|902-916 (149-163 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||916-938 (163-185 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||929-970 (176-217 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)|
Out of the AshesAfter the death of Maharajah Balaputra VI the islands of the Srivijaya Empire were separating. The Island of Sumatra was the first concern. The Maurya and the states of Southeast Asia were both outside the City of Thenmobang and were working out a deal in regards to how to proceed with the fractured territory. Sumatra was given to the Khmer, as the Maurya were not seeking territory but rather simply the destruction of their enemy. The Khmer already had the entire Malay Peninsula and now they also had Sumatra. From the Thai Kingdom and even to the uninvolved State of Champa there were celebrations and festivals of the fall of their oppressor. The Kingdoms of Southeast Asia were so uproarious and excited at this development that they solidified and expanded their relations with the other Empires of Asia, most notably the Maurya. The Japanese, who were defeated, decided to make the best of a bad situation. They moved out from their naval base of Luzon and managed to take all of the Philippines. The conquest of these islands kept the people of Japan from igniting into a fury at the defeat in Sumatra. The Japanese, now without their greatest ally, chose to reach out to the Southeast Asian states of the Khmer and the Thai.The Thai refused the Japanese offer of alliance but the Khmer decided that it would be better to have such a strong ally to assist the buildup of their young Kingdom. Jayavarman, King of the Khmer, and Empress Harima, of Japan, arranged a marriage between their oldest children to solidify this arrangement. The Thai and the Khmer began to spli after this development. The Thai Kingdom appealed to the Maurya for a similar marriage pact but they refused. The Thai and the Maurya were still close but the Maurya could not help but look down of the Thai people, primarily for their religious differences. The Lao people, who were happy with their assistance with the death of the Srivijaya Empire, felt cheated by all the countries around them as they emerged from the conflict with no real gains other than a slight reputation. At first Lao King, Photisarath, wanted to invade the Cham Kingdom but instead opted for the founding of a joint Kingdom. The Marriage of Prince Photisarath II of Lao and Princess Trieu Nih of Champa would lead to the formation of the Cham-Lao Kingodom. With a coast the Lao could move into the sea and become a naval power and with more land the Cham people would be able to feed themselves better.
BorneoThe High Buddha of the Thenmobist religion had escaped the invasion of Sumatra along with many other monks and religious people as well as some wealthy nobles. The High Buddha wanted to regroup the other islands into a new Empire, with him and the religious orders as the new leadership. The island of Borneo was only in actuality half conquered and half civilized. The native people of the interior of Borneo, known as the Dayak people, were a headhunter tribe with their own traditional beliefs and customs. When the soldiers of the Srivijaya Empire moved into Sumatra in an attempt to save the island the Dayak people began reclaiming parts of their land. The Interior of the Island as well as the East coast of Borneo became part of a new Dayak Chiefdom. On the West Coast of the island, the area with the most cities due to its proximity to the main island of Sumatra and to the Southeast Asian peninsula, was the new capital for the high Buddha and his followers.
The Dayak had gained new weaponry during their part in the Srivijaya Empire and had been stockpiling them since they joined the country. The Dayak and the Thenmobist State both believed that they had the right to the entire island. The natives and the Thenmobists established their own militaries and it was going to be a long struggle among them. The conflict between these two was about more than territory, it was also a conflict about religion. Thenmobism, the religion of the the Srivijaya Empire, and Kaharingan, the animistic religion of the Dayak people, were also looking to establish a base on the island of Borneo. Borneo was such a large island that controlling it could open the door to a new Empire among the other islands. The High Buddha was appealing to any leaders from the other islands but they had their own interests and problems.
The Island of Sulawesi was sparsely inhabited and its population centers were mostly ports and vacation areas for the nobility. Because of this it was a much more popular destination for the fleeing wealthy of Sumatra and the rest of the Srivijaya Empire. After the takeover of the Philippines by the Japanese many people from those islands also came to Sulawesi. The Kingdom of Sulawesi, as it became, was led by the most powerful nobleman from the Srivijaya Empire. The Duke of Thenmobang, who was second only to the Maharajah and the High Buddha in prominence in the islands of the Empire, led nobles to his expansive estates on the island. In exchange, after it became clear that the Duke was not going to return to Thenmobang, the Duke asked for the allegiance of all the other nobility. They were reluctant at first but were granted special rights and privileges on the island including their own territory on the island where they can govern freely.King Supomo of Sulawesi, as he styled himself, refused the imposition of the High Buddha on Borneo for assistance in his conflicts on that island. The island of Sulawesi had rich iron deposits which made it perfect for the establishment of a military complex. Sulawesi, with its vast amounts of wealth from the coffers of the immigrating nobles, offered asylum to fearful people in the nearby islands. This built up not only a base for agriculture, as the population of the cities was now exploding, but also a sizable military with which to take what they could not coerce from their neighbors.
By around Seven years after the death of the last Maharajah, Sulawesi, and their King Supomo, were established on that island. Their military was strong and needed practise, according to the King. With their booming population the Sulawesi needed more land to support the base of workers and soldiers which appeared after all these years. In 922 (169 AD) the Sulawesi had control of the Moluccan Islands east of Sulawesi. While the nobles demanded that they move the army into the large island of Papua (New Guinea). The King refused their demands and satiated them by handing out grants to these islands as he had with Sulawesi itself. This worked for the time being but Supomo needed to gain their undivided support of he knew he would have no land left for himself. Despite that, this system managed to keep Sulawesi together.
Despite their lack of money the refugees of Sumatra who moved to Java were quite experienced in building and management. The Javanese natives invited these people for their skill and ability and even after the Khmer took over Sumatra many who refused their allegiance to the Khmer were finding ways into Java. The economy of the island picked up not too long after the fall of the Srivijaya. Their cities were replenished by the new communities of workers and an even more curious development emerged on that Island. There was no King.Without a leader taking people to that island the loyalty of the Javanese remained with their dead Maharajah. The nobles were nowhere to be found and the common people had a general distaste for them any way. They were a good riddance. The nobles of Java were not able to hold onto their privileges with the new people and there was not military large enough to protect them other than from Sulawesi, which would only try to colonize. The High Buddha on Borneo was making outreaches to the people of Java but he was less popular than the nobles. The people of Java, though they were rumored to be in disarray without a leader according to the Sulawesi and the High Buddha, were getting by without any formal leader.
The need for any sort of government did not arise until about eleven years after the death of the Maharajah, when the colonization of Sumatra with Khmer people was essentially completed and Thenmobang restored. 926 (173 AD) was the year in which the Khmer would be overtaken by their own hubris. They even announced their intentions of taking Java before they actually move towards it. Later that year, representatives from across the island came together in the largest city, Jakarta. The Assembly of Java, as it was called, made plans and orders to assemble the people of Java into a ready group of troops who would protect the country. This idea actually originate from the people of the island and they were all ready to take on any enemies.
Near the city of Jakarta the people of Java were prepared to take on the Khmer Kingdom. The Khmer military was confident in itself. They had not only gained their independence from the Srivijaya Empire but also made the final blow which brought the Srivijaya to an end. From the Malay Peninsula to the island of Sumatra there was no way of getting from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean without having to go through the Khmer waters in some way. The new revenue from the taxes levied on trade going from East Asia to India, or vice versa, from the oceans was going mostly to the military of the Khmer Kingdom. Jayavarman was not satisfied with only this. He wanted to take as much as he could from the fractures of the Srivijaya and after the capture of Sumatra would come the war with Java.
The Javanese were prepared to fight the invading forces. They won in the end and the Khmer were devastated morally. The Northern most point of the island of Java was the prime target of the Khmer forces but it was also the best defended. The Javanese were a working class people and had experience in protecting themselves from when the Khmer first entered the island of Sumatra. Many immigrants from Sumatra came to Java, because of its closeness and, to escape the terror of the Khmer. The Khmer came in with such a small force that the more experienced Javanese were able to board and take these ships quickly and with few casualties. With the new ships, which were large and filled with resources, and the display of power and independence with the death of all the Khmer sailors on those ships, the Javanese made an informal declaration of independence. The Khmer, despite their rage at the arrogance of the Javanese, refused to waste their resources in another direct conflict. The Javanese were jubilant at their victory.
On the island of Papua was growing a new kingdom of people, with a different character and philosophy behind their leadership. The Sulawesi were characterized by their civility and ceremony which they inherited from the Srivijaya Empire. The coutnries of Borneo were characterized either by their faith in the Thenmobist religion or in their barbarity depending on which of the two parts of this island one looks. Java was a one of the most well founded islands and had some of the hardest-working people in Asia. Papua (New Guinea) was not like any of these places. Papuan people were some of the least developed in the Srivijaya Empire, which made them very easy to conquer. Nevertheless, the Srivijaya brought tremendous benefits to the Papuan cities. The largest city of Manokwari was the center of political and economic activity which that island had with the rest of the islands and was not averse to the idea of rejoining with them. Though this is true, further from this activity was a very different sentiment. Jayapura for example was largely under the influence of the Japanese but only through their trade. The Japanese expressed no real interest in such a far reach. Lastly, but not least among these cities was Motu (Port Moresby), named after and by the Motuan people of that region.
Motu was a special case. It was a military stronghold which was almost totally drained during the war. The soldiers were not going to return, as became abundantly clear to the people of the whole island. An understated part of the Srivijaya Empire was the few colonies around the Gulf of Carpentaria. These settlements were some of the farthest which the Srivijaya managed though they rarely received any benefit from them. Largely these were just more places to look for resources and possible servants. The main supply line for these colonies was across the Torres Strait to the city of Motu. In the aftermath of the Srivijaya the Motu and the aboriginal people around the Gulf of Carpentaria grew closer in a search for somehting to depend on. The Motu were a naturally seafaring people and kept great control of this strait and the waters around them. The Motu began to incorporate areas around their city and were eventually in control of a sizable portion of the island.
The Aborigines were by no means savages, though. They moved around the main port of Bamaga on the edge of the Gulf and across to the cities of Numbular (Numbulwar) and Besara (on Groote Eylandt) which also became part of the Motu hegemony. The area in between here soon came under their control in a strip of territory which was the source of many new opportunities for the Motu people. The resources, especially in Besara, for military appllications were now lost to the other islands and many of them hardly knew that this was their origin. The Motu were becoming a powerful Papuan state, yet there were others.
The Manokwari were the most Srivijaya related city on Papua. They managed extensive relations with the Sulawesi Kingdom, though the Dukes of that Kingdom only saw the Manokwari as new people to subjugate. The Manokwari expected the Sulawesi to attempt an invasion but were surprised when nothing came. In 925 (172 AD), three years after the conquest of the Moluccan Islands by the Sulawesi, the Manokwari were confident that they were not going to be put under the stress of invasion. So, with what boats and soldiers they had or could build the Manokwari moved out of their part of the western portion of Papua.Chief among these was the island of Aru, which held a strategic place in the eastern oceans. From there the Manokwari moved into few neighboring islands west of Aru. North of the island of Papua, rather, was a much different story. Aru came willingly as it was sparsely populated, but the islands around the city of Biak had a much less docile attitude. This was the largest battle which was fought by any of the tribes of Papua since the Srivijaya took them over. The Biak had many resources and many more boats to attack the Manokwari with, but, the Manokwari had better support behind them. Through some few weeks of fighting the island of Biak fell to the Manokwari, this was also another strategic place for the Manokwari to build a stronghold. The Manokwari gained more respect, and envy, as they grew in the region around Western Papua.
Last among the people of Papua were the people around Jayapura. When the Manokwari no longer sought to expand into Papua, with its many forests on the interior, the Jayapura took their chance. As Biak and Aru were falling to the Manokwari the extent of Jayapura was pushing from the north to the southern shore of the islands. This did not, and could, not from conquest. The Jayapura formed many peaceful relations for the purpose of mutual defense among the tribes they met inside the jungles of Papua. By the time that Biak was in the control of the Manokwari there were three states on the island. This situation was not something any of them had foreseen. All believed that theirs was the rightful claim to the island and were going to erupt into war if they had to, though for the moment around the year 926 (173 AD) such a need did not arise.
Tanimbar and the New Alliances
Emergence of the Tanimbar Islands
Smallest among these new states were the people of the Tanimbar islands. Largest among these isldands was Yamdena and from there spread the Tanimbar culture to its nearby associate islands The Tanimbar people would not be satisfied with this however. A feeling had permeated the Post-Srivijaya societies. The succession of the King by his son seemed logical to almost all of these new states. But, who would be considered the son of the Srivijaya. The religious People of Borneo, to the People of Sulawesi, to the Manokwari, to the Jayapura, and even the Khmer and the far away Motu people. the tanimbar were no exception.
But there was no navy on any of the Tanimbar Islands. In order to make up for this lack of support the Tanimbar sent out diplomats to all of their neighbors. Java, Sulawesi, Borneo, the Motu, the Manokwari, the Jayapura, and the Khmer, even to a lesser extent, were accepting them. The confusion around these islands was not only the perfect environment to allow the Tanimbar to make a breakthrough and control some territory, but also, the environment made the other states welcome any ally. The group of ships given as a gift to the tanimbar was a small amount from each of these states. This only came by around 935 (182 AD) when the dust had settled and the states that existed were not gaining more territory and began to develop themselves. The Tanimbar navy, built mostly from these gifts and new relationships, made the Tanimbar one of the most powerful navies in that region, considering its size.
The Western AllianceIn the Kingdom of Sulawesi the King had died in the year 938 (185 AD). The Council of Dukes laid his body to rest but were now tasked with looking of a successor. Some in the Council believed that they could run the country without a King or any other single leader. They found the King to be a threat to them more than an ally and were beginning serious discussion of the option to take on no successor to King Supomo. The Council of Dukes of Sulawesi, looking for protection in this new age of several split and diverse states. The Japanese Empire, in firm control of the Philippines, as well as the islands of religious Borneo formed an Alliance called the Western Alliance. The Islands of Tanimbar, which had recently taken on a colony in northwestern Australia bordering on the Motu lands was considering joining this alliance. The Motu people also took on an expanded area of Northern Australia. The Manokwari also joined the Western Alliance hoping that it would take on more areas.
The Tribal Alliance
In the Kingdom of Khmer the King was looking to exert influence over as many of these states as he could in order to set up the environment for him to take these others states. The Japanese, an ally of the Khmer, were disappointed in the fact that the Khmer were not going to attack the Sinicans in the island of Hainan as they requested. The Japanese and the Khmer began to drift apart but they still managed good relations due to the marriage between the Khmer and Japanese Royalty. A rival Alliance system was made by those who had enemies in the Western Alliance. The Dayak State and the State of Java joined immediately. The Javanese and the Khmer had grown closer and more diplomatic after the Javanese overcame the Khmer’s attempted invasion. The respect they held for each other forged a new relationship in trae which supported both of their territories. The Dayak simply wanted a partner to attack the High Buddha’s theocratic Kingdom and give them full control of Borneo.
The Motu and the Jayapura were also coming together, mostly in opposition to the Manokwari on the island. The Jayapura were benefiting from the surplus resources of the Motu and their Australian associates who had recently accepted the authority of the King of the Motu as their own. Rather than form their own Alliance the Motu and the Jayapura chose to join the Tribal Alliance. They appealed to the Tanimbar to accept the Tribal Alliance but were much more inclined towards the Western alternative. The rather equally placed alliances were now looking to Tanimbar for an answer which would greatly shift the balance to who ever they chose.
|902-916 (149-163 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||916-938 (163-185 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||929-970 (176-217 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)|