"Spread a little of America to every continent, put America's name on little corners all over the world. Spread America to Asia, to Africa, Europe, and Oceania- and from there- American influence will dominate the world."
-William McKinley, February 3rd, 1902.
On September 5th, 1901, President William McKinley was assassinated in Buffalo, New York, by Leon Frank Czolgosz. Two bullets penetrated his body. In OTL, doctors were able to locate and remove the first bullet, but were unable to remove the second bullet, that if removed, would have saved his life. McKinley died on September 14th, 1901.
But what if doctors located the second bullet? In this world, McKinley lives, and runs for and wins a third term in 1904.
Second Term, 1901-1905
McKinley's Presidency: 1901-1909
American Intervention in the Second Boer War
- McKinley intervenes in the Second Boer War, supporting the Orange Free State and South African Republic against the UK. The day after he announces the intervention, McKinley also states his new "A Little of America" doctrine. His plan is to put at least one American colony or associated state on every continent, and from there, the USA would spread its influence throughout the world.
- The same sort of "Yellow Journalism" that led to the Spanish-American War leads to this war. American newspapers focus on British cruelty against the rebels, including starvation tactics and concentration camps in South Africa operated by the British.
- On July 31st, 1902, South Africa and the Orange Free State win the Second Boer War. This would only have been possible with American intervention against the UK.
- South Africa agrees to allow the United States rights to open trade and military bases in South Africa.
The Philippine-American War
- The United States starts and wins the Philippine-American War. This results in US getting all of the remnants of the Spanish Empire. Only mainland Spain is left of the empire.
American Intervention in the Russo-Japanese War
- American involvement against Spain and Britain during McKinley's presidency sets a precedent that the USA will always intervene in foreign conflicts to its advantage. So, when McKinley supports Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, few Americans are surprised.
- Following the Japanese victory in the Battle of Mukden in March, 1905, William McKinley declared "Japan has gone too far this time." He declared war on Japan and sent US forces to Manchuria to assist the Russians.
- Russia and the United States form the Alliance of Common Grounds.
- Japan is forced to fight on two fronts, against the USA in the Pacific and against Russia in Manchuria. This brings the war to a stalemate in which American annexes the Japanese Empire while the Russians get Manchuria.
Pact of Order
By 1906, the world was slowly dividing into two opposing camps: one American and one British. The old German-British rivalry came to a close as both sides realized that they had larger threats then each other. Russia and Germany were on a collision course for control of the Balkans and East Prussia, and Britain now had to deal with the "rising power" of America. William McKinley encourages the signing of the Pact of Order in April, 1906. This is not only an alliance between the United States, Russia, and France, but a new doctrine that outlines a new "order" of international politics.
- The United States has the right to "police" and "protect" the entire Western Hemisphere, or the Americas. This would be "America's Global Sphere of Influence."
- Russia has the right to "police and protect" Asia and the Balkans. This would be "Russia's Global Sphere of Influence."
- France had the right to "police and protect" Africa. This would be "France's Global Sphere of Influence."
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Japan, the Ottoman Empire, and the UK were all left out of the Pact because they are enemies of it's members.
Pact of Central Power
The signing of the Pact of Order infuriated the UK, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Japan. A month later, these states signed their counter-doctrine of the world order, the Pact of Central Power It stated.
- The United Kingdom's sphere of influence is Africa and, if intervention is necessary, Latin America.
- Germany's sphere of influence is northern and western Europe.
- Austria-Hungary's sphere of influence is the Balkans.
- The Ottoman Empire's sphere of influence is the Persian Corridor and southern Asia.
- Japan's sphere of influence is Eastern Asia.
Herero and Namaqua Genocide
From 1905 to 1910, Germany launched a genocidal campaign against African rebels in German Namibia. (In OTL, this genocide ends in 1907, but in ATL, it lasts until 1910). On February 20th, 1910, France, in accordance with the Pact of Order, invaded German-ruled Namibia to bring the genocide to a halt. Germany declared war on France two days later, the UK declared war on France three days after that, and the United States, France, and Russia jointly declared war on every member of the Pact of Central Power on March 3rd, 1910. World War I has begun.
World War I (1909-1915)
Pact of Order (Allied Powers)
- United States
- Russian Empire
Pact of Central Power (Central Powers)
- United Kingdom
- Ottoman Empire
War Breaks Out
On March 3rd, 1910, the United States and France declared war on every member of the Pact of Central Power. (Russia only declared war on Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. It retained a peace agreement with Germany and the UK. Russia was already at war with Japan.). The Central Powers were unable to transport desperately-needed supplies to Namibia before it was overrun by the French. On March 17th, Russia signed a nonaggression pact with Germany. At the same time as the battle in Namibia, Japan attacked China, which was supported by Russia. The Ottoman Empire rejected territorial demands and was invaded by Russia in April, 1910. The resulting conflict ended in September, 1910, with Ottoman concessions. The following month, Russian troops attacked Austria-Hungary. In western Europe, British forces were deployed to Germany, but little action occurred between France and Germany, Britain. No large operations were launched until October, 1910. Germany and Russia entered a trade pact in August, 1910, in which the Russians received military equipment in return for Germany having access to Russian natural resources. In October, 1910, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway to secure shipments of iron ore from Sweden. Denmark immediately capitulated, and despite French support, Norway was conquered within two months.
On November 10th, Germany invaded Belgium. The Belgians, with French support, put up a good fight. But the German advance couldn't be halted. On December 10th, Italy attacked Austria-Hungary, joining the Allies. Back in Belgium, the Belgian government surrendered to Germany on December 22nd. The Central Powers split Belgium into East and West, with East Belgium under German occupation, and West Belgium under British occupation.
With Belgium neutralized, Britain sent the Royal Air Force to bomb French targets on a massive scale, while Germany would begin a ground invasion of France. The air campaign failed, and the German attack was halted at the Battle of Verdun. This began the stalemate on the Western Front. Using newly captured Belgian ports, the German Navy and Royal Navy enjoyed successes against the American and French navies, using submarines to devastate American shipping in the Atlantic. Austria-Hungary made an incursion into northern Italy in March, 1911. Germany attacked and occupied the Belgian Congo, with Belgium defeated, and Japan invaded and occupied French Indochina.
In April, 1911, Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia but within days was repulsed and pushed back into Habsburg-ruled Bosnia, where a stalemate soon occurred. In June, 1911, Italian forces began counter-offensives against the Austrian invasion of Italy. By late-1911, with Austrian forces having been pushed back into Slovenia by the Italians, Italy sent a dispatch of troops from Austria to bolster the Serbs.
The Germans soon intervened to assist Austria-Hungary. German forces were sent to northern Italy in August, and by the end of September, they had launched an offensive against the diminished Italian troops. In under a month, the Italians were pushed back into Italy with the exception of areas on the Slovenian coast.