among these trading posts are:
- Port Sahel - OTL Port Sudan
- Milh - OTL Abu Dhabi
- Nestoria - OTL Bahrain
- Katrina - OTL Karachi
The military of Aegypt is quite large and powerful. The primary branch is the Aegyptian Navy, which builds upon the tradition, expertise, and armaments of both Egypt and Alexandria.
The largest military installation in Aegypt is located Damietta, at the mouth of the Nile River.
As of 1625, the Aegyptian navy had a total of about 700 naval ships. This number, while appearing high, includes the navy of the Great Eastern Sea Trade Company. Aegypt has benefited from deals that exist with the Roman Empire that have allowed Aegypt to stay on the cutting edge of naval development. Major seaports and ship-building places include the cities of Alexandria, Damietta, and Suez. Aegypt also maintains a major port at the overseas territory at OTL Port Sudan.
- Heavy Ships
- 1 Man-of-War (NAME)
- 3 Ships-of-the-Line (NAME, NAME, and NAME)
- 10 Frigates
- 12 Carracks
- Medium Ships
- 50 Galleasses
- 100 Caravels
- Light Ships
- 150 Corvettes
- 150 Cogs
- 200 Galleys
Art and Architecture
Art in Aegypt has always played an important role in the culture of the region. This tradition began with the ancient Aegyptians who skillfully used hieroglyphics and paintings to tell their intricate mythology. The Hellenistic period of Classical Aegypt saw the creation of the magnificent Library of Alexandria and Lighthouse of Alexandria, two major works of architecture that required great artisanal skill.Even the intricate Islamic art of the Arab Aegyptians proved the importance of art to the Aegyptians. The Mashriqi-built Hadeekah Palace (حديقة قصر) is currently the main residence of the Emperor of Aegypt in Cairo. The Mamluks also rebuilt and revitalized the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
The Alexandrian and Roman rule of Aegypt was also impressive in terms of architecture and artistic expression. It was under the Alexandrian government that the city was fully modernized and became one of the largest cities in the world.
The official language of Aegypt is Coptic. There are two primary dialects that are used throughout the nation, but both are mutually intelligible. While neither is officially endorsed by the government at Alexandria, the area near the Nile Delta primarily uses the Bohairic dialect while Upper Egyptians tend to use the Sahidic Dialect.
After the Muslims seized Egypt in the 600s, the Coptic language almost became extinct but survived as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church. This common language among Copts eventually spread to become the official language of Alexandria after 1458.
Traditionally, Coptic evolved from Demotic (itself derived from Egyptian hierogylphics) and Classical Greek. During the thirty year period of Roman dominance over Egypt (under Roman Egypt), the Coptic language (especially the Bohairic dialect) mixed with the Greek language. It is not uncommon for many Copts, especially traders, to use the Grecized Coptic alphabet.
Literature and Education
Library of Alexandria, University of Alexandria
Coptic Christianity is the dominant religion in Aegpyt.