Abd-ar-Rahman III (Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Allāh; Arabic: عبد الرحمن الثالث; January 11, 889 or 891 – October 15, 961) was the first Caliph of the Caliphate of Córdoba, after he established it in 929, previously the Emir of the Emirate of Córdoba from 912. He was one of the final heirs to the Ummayad dynasty, and forged a new path for a new Caliphate in al-Andalus.
Conflicts in the North
Abd-ar-Rahman III was notable in that his nation was the first to colonise what Christian Europe later called South America, or what his people called "Ard Marjhoola" the unknown territory. The extra strength to his name and the additional forces that came with it led to victories in the north, against Leon and Castile.
While he moved to look into further gains into Africa, there wasn't enough resources to mount a sizable force. His final years were spent keeping the new territory in the north, Leon and Castile under control. He was succeeded at death in October 961 by his son, Al-Hakam II