The European Timeline
914-967 (161- 213 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus) 967-1000 (213-247 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus) 1000-1029 (247-276 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)

The Vikings

As prescribed in the new Constitution the Emperor was to be elected by the Senate generally according with the dying wishes of the previous Emperor. The trade change and the ‘Mercantile Revolution’ of the previous years led to several innovations and inventions. many of these came from pressure of the Emperor Ignacius, elected in 967 (214 AD) after appointment by carolus in exchange for the several of his inventions and apparent understanding of the economy of Rome. {C}“Before Carolus died he looked at me and said that the conquests of the future would not be the result of great armies and great territories alone. A responsible government, a developed state, and a vibrant and connected economy in that State is how Rome shall persist after the millennium.” -from the ascension speech of the Emperor Ignacius to the Senate 967 (214 AD).

This is the first mention of the new Latin word ‘state’, ‘statia’, as well as the stating of the approaching 1000th anniversary of the founding of the city of Rome. Prior to being Emperor, Ignacius was the head Financial Officer for the Emperor and prior still he led to the innovations of things like the horseshoe, greatly increasing the efficiency of the Roman cavalry, the compass, greatly increasing the speed of trade and naval movements, and the windmill, greatly increasing the amount of grain available throughout the Empire. Ignacius came to prominence after being elected mayor of the city that led the constitutionalist movement, Lutetia (Paris). He was then appointed Governor of Aquitannia and led to it becoming a center of trade, expanding to the Oceanus Britannicus (English Channel). The Schools of this rich land were a great source of attraction for immigrants over the Rhinus and Albis. These were called Franks and would come to dominate the merchant class in the region. The Forests that remained soon became sources for the creation of incredibly strong ships that would travel throughout the Mediterranean.
Oceanus Britannicus

The Mare Britannicus with the Province of Britannia (north) and the Provinces of Lugdunensis (part of Aquitannia) and Belgica.

Before the navy in Aquitannia could be established in earnest, there had been a series of raids that faced to rip apart the Empire. The Vikings from the lands of Scandinavia began to grow jealous of the trade and wealth of Rome. A sea-faring people from their beginning they sailed up many rivers and ravaged many towns. Rather than going over the border, which was heavily protected, the Vikings came over the relatively unprotected cities often on Rivers they could reach from the Oceanus Germanicus (North Sea) or the Atlanticus (Atlantic). Ignacius quickly saw that the Vikings were not intending to conquer but rather to plunder and so they could be driven off with a few defeats. The fast ships of Aquitania would inflict this upon them but the Province of Britannia would be almost completely lost to these raids.

The Vikings abandoned Aquitannia and focus their force on Britannia. The Romans Legions who had fought them once they landed, and held them off until they began to be overwhelmed, sent warning to the southern part of the island and over to Aquitannia. Word of the atrocities that were being inflicted in the border province were what outraged both Carolus and Ignacius. The Aquitannian Naval ships carried a force over the Oceanus Britannicus and landed through the Thamus river (Thames). They began to assure the local population of the safety that the navy would bring and the reconquest the legions would bring once the Vikings reached that far South. That day came on the 17th of April, 950 (197 AD).

Though Ignacius was not himself a military man, he studied under the records of the battles of Scipio, Marcus Aurelius, and especially Carolus. Ignacius left his most senior adviser, and closest friend Secundus Titus, as Governor pro tempore of Aquitannia while Ignacius led the navy to Britannia; a province with close economic ties with his. Most of the real fighting was done under the leadership of other Generals, though Ignacius had taught many of them to use the compass. Horatius Africanus and Lutatius Cimber were among the heads of the legions brought to regain the province which had proven very strategic to the Roman Military.
Scipio Africanus

Scipio Africanus, ancestor of Horatius Africanus

On the 17th the onslaught occurred and the Military was surprised to find that the vikings had taken hold of the armories in Boreala Umbria (Northumberland), Cumbria, and Eboraccia (Yorkshire). Many of the vikings were not used to the workings of the ballista (standing crossbow), or the new ballista magna (great ballista, trebuchet). But once they became used to them the front of the legions had pushed the vikings back to the monument of Hadrian’s Wall, marking the end of the Province of Britannia and the start of the barbarian land of the Picts. The Vikings left but the treasuries and the armories had been all but totally raided. The campaign was very costly for the Romans but also for the Vikings who returned to Scandinavia. Horatius suggested bringing the ‘Hammer of Rome’ to the Vikings on the remaining ships, an idea he believed the troops would rally behind, but Ignacius ordered that the troops be stationed in the Province and the order lost in these raids restored.

In the parts of the provinces that had been looted they found that many families and other businesses had not been as ravaged. The ‘glutenous, thieving Vikings’ was a caricature nor entirely true as the soldiers later found out. That being said, the gold and the protection of these areas was taken and the bodies of the soldiers and people killed were strewn about the streets. Ignacius established a new cemetery to those killed by the Vikings and protection was reinforced on the eastern shore of Britannia. Ignacius returned by kept the legions of Horatius, Lutatius, and others in the Province. ‘Saviour of Britannia’ was stated in the streets of Rome as an honor ceremony was held in Rome by the Emperor. Carolus instituted many reforms in Britannia which he felt was taken over because it was so neglected by the Continent. Markets, Towns, Rebuilding, Replanting, and Educating were financed by a Program Carolus that had not received as much demand from the populous as it had on the continent. The peoples around Hadrian’s Wall were scarcely around any signs of Roman Culture or Life as had been seen in the southern most provinces.

Cities that the vikings had left from, and presumably where they arrived from, were the city of Eboracum (York), Catarium (Catterick), and Satatium (Saltburn). These became not only great military power-bases, should the vikings return, but also merchant capitals of Britannia. The Forests of the interior of the island became sources for the largest navy in the Empire, outside of Greece. Ignacius said at a speech next to the Emperor on his palace in Rome to a crowd below, “There shall come a time when the Vikings who have fled to the Great White North will return; today we embark on a mission to make sure we shall meet them with wrath that will shake gods from their clouds.”

The End of the Governorship of Ignacius.

Secundus Titus became the Governor of Aquitania and Ignacius sat next to the Emperor as his chief economic advisor, as Britannia with Ignacius’s reforms became a vibrant economy quickly recovering the wealth that had been taken from them. Ignacius under the wings of this patron of philosophers developed a new economic outlook for the Empire, Cambissima (Capitalism); from the Latin Cambia, trade. His manifesto was published in 964 and was widely disseminated through the Empire. Governors adopted the programs and there was little notice or rejoicing in any but the most analytical circles, mostly of the formerly noble families who had become increasingly secluded despite their loss of power and founded many publications and newspapers dedicated to their own interests and opinions. These saw the treatise by Ignacius to be the perfect encapsulation, not of a new economic order, but of the emerging one; hence its unnoticed release. It became more of a guide to operating in the current system rather than a a method for creating a new one.

Carolus also took notice of this and gave the order to print the book across the Empire and be renowned as a founding text for the economy of Rome. Carolus died with this order as his last major one in the Empire. Historians, which became a popular profession soon after, saw him as the first Imperator Moderanus, Modern Emperor. The Moderanatori Modernizers were the goals of the next few emperors that we shall explore further.

A Contentious Election

Though the Constitution of Emperor Carolus stated that the appointment of the next Emperor by the previous one is to be confirmed by the Senate, certain Senators interpreted this to mean that the Senate was able to reject that appointment and place in another one. At the death of Carolus, Ignacius was his designated successor and he had immense popular support, The Britannian Reconquest injected the most public pride since the addition of Parthia, still rather fresh in the minds of the Roman People.

The cause for the contention draws back to the split of the provinces between those of the Senate and those of the Emperor. Provinces that were not, in the opinion of Carolus upon his final drafting and adoption of his Constitution, fully integrated into the Roman Empire, mostly border areas and recently conquered ones, were placed under the authority of the Emperor. The Senatorial Provinces were subject to more taxes though, most of them went to the military of the Emperor. The Imperial Provinces were more likely to be subject to direct intervention in their affairs by the Emperor. Overall, the Senatorial Provinces constituted less than a quarter of the total provinces as had been established in that Constitution. Approval from the Senate and the Emperor was necessary to make an Imperial Province a Senatorial one, or that Province would have to demonstrate its civility to the current Senatorial Provinces.

Ignacius felt that Imperial Provinces would be better governed as they did not have the politics and stalemates of the Senators and the legislative process. The Senators, who had not forgotten the warnings of earlier Senators against the concentration of power into an individual, did not appoint Ignacius to the post of Emperor, a move which surprised the Provinces. The Legislatures of these constituencies however, took it upon themselves to declare Ignacius their Emperor, a move which severely damaged the reputation of the Senate. The Senatorial Provinces gained much more independence as the credibility of the Senate was now in serious question. Newspapers across the country predicted that the Emperor would dissolve the Senate, and some indeed supported such a move. Ignacius, following the idea of the ideal statesman, initiated the Senate election of 967 (214); the Fourteen provinces under the control of the Senate each elected fifteen Senators leaving the total number of Senators set at 210. The First Consuls of this Senate were Fabius Cimber, older brother of Lutetius Cimber one of the generals in the Birtannian campaign against the Vikings and veteran of the Parthian conquest, and Pontius Camillus, a student of the cult of Aphrodite, were from Aquitannia, formerly Narbonensis before the Aquitannian expansion, and Cypriot respectively.

Every fourth year there would be another election, though many times the Senators were simply re elected. The Provinces of Aquitannia, Italia, Sicilia, Cypria, Greccia, Cyrenica, Aegyptus, Epirus, Byzantia, Hispania, Lusitania, Corsica et Sardinia, and the three provinces of the Alps were under the governance of the Senate, though now just as much a puppet of the Emperor as had been, but a few differences were noticeable. Chiefly, the taxes in Senatorial Provinces were higher, though that was likely because these were the more developed provinces. Secondly, the governments of the Provinces themselves were more respected than in Imperial Provinces which were not well accustomed to the traditions of a Republic style of Government. However, the military presence in the Senatorial Provinces was markedly less than in Imperial ones, which were more prone to rebellion and foreign raiding; while the markets of these provinces were much more developed, there were far less people in poverty in senatorial provinces, monuments, stadiums, libraries, hospitals, libraries, schools, universities, and other signs of civilization were much more common in Senatorial Provinces, though certainly not absent in Imperial ones. The notable exception to this rule is the provinces of Parthia which were very developed and had a civilization dating to Persia and Babylon.

All of the provinces were, in fact and deed, under the control of Ignacius who began a new series of cultural campaigns soon after the Senate was reformed.

The Imperial Ministries

In the first few years of the reign of Ignacius, he established several Minisriae (Ministries). The First of these was the Ministria Agriculturae (Ministry of Agriculture) which remained the largest occupation in all provinces of Rome. The practice of composting (insenium from seniare to decay) which had only been incorporated in the central part of Aquitannia, was initiated under the ministering of Isodorus Sulpicius, lord of the largest farm in the Italian Peninsula. This increase in fertile land created a new niche in the agricultural markets of the Empire. The famously fertile compost of Egypt fertilized places as far away as the western edge of North Africa and the eastern edge of Syria, though they also had access to the fertilizers of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The deserts of Arabia and those to the south of the Mediterranean a surrounding the fertile river valley of the Nile were beginning to recede though the Sahara remained a great barrier that the Romans still did not cross ore truly know the extent of. This became a defining characteristic of this Ministry into the future, the destruction of the deserts of Africa.

The new irrigation systems that were meant to spread the waters of the major rivers into the new farmlands and villages of the Empire. The Imperial coffers were able to handle this and the Provinces were also very likely to have to contribute to these projects themselves. The largest of these was in the Aegyptian Province on/ the greatest river in the world, The Nile. The Via Ignacia, on the first cataract which became the port of Ignacium (Aswan). On the Second Cataract was the Via Carolia which extended larger than any of the others and established the mining city of Iudania (Wadi Halifa). the Fourth and Fifth Cataracts were connected in a Canal called the Aqua Trajia which supported a city in the circle of the Nile it created called Merovia. All of these cataracts were expanded to allowmore water to flow through them. This was the lowest extent of the Aegyptian Province though the deserts around it were many times uninhabited and claimed by the Empire. The Split of the Nile into the Blue and White Nile was still not discovered by the Romans and the Empire of Axum around the Blue Nile and Lake Tana still were not encountered by direct Roman intervention, though trade with them certainly took place.

The next was the Financial and Commercial Ministries, which at first were connected and steadily grew apart over time. They managed taxation in the Empire, though often they would falsify documents and take parts of the revenue for themselves. This did not stop the Empire from functioning however, and one of the first of the duties of the Commercial part of this Ministry was the emerging idea of patents. Like most of the ideas of the ministries, which would effect the whole Empire, these came from provinces who became integrated into the national identity. The first patent was the patenting of a steam powered toy made by a man in Alexandria who went by the name of Hero, or that is what he put on his patent. Several other patents flooded this ministry after seeing the money that Alexius made with his exclusive rights to his invention. The patent expired four years after they became public record and could be copied and requested at will. Many times though people would choose to steal the mechanics of the invention by other means and wait out the patent to release it themselves, rather than deal with the patent office, which could be as effective as ineffective depending on the connections of the holder.
Steam toy

The toy of 'Hero'

Several other tasks were done through the Military, among these were the navigation of areas an the borders or which had not yet become inhabited. This was chiefly done in the waters around the Empire. The Mediterranean had been extensively navigated and trade had been flourishing there for centuries. One of the major expeditions was in the Mare Germanicus (North Sea) The Province of Belgica (Low Countries) had been doing trade with Britannia for a while now but with the advent of the compass the exact locations and distances between these places needed to be determined. The Naval Power that Britannia had become in the wake of the Viking episode protected this Sea for the most part from Viking or other pirates. Furthermore, cities were made around the mouth of the Rhinus and Albis River as well as fortifications; navigations from these cities mapped what would become the most profitable set of ports and trade routes in the Empire. Also, the Roman Navy set up several extraordinary groups for exploration and found that Britannia was, as long had been assumed, and island and that so was Hibernia (Ireland) which several members of the Navy wanted to take for the Empire. The Emperor refused, on advice that the Irish would not be as easy to take as was assumed.
Mare Germanicus

The Mare Germanicus, note the islands of Islia (Iceland), Grisia (Greenaland), Sivalia (Svalbard) and the extent of Scandinavia and the Mare Scndinavianus were not known.

Other areas of exploration, this time on land, was the Arabian Peninsula and to chart the extent of the Sahara desert. The Romans wanted to continue the long practise of declaring uninhabited lands around inhabited ones as part of the dominion on their Empire. The settlements around the Niger River, by Roman standards would not be considered cities and their culture not considered civilization, were discovered around this time and trade benefited them immensely and the deserts above them traversing the continent were declared Roman with the small areas of Ethiopia and Nigeria, as they became called, flanking those areas. The parts of the Arabian Peninsula that had been rules by the Emperor were only slivers on the coasts where some things could grow. These areas depended greatly on the trade of the Parthian Provinces to the North East, the Aegyptian Provinces to the North East, and the trade routes with India they had been establishing to overcome the long and bandit ridden areas between these two Empires.

The Romans found that this areas, like Britannia, did not extend indefinitely. The nomadic tribes of this desert were offered places of housing and food north of the desert, an offer quickly accepted. Many of these became people of an agricultural persuasion, working the land that they bought and relishing in their ability to provide food and water to their families. The borders of the Empire again extended but mostly to places uninhabited, and for a while thought uninhabitable, but this did not change the happiness of the people of Rome who were glad to see their borders reach such an extent.

The Expeditions to India and Sinica 972-992 (219-239 AD)

Another program done through the Roman military was the long and arduous attempt to destroy the bandit areas of Parthian trade routes, long neglected by the former government of the region. Most of these had been pushed back to the areas of the mountains of Aphigia (Afghanistan and Pakistan) which were then cut off from all trade from Parthia and India. The Aphigians died out within two decades.
Afghanistan topography

The Mountains of Aphigia that the raiders and bandits were run into.

Sinica (China) and India were countries far off from Rome but their connections to Parthia remained strong and so the benefits dispersed through the Empire. In the years 972 (219AD) and 974 (221 AD) respectively, search parties were sent from Rome to describe the places of India and Sinica which they had been doing so much trade with. Prior to this exploration the people of Rome and Aegypt represented the lands where the sun rose and where the mythical creatures and mythical places were. The name of the trade route with these countries, the Silk Road, suggests that the main and unifying export of these lands was silk, a cloth whose unique texture was not wholly understood, but this was not true. Porcelain and paper, which were technologies also not understood but simply purchased, were major exports of Sinica and the spice and salt trade of India was vibrant. The Indians invited the Romans into their sub-continent and distinctive notes were taken of the spice plants where the flavorings originated. Indians also did not object to the taking of the seeds of these places back to Rome where they became crops for specialty farmers in Parthia who were no longer able to compete with the low grain prices from Europe and Aegypt.
Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire in India

Sinica had more misgivings however. The Romans were not allowed to see Emperor of the current. The Han Dynasty suspected, rightly, that the Romans were intending to take the secrets of the unique products of Sinica, silk, paper, porcelain, etc.. The Silk worm, which when the Romans heard of this thought it was a ridiculous merchant rumor, was stolen under the cover of darkness from Sinician silk weavers and immediately sent to the Roman Empire. Knowing that the Sinician could not send an Army into Roman territory their mission was only to find the methods of their production and leave as soon as possible. What happened however, was that the Roman explorers had become accustomed to Sinician Life. The silk work was on its way to Rome and indeed it would not be caught, but the customs and language of the Sinician people needed to be bridged, or that is what they sent to the Emperor. The Sinician also wanted to understand the language of Latin and the extent of the Empire they had heard so much of, the cultural interest lasted so long some of the Romans had children with Sinician maidens and raised them as both Sinician and Roman. The grammars of Gaius Julius Solinus on the Latin Language was brought to the Chines, but the Romans in order to ‘properly understand the complex language of the Sinician’ as the message to Ignacius stated; this was an excuse to stay and raise their families.

The Explorers did work hard though, the philosophies of Sun Tsu’s The Art of War, the philosophies of Confucius as he was known in Latin, and the geometry and medicine of many others made their way back to Rome. Newspapers from across the Empire heralded the development and the knowledge was brought to many schools and hospitals and especially libraries across Rome. When the children of the explorers were adults the explorers proposed returning to the Empire they had left in 974. Most decided to take their treasures of knowledge back to their native homelands but almost a quarter decided to die in Sinica, ‘this is my home now’ said one of the men. They lived out their lives relatively peacefully, though the politics in Sinica would become more complex as the years moved on.

In 992 (238 AD) the expedition, which many had thought died once the memos stopped being received around three years earlier or that they had abandoned Rome, returned. Only eight years before the millennium of Rome’s establishment the full of what the Sinician offered was brought to Ignacius now around 51 years old. The heat required to fire the kilns to make porcelain flourished around the charcoal making forests of Britannia, Hispania, and Germania. Paper also became very popular and the first paper book came from Hispania; it was a translation of the Art of War and caused many reforms in the Roman Military. The Porcelain Industry in Germania, considered to be of a higher quality, produced commemorative jars, very common in the Mediterranean where they were intended to be sold, for this association with the Sinician Empire. The Emperor of Sinica, whose appearance was only guessed at, was placed with Ignacius and many of these were found in the Palaces and villas of the wealthy.

Education and Medicine in Rome

By far the most influential of the Imperial Ministries were the Ministry of Medicine and the Ministry of Education. These fields had been expanding over the years in the Empire as described above but the investment that Ignacius would create in these markets would lead to the Ignacian Surplus that carried the economy of Rome upwards into the millennium. First came Education.

The Schools of Parthia which were open to children of the age of six set the standard in that region of the Empire. Universities starting near printing centers in Europe and elsewhere also began the process of nurturing the interests of scholars and scientists in the Empire. However these schools were, considering the amount of people and the area of the Empire, few and far between. They concentrated on the centers of commerce which were becoming the centers of the several provinces. Not only Rome but also the cities of Lutetia (Paris) in Aquitannia, Londinium (London) in Britannia, Opidum Ubiorum (Cologne) in Germania, Dredonia (Desden) in Aurelia, and of course Hierosolymitanum (Jerusalem) in Lower Syria going into Egypt and Arabia and Damascus in Upper Syria going to the Mediterranean and Europe. But many of them were only open to the wealthiest of the merchant class, despite the propaganda of the administrators of those schools.

The educators and the educated in the Empire, who did not go into hermitage, independent study or monetary enterprise, went on an battle to expand education into the areas of the Empire who barely know who Aristotle and Socrates are. The fierce debate always arrived at the cost of such a program, not only the cost of educating these children but of not having their labor in the farms many of their parents worked on and owned, their families livelihoods. The arguments to counteract these were several but most notable was the increase in efficiency that was made by the technologies being incorporated into the agricultural ability of the Empire. Among these was the move from a two field to a three field system as well as the iron plow that would last longer and move through soil more quickly. The controversy moved to the payment of the teachers and the financing of the construction and maintenance of the schools. The call of the objectors was not against the idea of schooling but of the idea that the Emperor had control over what was taught to children who could not reason better. Also, these people did not want their cities to be filled with places that all looked the same and drilled boring useless material into youth rather than have them on the fields harvesting.

After further discussion an idea was struck among a sect of the intellectuals, the idea of education insurance (condicio). Insurance, though not unheard of, was very rare especially outside of the wealthy capitals. The Lex Educatiae passed in both the Imperial and Senatorial Provinces created the plans for new schools and universities in the Empire. Also included in these was the creation of two new letters, the letter J as distinct from I, the letter U as distinct from V. These were the easy parts of the Law, what came next was the construction.

Constructing in Rome, whether the city proper or the Empire around it, was never done without slaves. The practice, though decreasing with the increase in population and the recent drop in the number of conquests in the Empire, was also not unused in the construction of these schools. The uniqueness of the insurance approach made each building different. Though many of these simply copied examples of classic Roman architecture, pillars, columns, domes especially but a new style was emerging from the frontiers. A group of barbarians that had been integrated into the Empire, like the Franks in Aquitannia or the Goths in Germania, were bringing a new taste to these specific regions. Moving away from typical Roman and Greek architectural styles the Frankish model emphasised function and quality rather than just grandeur and open space. The Gothic model on the other hand took grandeur and enhanced it greatly. First among these was the tower, or spire in some cases, which had to be immense in order to show not only the greatness of the building but its people and city. Another Frankish and Gothic taste being brought into the landscape of the norther provinces was the sun room and other large window spaces, usually with colored glass.

In Britannia however, Gothic, Roman and Frankish styles as well as those native to the island became features of the schools throughout the region; not, as it had been before the Vikings, only in the most southern parts of the province. In light of this, the Hispanians and Lusitanians brought an even more different style to their construction practices. Among these was the natural aspect and a connection with landscapes. The Rivers Iber (Ebro) and its tributaries were incorporated into designs often featuring bridges going from one end of the campus to another or when entering the school. Mountains like the Pyrenees as well as other natural features also enhances the grandeur of the large universities but also provided protection glamour to them. In places that lacked the great rivers or mountains and hills of other regions techniques of irrigation were used to make them as well as to bring in fountains, meadows, gardens, and other impressive examples of outdoor design.

In North Africa the traditional method of building was with mud brick and these places were very small compared to those of Europe. Imports of limestone, marble, and other building materials common in those parts of the Empire made their way into some of the schools of North Africa, but others simply increased the use of mud bricks into individual and uniquely African styles of building. These regions however did not have the surplus of people that would necessitate many schools so only a few were made here. In Aegypt however the population had always been quite high. These buildings were a combination of Roman and Greek styles as well as the typical looks of Aegypt. The use of limestone and sandstone was central to these endeavors and the use of many columns was typical also in many places. The Obelisk, the careful planning and positioning of schools so that certain events would align with it was also usual. The inscriptions and statues on and coming from the wall was incorporated as well as new imports from Europe, like the dome and the fountain along side old ones like pylons and gateways lined with repeated statues of animals or gods.

One last feature to be mentioned in the construction part of the discussion on the change of Roman Education around the turn of the millennium is Parthia. The Babylonians, Sumerians, and Akkadians all influenced the design that would educate the students of these provinces. Chief among these was the large edifices of the ziggurat and the other imported architectural features from as far as greece and Rome simply placed on a larger scale, such a not only domes and colonnades but great domes and great colonnades and not only gardens but buildings in the image of the Hanging Gardens of old lore and mystique.

The next thing to be decided before the construction was finished was the exact mechanism of how to pay for the teachers and how they should teach. The decision accepted by Ignacius, and the Senate though they had not real option to reject it, was that until the age of thirteen the education curriculum would consist of general knowledge, “things that are necessary and essential to the understanding of the world and the Empire they live in” as one Senator described. From the completion of this process the specialized schools for different trades and arts, from athletics, music, sculpture, painting, and mosaic work to the trades of agriculture, law and politics, medicine, finance and education would be taken up when and if the child decided to continue their education. Some children who intended to follow in the trade of their fathers or mothers would do so with then and thus no longer have to pay for further education. Many of these new buildings were meant to function for a few or sometimes only one specific trade whereas the General Education of children was already held in earlier constructed buildings. These special schools would grow to be Universities and some, like Universities of Medicine, would also have places attached to them where the graduates could work. The University of Medicine in Londinium was also the largest Hospital in the Province to that date.

Places were made with these schools where people would apply for the insurance (condicio) of their children’s education. Education was not open to the daughters of the Empire after the General Education phase of the plan described above. People would pay either in money, as was still increasingly becoming a more popular way of paying taxes, or grain, this other option quickly would be abandoned. This would pay the salaries of the educators as well as for the costs of building and maintaining these great buildings. The Educators, despite the greatness of the structures they taught in and the other necessities of teaching, were paid very well and this, as Cambissima would predict, attracted people to the profession of teaching and expanded the availability of educators not only in Italia and Greccia but from every edge of the Empire.

This system of paying for services, Servici Imperiali as they became to be called, through insurances would spread to many services not only of the Empire but of businesses competing with it. The Emperor applauded the competition with the saying ‘adda pro nostrum’ meaning ‘bring it before us’ and so the economy of Rome continued to expand.


The European Timeline
914-967 (161- 213 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus) 967-1000 (213-247 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus) 1000-1029 (247-276 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)

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