Adolf Hitler
Hitler in 1933
Hitler in 1933
1st Führer of the Greater German Reich
In office
August 2, 1934 – September 19, 1956
Deputy Führers Rudolf Hess (The Three-Way War) (1933–41)
Heinrich Himmler (1941–46)
Reinhard Heydrich (1946-1956)
Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg (as President)
Succeeded by Reinhard Heydrich
Personal details
Born April 20, 1889
Braunau am Inn, Austria
Died September 19, 1956 (aged 67)
Berchtesgaden, Bavaria
Resting place Tomb of Adolf Hitler
Political party Nazi Party
Spouse(s) Eva Braun (m.1949 - 1956)
Profession Artist

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 19 September 1956) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1956. He was effectively dictator of Nazi Germany, and was a leading figure of World War II in Europe and the Holocaust.

Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the precursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers' Party, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he dictated his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy.

Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the denunciation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germans—actions which gave him significant popular support.

Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be a primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 14 October 1939 invaded Soviet-occupied Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany as well as on the Soviet Union. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war resulted in a stalemate, with each side siding with one of the other two whenever the third looked to be gaining too much power. The war finally ended in 1949 with the Treaty of Tehran. Hitler married his long-time lover Eva Braun, before dying of heart cancer in 1956. After a lavish state funeral, Hitler's body was buried in a specially-constructed mausoleum in Berlin.

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 11 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen ("sub-humans") and socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 25 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 32 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European Theatre of World War II. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare, and constitutes the deadliest conflict in human history.