|880-902 (127-149 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||902-916 (149-163 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||916-938 (163-185 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)|
The Aftermath in Srivijaya
On the Continental parts of the Srivijaya Empire, the seeds of the Maurya were coming to bear fruit. The different tribes began to form more close nets of community among there own members. The islands, which still made many of the decisions for the Empire, were ignoring these actions as the islanders were still growing as a demographic in these areas. It became a common practice among the appointed governors and rulers of the continental parts of the Empire to try to cause the different tribes to fight against each other and encourage the competition and separation which would allow them to continue to hold on to power.
Few of these tribes caught on at first but as the restless youth of the country was not met with a war to fight they looked for something to fill that void. A questioning attitude that was thrown out from the major Empire around the Srivijaya, such as the Japanese and the Second Han Empire, found its foothold in the minds of the minorities in the Srivijaya Empire.
Ethnicity on the Southeast Asian Peninsula
The New and Old Khmer
Around the time of the establishment of the Srivijaya on the island of Sumatra, the Khmer people of what is OTL Cambodia were forced out of their homeland by a start of raids from associated of the First Han Dynasty. The Han Emperors pursued this all across Southeast Asia in preparation for the planned invasion which the Han were preparing. This was the reason for the conquests of the islands of Hainan and Taiwan. The Khmer, being the tribe with the largest amount of wealthy people with the means to leave, were able to move onto the Island of Sumatra where the founding members of the Srivijaya expanded and declined before becoming a Great Empire after the assistance of the Japanese.
However, members of the Khmer ethnicity, who were not able to move off of their land, remained even when the Srivijaya took over. These people began to grow separate from the Khmer who established the Empire. The Old Khmer who were mostly agricultural and lived in the Southern end of the peninsula and the New Khmer who made up the Nobility and Leadership the Srivijaya Empire were very distinct groups of people. The Old Khmer, who already had reason to be dissatisfied with the Srivijaya Empire, were one of the most vehement of the tribes of Peninsular Srivijaya. Their area of influence was the largest but there were otehrs who existed around them.
The Cham, Lao, and Thai
The Cham people lived in what was a stretch of land along the eastern edge of the Southeast Asian Peninsula. Them straddled the territory of the Khmer people and to the north of them was the Sinican clients known as the Viet. The Lao who resided north of the Khmer region and the Thai to the northwest would all feel the need for reform and revolution as their youth flocked more and more to the ambitious and creative ideas of their leaders.
The leader of the freedom movement in the Khmer region was a young man by the name of Yasovarman. He was on seventeen when he began to write and distribute pamphlets in the major cities of the Khmer territory. The largest city in the Khmer region, which was also the largest city in the Srivijaya Empire outside of the Islands, was Angkor Thom. Its name meant Great City in the Khmer language and was intended to be the seat of government for a new country that Yasovarman envisioned and wrote of often. “The Khmer People,” he said, “have been separated into the real Khmer on the fields and the false and ignorant Khmer in the palaces of Thenmobang.” This sentiment reflected not only the disconnect between people of similar origins but also a distaste that many had for the wealth that could be enjoyed on the islands compared to the regimentation and agricultural poverty on the peninsula.
Yasovarman’s charisma and ability to write compelling and emotive paragraphs spread mostly to the Lao people. There, proteges of Yasovarman, many of whom were older than him, inspired the creation of newer and bigger cities rather than endless areas of farmland. Buildings with foundations began to appear, especially as forums to hear the speeches of Yasovarman and his associates. Once again, the people who were actually calling shots in these areas, mainly the military, allowed the rhetoric against the nobility to slide. Many in the military actually agreed with what men like Yasovarman were saying and the nobility didn’t care or notice what the poor were doing as long as the food and labor continued.
The Return of the Maurya
The Maurya and the Srivijaya shared a land border near what is OTL Burma. It was not a big concern for an invasion strategy because the terrain in that area would not allow a large army to move in a formation that would get enough soldiers past it. The mountains in what is OTL Burma were too rugged for the Maurya to move in with a large army. However, this was not the policy being pursued by the Maurya. Small groups of people were going to move into the Srivijaya and cause agitation among these groups who could have remained a small concern if they were left alone.
The Mon people who lived in the border areas between these two countries were enlisted by the Maurya for this task because the Indian people would not be able to blend into the culture or the demographics of these groups. Though they did not care much for either of the Empires they were part of they did not refuse the favors promised to them by the Samraat and other nobility. The Mon rose to ranks of command within the structure of these movements. They were, of course, the first to suggest violence as a means for achieving their ends. Thinkers like Yasovarman, who was still the leader, at first did not believe this to be the answer but the lower levels of this movement though otherwise.
The bulk of the members were tired of talk and rhetoric. They wanted action and were anxious to make their dreams a reality and the Mon infiltrators had not qualms lighting this country ablaze. In the city of Angkor Thom was the first victim of these attacks and its large temples, villas, and neighborhoods were burning for days. The revolutionaries had moved their own members outside of the city and almost all of them were spared from the conflagration. Many innocent people within the city, as well as the administrators and military leaders who were trapped. It was in response to this that the Maharajah began to make restrictions upon theses ideas. But it was too late.
The repression would not keep the intelligent from remembering ans continuing to be devoted to their ideals. Yasovarman, despite denial of any involvement, was the first to be persecuted and the final act came after he was executed a few months later. This only worsened the situation. From the Lao to the Thai and especially the Khmer regions were a large amount of fires and outbursts of violent revolution. Only the Cham refused these actions but they could see them happening all around them. The Cham, having a history of pacifism resisted neither the Srivijaya nor the revolutionaries and gave in to many of their demands after these events across the peninsula started. News of these revolutions spread to all corners of the Asian world, the Srivijaya were weak.
Blossoming on the Peninsula
The Conflict of the Khmer people with the soldiers of the Srivijaya would have been a destructive one for the Khmer if they did not have a series of jungle areas to hid in as well as no local bases of soldiers to gain additional support. Rather, the Khmer and the Srivijaya proved that they were able to hold their own against the Empire if they had the motivation. Similar conflicts pledged their support to keep the Srivijaya out of this peninsula and this seemed to be a successful series of operations around the peninsula.
The Srivijaya, unable to move very far into the peninsula gave up on moving back into these areas which they maintained were properly theirs. The nobles in Angkor Thom were thrown out of the city and forced into wandering. Everywhere the went they were met with harshness and scorn. The only place they could find which would give them a return to their former status was on the malay peninsula which remained a stronghold for the Srivijaya. It was separated almost entirely after the Khmer were relieved of the intervention of their former Imperial masters.The Lao troops inside of the Khmer region attempted a second revolution to take control of the whole peninsula for themselves. It failed because of the large amount of Khmer troops which surrounded them. The Cham, who were not involved in the conflict, were allowed their strip of land on the eastern edge of the peninsula, which was all they ever claimed. The Lao were allowed their land as were the Thai but by far the largest of these new states was the Khmer Kingdom.
The Khmer adopted a banner for their state, it was a flower on a red background to represent the blossoming of their country from the blood of its people. The former leader Yasovarman was made into a god but that would not win over the scared and in many ways homeless people of their new country. There was now no money coming into the country to rebuild Angkor Thom, so the army turned its people into slaves on public work projects. The city was eventually rebuilt but the hardship of the people would remain. The Lao and Thai similarly deified Yasovarman, though the Cham diverted into a peaceful form of Buddhism and rejected the ideas of Thenmobism. The Mon mercenary spies who were hired to agitate and also to lead the rebellions returned to their native lands which fell into the control of the Maurya, as per their agreement. They all lived lives of luxury at their return and were met as heroes.
The Second Bengal War
With much of Southeast Asia lost, the Srivijaya were severely weakened. Their long enemy, the Maurya, who had played no small role in the loss of this territory were ready to attack straight forward. The Bay of Bengal was going to be the highway for the Indians to take the islands of Srivijaya. The Srivijaya made a plea to their first and greatest ally, the Japanese. The Maurya would not hold back in this war as they had in the battle which led to the emergence of the Southeast Asian peoples.
The island of Sumatra, which was the center of the Srivijaya Empire since its beginning, would be the goal of the Maurya for the entire length of the conflict. However, the navy which the Srivijaya still had was by no means feeble. The Japanese would make up the difference to give a very equal amount of fighting force from these sides. The Indians moved out from their homeland in the beginning of the year 915 (162 AD)
The Battle of the Andaman Sea
Off the coast of the new Thai country, the Maurya were going to attempt to rally the new Peninsular Countries to provide additional troops. Before they could arrive the Srivijaya intercepted the fleet moving into the Andaman Sea. The Maurya advances in a perpendicular column to the two columns of the Srivijaya. The flanks of this formation moved in ahead of the center to create a pinching shape, similar to the letter C. The Two columns of the Srivijaya and Japanese were going to break through the center of this formation, but, the Thai sent out ships from the opening of the C shape and left the Srivijaya surrounded.Before the independence of the Southeast Asian states from the Srivijaya was finalized, the coasts from all around the peninsula were covered in naval bases. After the end of the First Bengal War the Admirals of the Srivijaya feared that the Maurya would return after their destruction. As it turned out they did not but the large naval base on that end of the Srivijaya empire remained. During the Thai rebellions against the Srivijaya, while the Khmer and Lao were lighting cities ablaze, the Thai took control of the large and complex naval port on their coast. Removing the banner of the Srivijaya ships was easy enough and most of the sailors would follow who ever was paying them. The Thai became a naval power almost immediately with their independence. They were so influenced by the sea that the flag they adopted was not a lotus like the Khmer but one of white lines representing waves moving diagonally across a blue background.
When the Srivijaya, Japanese and the Maurya saw these new banners on the group of ships moving to their conflict all were confused as to who they were. However, the srivijaya knew that it could not be an ally. The Thai and the Maurya completed the encircling of the Srivijaya and Japanese and this made more of a psychological impact than it did a physical on on the people of all these nations. The Thai had made a name for themselves. The Victory over the Srivijaya and Japanese was the first true military victory for that young nation.
When the Lao and the Khmer heard of this they felt almost embarrassed that they did not have the togetherness to fight a battle with any of these developed militaries. The Thai were coming together over the news of these successes and became the most cohesive state on the Southeast Asian Peninsula. This was only the immediate effects of the victory in the Andaman Sea, which also came to be dominated by the Thai navy there after. The Thai captured the Andaman Islands and their new ally with the Maurya was going to move into Sumatra and kill the Maharajah and the High Buddha themselves.
The Invasion of Sumatra 915-916 (162-163 AD)
In the autumn of 915 (162 AD) the Thai and the Maurya were ready to make the bold move against the main island of the Srivijaya, Sumatra. The Japanese and the Srivijaya decided to place an arch of ships around the island to take on the first attacks and leave a contingency of troops on the island itself to defend against any who could break through those defenses. The Capital of Thenmobang (Padang) was evacuated, first by the nobles who left to the eastern Islands such as Sulawesi and Borneo an then by the lower classes of people to the closer island of Java while Thenmobang was populated almost exclusively by soldiers from Japan and the other islands.
When the Thai and Maurya approached the Sumatran Blockade they were prepared to drive theses ships out with a distraction and move around them and devastate the island. The Japanese were not moving however and they made sure the Srivijaya were not going anywhere. The Maurya continued these distractions until they understood the steadfastness of these two Empires. The Thai moved in first and the Japanese were ready for them. It was not only the Sinicans who wanted the Southeast Asian peninsula, it was a desire of any Imperial power. IT ultimately fell to the Srivijaya which worked fine for the Japanese but the loss of those regions due to some rebellions was not acceptable and neither was the fact that the Srivijaya would not appeal to them. All the tribes of the peninsula and the Japanese now had a grudge between each other.
The Japanese still, despite the mutual animosity, would not move form their formation until the Thai approached. When the Thai were close enough a large segment of the Japanese forces moved out in a circle to consume their column as violently as possible. It was a quick conflict and many of the Thai who saw the rapacity of the Japanese surrendered quickly. They expected clemency but when the Japanese boarded their ships they met a deep blue grave. The remaining Thai who saw these actions were horrified and the Maurya knew that the Japanese and their reputation of taking all aspects of battle so seriously was no exaggeration.
The Maurya and the Thai all moved together against the Srivijaya. Surely some of the captains from the Thai ships gave up what they were told about the Maurya plans, so the entire strategy was scrapped and replaced with total improvisation. The Indians and the Thai separated partially but made sure their gap was not large enough for the enemy to move in and divide them that way. The Maurya wanted to round around the southern flank and move in from behind but the Srivijaya were clearly not allowing that. The Southern fight between mostly Srivijaya and Maurya fleets was the larger of the two fights. The Northern battle was smaller but almost more important as the Japanese were guarding the more direct route to Sumatra.
The Southern Battle
The Srivijaya, who were fighting in the Southern battle, led the fleet to encircle the Maurya just as what the Maurya did in the Battle of the Andaman Sea. They were only able to manage a partial surrounding and the Srivijaya feared that it would be too thin. They began to constrict with the with the Flagship leading the charge. The Maurya, who were aiming to kill the Maharajah’s ship, focused their energy on the largest ship which appeared to be leading the others. The Maharajah was not in that ship, however. His leadership came from almost the opposite side of the encirclement and began to show itself once the flagship appeared like it would be overtaken.
The Maharajah changed the formation entirely and focused on attacking the ship with grenades and other explosives in order to cause the tightly packed ships to be set ablaze. The Maharajah knew that the Samraat would not move out into the open areas of war but he made it a priority to not spare any of his soldiers and especially not any commanders. Some of the maurya left their burning ships behind as they were not salvageable. The Maurya were not entirely out but the Srivijaya now had to circle around the burning remnants of their enemy in order to meet up and catch those who escaped and were now moving towards the island of Sumatra.
The Northern Battle
The Japanese were a different people however, they would makes sure that their enemy could not leave as they destroyed them. The Thai, who were already afraid of the Japanese due to their reputation for brutality throughout Asia, were not confident in themselves in this battle. Their fleets were of about equal size but the Japanese had greater strength. The Thai were efficiently defeated by the older Empire, though after a long stalemate and . This news was a disappointment to the Thai people on the peninsula but the Japanese did not attempt to invade that young country.
The Thai did, despite their loss, put up a good fight. Their battle was actually another distraction by the Maurya and when the portion from the northern battle headed towards the island of Sumatra the Japanese were not able to turn around to stop them. The Thai lasted longer than the Maurya and the Srivijaya’s Battle did but when the Thai were defeated the Japanese had lost little more than ten ships. The Maurya had already begun landing on the island of Sumatra and the Srivijaya were rushing to catch up and it would be hours before the Japanese could get to the same place.
The Battle of Thenmobang
The Maurya arrived and marched quickly into the city of Thenmobang, which they exepected to take quickly. The Maurya, though they only had half of their strength from when they left port, still retained a sizable portion of their army and were not going to be a cake-walk for the land troops. The Maurya wanted to take as much as they could from the city before the Japanese and the Srivijaya came in from behind them. The fighting for the city of Thenmobang was a brutal one but the Srivijaya believed that all of their naval forces had been crushed by the Maurya and that was why they were able to land on the island. The Japanese, would lead this fight on land as they had on sea before the two sections split from each other.
In the Khmer Kingdom, which had only recently cemented its hold on the areas it had a claim to, wanted an event to bring together their people. The Battle of the Andaman Sea not only led to the gain of the Andaman Islands for the Thai Kingdom but also a cohesion among its people, and the Khmer wanted a similar experience. The Khmer, taking advantage of what they saw a prime situation moved into what remained of the Malay Peninsula. All the troops having moved to defend Thenmobang there were hardly any to keep the Khmer back. This all happened during and partially after the battle of the Andaman Sea and the Srivijaya knew what was coming there way. The fact that there was no battle for the people to point to made the King of the Khmer, Jayavarman, take on the island of Sumatra directly. Coming in from the North were the Khmer and they Maurya were landing at around the same time.
The Khmer and the Maurya came close to the city but the soldiers of the city did not know who to fight. Thenmobang began to burn, due to the Khmer, and the soldiers were forced to come out. The Maurya and Japanese landed around the sides of the Maurya while the Khmer made sure to stay out of that fight and operate from the other side of the city. The flames continued to billow out of the buildings, many of which were uninhabited sue to the preemptive evacuation. The fighting outside of the city of Thenmobang kept the flames from being put out by either side. When the Khmer learned of the disordered battle on the other side of the island he sent word to the Thai and the Lao that they should gather their forces with the Khmer in order to attack the, now wounded, lion that controlled them.
The Lao and the Thai did so, though the Thai sent only a small force. The remaining soldiers from Khmer also came. The King of the Khmer, Jayavarman, moved towards the actual battle that was happening, fro behind the Srivijaya. His reinforcements that came in from the sea were not only appreciated but were utilized greatly. The Lao and the Thai, the front lines, were the first to attack the Srivijaya but were not afraid of them any longer. Not only did the Lao want a unifying moment or themselves but also to overcome the obscurity and dismissal which Empires paid to their ethnicity. The emotions were more of a motivation than the actual battle. The Srivijaya and the Japanese were once again separated by different enemies on different sides.
The Maurya and the Japanese made for a much different battle. The Maurya had much more experience with battle on land than in the sea. The Japanese had a proficiency with the sea, clearly due to the nature of their Empire being made up mostly of Empires and a land colony which is mostly due to the weakness of those areas. The Japanese were being slaughtered by the Maurya in numbers but the morale and discipline of the Japanese did not break down until there were literally not enough soldiers left to maintain it. The Japanese had lost this war for their ally. News was not much better for the Srivijaya.
The Thai, Lao, and Khmer soldiers had cut any supply lines which the Srivijaya may have been able to get form their neighbor islands or other parts of Sumatra. The Srivijaya were not going to survive this fight and the Maharajah made sure his men fought until they met an honorable death. The Maurya and these Southeast Asian kingdoms all constricted the Srivijaya into defeat in front of the smoldering city of Thenmobang. Ultimately it was Jayavarman of the Khmer Kingdom who made the fatal wound in Maharajah Balaputra VI, the fifteenth and last Maharajah of the Srivijaya Empire.
|880-902 (127-149 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||902-916 (149-163 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||916-938 (163-185 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)|