The Abbasid Caliphate is often referred to as "Arabia" and sometimes also "Arabian Empire".
The Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad, because of which they considered themselves the true successor of Muhammad as opposed to the Umayyads. In 747 they started a large scale revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate, gaining support from many Arabs in all of the Arab world. In 750 they managed to defeat the Umayyad forces at the Battle of the Great Zab River. Soon they captured the capital of Dimashq (Damascus) and proclaimed the Abbasid Caliphate the true caliphate and legitimate successor to Mohammad. The Ummayad Dynasty was almost eradicated, but Abd al-Rahman I escaped to Iberia, founding the Emirate of Córdoba. They founded Baghdad as the new capital of the caliphate in 750. In the same year they were proclaimed. They conquered all Ummayad remnants by 760 (except for Iberia).
Islamic Golden AgeEdit
As soon as they came into power, the Islamic Golden Age started and brought peace and prosperity to all of the Arabian world. The caliphs started to make Baghdad the largest and most prosperous city on Earth. The city grew explosively until it became the largest city on Earth by 800 AD. Caliph Al-Hadi crushed several rebellions during the caliphate's growth. His wife Khayzuran and his son Harun al-Rashid continued to bring glory and greatness to the empire. However, the caliphate wasn't able to hold its outer provinces and gradually declined until it only controlled the Eastern Islamic World. The caliphate's power once again declined when the Mongol Empire, founded by Genghis Khan conquered large parts of Persia and Central Asia. The caliphate was on the verge of collapsing by various rebellions and wars to made it even worse. However, an ambitious and cunning man, Hassan al-Rashid, nephew of the then current caliph dethroned him and made himself caliph instead. He quickly mobilized his army crushed the rebellions and set up the defense of Baghdad. The Mongols arrived in 1258 at Baghdad and besieged the city for half a year. Before they could deal the final blow their forces were starved to death and less then 10,000 managed to escape. Their leader Hulagu Khan was furious because of their failure and instead set out to conquer the Roman Empire, which was largely successful. However, the Mongols managed to establish the Il-Khanate with Soltaniyeh as capital. At its height it covered most of the Islamic world east of Mesopotamia, but it never managed to conquer Baghdad. At its height Soltaniyeh rivaled Baghdad, Angkor and Delhi in greatness and population. In 1400 Caliph Abdullah I conquered the Ilkhanate in an large invasion that took more than 20 years to complete. The Caliphate was an exotic and wealthy place in the beginning of the colonial era famous for luxurious goods such as incense, perfume, gold and marble. In 1600 an coalition of Rome and France invaded Mesopotamia to gain control of this vital place with many luxuries. Fearing the empire would collapse, the capital was moved to Oasis of the Pillars (also known as City of Canals and Medina al-Kanuet) in the middle of the Arabian desert. The European forces managed to raid Baghdad and bring many luxuries back to Europe, but they were defeated by the Arabian army in 1603 by Damascus. Medina al-Kanuet was already a magnificent and large city, but it become even larger and greater after it became the capital. In 1750 the capital was moved back to Baghdad after a sandstorm and earthquake destroyed most of the city. In 1761, the Abbasid Caliphate lost a war with the Maratha Empire, they lost Afghanistan. The war was called the Kabul war. The war severely weakened the Abbasid Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliph was made a puppet until 1900 when the kind Maratha Peshwa granted independence to the Abbasid Caliphate on the condition that the Caliph had to remain secular. After 1910, the Maratha resident reported the Caliph reassured his religious role. That year The Maratha army seiged Baghdad successfully. Then they sent the Caliph into excile. The Marathas built an excellent railway and highway network. They also actively spread Tibetan Buddhism. The Maratha Peshwa took on the title Pehwa Khan of Arabia. In 1970s, the Abbasid Caliphate regained independence and was ruled as a secular constitutional monarchy with a Maratha resident. The Caliph was brought back with honour and restored on the throne, though an elected government held power.
The Caliph seized power in 2011, angering the Persian people who were enjoying the great democracy. They wanted the constitution restored. But the Caliph did not yield. Recently, Persian people rebelled against the Abbasid Caliphate. Fearing they would become independent, the caliph made Persia an autonomous province on 12 October. Today the Abbasid Caliphate is the second largest economy on Earth and is a both a economic and military superpower. On 31 December the Abbasid Caliphate was suspended from the United Nations for its crimes against humanity in the Persian Revolution. On 15 April the Persian and Allied armies began to besiege Baghdad, the Caliph refused to leave and remained with his people, leading to his death. The Royal Family fled to Dubai and the capital was moved to Dubai. Hassan al-Wia, the caliph's oldest son was elected the new Caliph, with Grand Vizier Abdullah Nuyafiq as de facto head of state. After 2016, Sultan Khusro Khan II seized power, and made the Grand Vizier a puppet ruler. Sultan Khusro Khan II enforced religious tolerance and put forth the Abbasid Constitution which have the people an elected assembly. Sultan Khusro Khan, since he was a Hindu, built the Grand Temple of Baghdad. He built the Grand Stupa of Baghdad also. He was given many honours and improved the Abbasid's reputation in the United Nations. He made many reforms.
The Abbasid Caliphate is currently the second economy on Earth with a value of 13 trillion USD. It has a GDP growth of 4%. However, due to the Persian revolution the growth has slowed down to barely 1%. The majority of the people work in the service sector with 50%. 30% work in the industrial sector, 10% work in the primary sector. The Abbasid Caliphate's main exports are high technology products, telecommunications equipment, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, mechanical machinery and machinery based equipment, cut diamonds and jewelry, agricultural products and foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles and apparel and most importantly petroleum products. Tourism is an important sector for the economy with almost 50 million tourists visiting in a year and with revenue of more than 50 billion USD. It has one of the highest GDP per capita in the world, with 65,000 USD per capita. Arabia is the world's largest exporter of oil and more than 30% of all oil on Earth is located in Arabia. It was the world's largest economy until Persia gained independence.