Aberdeen is the capital of and fifth-largest city (pop. 100,000) in the US state of Mississippi, and the seat of Monroe County. Located on the banks of the Tombigbee River, the city was first settled in 1834 and officially founded in 1837; in 1850, the centrally located Aberdeen was selected as the new state capital, to placate protests that the original state capital in Huntsville was too far removed from much of Mississippi's population. Throughout the 19th century, Aberdeen flourished with an influx of settlers and cotton trade, and, for a time, was the second-largest city in the state. Today, Aberdeen retains a large collection of historic homes and buildings from this era.