|888-1082 (135-329 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||1082-1155 (329-402 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)|
The Satavahana Expansion
The Kingdom of Satavahana was established after the drought in the Maurya empire led to expeditions of the wealthy families for areas which had resources that could support them. The Satavahana was settled first on the island of Madagascar by a family which had been oppressed by the Maurya for their attempts at taking hold of the Empire and their belief in Buddhism. After their independence from the Maurya, which went unchallenged because it was declared after the drought had subsided and the samraat felt that they were so far away that they could not threaten his reign any more, the Satavahana began to move to a more militaristic form of Buddhism rejecting the ideas of peace and love.The greatest, though very far, ally of the Satavahana was the Srivijaya Empire. The Srivijaya and the Satavahana shared many similar traits not limited to their religion and mutual hatred of the Maurya Empire. The Satavahana and the Srivijaya attempted to squeeze onto the Empire from both sides but were defeated by the Hindu Shaman Harishchandra and his military which came from the areas of the Hindu Kush and above. The Srivijaya and Satavahana never attempted to invade the Maurya again and began to move their separate ways.
The small area of coastal Africa which was west of the island of Madagascar was colonized by the Satavahana and by the year 888 (135 AD), thirteen years after the failed invasion of the Maurya Empire, the Satavahana had a sizable amount of land under their new King, Vasudeva. From 888 all the way to the year 1059 (306 AD) there was a relative peace among the Satavahana. The need for protection from the African tribes was minimal as many of them had few weapons which could compete with the defenses or attack capabilities of the Satavahana. Irrigation from Lake Chitraksh (Lake Malawi) made the coasts more bearable and there was more time to focus on the cultural aspects of life. This period of time is known as the expansion not only of the country but also of the mind.
End of Peace
In the year 1059 (306 AD), the Roman Empire began to effect its aggression against the Kingdom of Nigeria in West Africa. Several people had migrated to the Satavahana Empire after the fighting in Ethiopian led many of their people to move away from that Kingdom, though it became a Roman Province afterwards. However, the numbers of people from after this migration was not something which could be taken lightly.
The first of these were the Bantu people and many of them would bring more than their language and customs as they spread into Sub-Saharan Africa. The weaponry of the Nigerians, which was somewhat near par with the Romans, would be smuggled en masse along side the larger routes of people. The Satavahana were a jewel on the coast of Africa and their reputation for being a haven was not limited by their distance from the area from which the Bantu were immigrating. The start of the immigration was not noticed by the Satavahana, as it was a trickle. But, it soon turned into a torrent of people. The military of the Kingdom, which was largely based in the coasts and on Madagascar, was called in to beat back the caravans coming in through the borders of the Satavahana.
The Bantu-Satavahana War
As the population began to increase from the peaceful members of the Bantu tribe entering the Satavahana Kingdom, the pressure to stop this flow of people increased. The violent Bantu people, many of them were the nobility of Nigeria who left only after they no longer believed they could regain their Kingdom’s independence, came in later but the current residents were discriminated against as if there was no difference. The Bantu people built a new city on the edge of Lake Chitraksh (Lake Malawi), in an area which had relatively few residents to bother them. The city of the Bantu was regrouping in order to start a full scale attack on the Kingdom of Satavahana.
By the year 1075 (322 AD) the flow into the actual Kingdom had stopped as many, or all, of the Bantu people were moving to the Bantu State. The wealthiest noble there, who was also the largest supplier of the weapons which were taken out of Nigeria, named Belay began to build up a formal army. The fertile areas around Lake Chitraksh were the source of the food which supplied Belay’s new army. There were some celebrations at the end of this year, heralding the start of what they believed would be an end to their hardships after the Roman
The Battle of Lake Chitraksh
The Satavahana were not unaware of these developments. At first they believed that the Bantu people were simply going to create a new state in that area and no longer bother their Kingdom. However, as the Bantu never seemed to move out from their battlement on Lake Chitraksh, the Satavahana knew they would have to fight. The Satavahana were going to patiently wait on the shores of the Lake which was named after their first King. The Battle began with the sun rising behind the Bantu.
The current King of the Satavahana, Lankesh II, was holding back a rather large contingency of his army to keep the Bantu from advancing if they were to defeat the Satavahana around their Lake. This would be the outcome. Some attributed the defeat of the Satavahana on the shores of Lake Chitraksh as due to the presence of Belay and the absence of King Lankesh II. Be this as it may, the Bantu were moving towards the largest city of the Satavahana on the mainland of Africa, Namulandra (Nampula, Mozambique). If the Bantu were to take this city it would mean the loss of most of the mainland parts of the Kingdom. The King, Lankesh II, was stationed in that city when his and Belay’s army were going to meet.
The Battle of NamulandraThe Bantu did not believe that they would have a walk through the park in their planned takeover of Namulandra. They did not expect the size of the Satavahana army outside of the city. Despite this the formation patterns which were common and established in the traditions of the Satavahana were known by the Bantu, from interrogations from the generals they captured around Lake Chitraksh. Again there was no clear and total advantage which would make this battle in any way a landslide for either side. Lankesh II, being a student of these traditional styles, not only knew the plans which he knew were some of the founding parts of his Kingdom but also how to change with the situation on the battlefield. Belay and his forces were pushed back to their original area around Lake Chitraksh but they were not able to pursue the Bantu all the way into their new homeland.
Belay remained rather popular despite this loss. The knowledge that they could take on a Kingdom like the Satavahana led to many of the Nigerian nobles who came with him as well as those still arriving to put their faith into him, declaring him their new King. The Satavahana were putting new emphasis on their defenses around Lake Chitraksh and would not let the Bantu take them in such a manner again. The Bantu Army, behind the scenes of the watchful Satavahana, were expanding away from Lake Chitraksh and onto the area they would call Lake Bantu (Lake Tanganyika). A sizable area was controlled by the Bantu and the Satavahana were sure to expand their own borders to gain more resources to rebuild the damaged areas. There were still groups coming in from Nigeria and the Satavahana were no longer alone in Southern Africa.
The Zaire Empire
Some of the People retreating from Nigeria moved down the west coast of Africa and eventually they stumbled upon the Zaire (Congo) River. The river was particularly fertile and what few settlements which existed there were not averse to the new immigrants. The name Zaire comes from the name of the people who lived on that river prior to the arrival of these Nigerians. Many of these groups were those who could not afford to follow the caravans which were moving towards the Satavahana Kingdom. The city of Kinshasa on the southern side of this river, which began to expand from the first arrivals in 1060 (307 AD) and was the largest city by far on the river by 1071 (318 AD), began to expand around the year 1073 (320 AD).The first of the areas to be conquered were those settlements close to the mouth of the river. Many were pushed so successfully that it’s very likely they could have been drowned in the sea if the Zaire chose to do so. However, the Zaire were used to the government model of hegemony over several different groups, that was the style of Nigeria. With this success the Zaire had a small Empire which spread from Kinshasa and its surrounding suburbs and hinterlands to the ocean. It was at this time that many of the leaders in Kinshasa saw it time to elect an Emperor, their first choice was the general who took their Empire to its heights. The general, who change his name to Leo ‘the lion’, would lead his empire into more than just the small area they currently held.
The Zulu Republic
The Zulu people were a group which existed around the upper Zaire river and the surrounding areas. The Zulus themselves were a people of many features but most prominent to any outsider was their emphasis on war and victory. Among the small warring tribes of central and southern Africa the Zulu were one of, if not, the largest and most powerful. Prior to the migration of the Nigerians the spears and arrows which were common among these people were allowing the Zulu domination over many of the Central Africans. However once the Nigerians came in, with advanced technology, the Zulu suffered many devastating and frequent defeats. The effect of this was humbling, or perhaps humiliating, to the Zulu people. Their territory initially going to be partitioned but the conquering immigrants chose to allow the Zulu a place in the new society and even, though this was mostly to exploit their violent nature and allow them a place in the military. The Chief of the Zulu, Kwanele, was forced to hand over control to the several chiefs which led the small regiments which dismantled the Zulu Chiefdom.
This government quickly fell apart and the Zulu were able to force themselves as a contender in the fate of their land. By the year 1065 (312 AD) the Zulu were again, with the stealing of the weapons of the Nigerians and their tactics and positions, on top of their chiefdom. For nearly three years the Nigerian armies, which still maintained respectable amounts of weapons, were fighting not only the native and empowered Zulus but also each other. Near the start of 1069 (316 AD) the Zulu and the invaders were making no new advances on each other. The Zulu invited the other chiefs into a central area of conflict which was controlled by the Zulu but was the largest fortification outside of a city. Kwanele intended to kill all of these men but so many armies were waiting outside of the building in which they were meeting that if a battle were to break out there, it would be a blood bath.
In the end of this meeting the chiefs established a new government which gave equal votes to each of the chiefs which attended. These were the Zulu, the Gwari, the Meta, the Igbo, the Niger, the Yoruba, the Songhai, the Efik, the Pahuin, the Bambara, and the Tiv. The Zulu, who wished to maintain a more dignified position than they had been given by the invaders, fought to make this new country hold their name. The Nigerians, many of whom had sufficient knowledge of history such a Roman History that the word ‘Republic’ was brought along with their weapons technology. The Zulu Republic was born in the year 1070 (317 AD) and it was not long after this time that they were going to have their first real challenge.
The War for The Zaire River
The Zulu republic was on the border of the Zaire Empire. During the times of the Zulu Civil War described above the Zaire were expanding their area from the coast of Africa and up the Zaire river. This same river was the center of most of the activity of the Zulu people with its hinterland being more of a safeguard than an asset. However, with the arrival of the Nigerians and their several constituent tribes there was also now a population within the Zulu Republic which could develop their ancient forms of irrigation. Before this could take place the Zaire were preparing to invade the Zulu Republic, extending their empire as far as they could up the Zaire River.
The Zaire invaded in the year 1077 (324 AD) while the Zulu were still a rather young republic. The Zulu maintained a devotion to the development of the republic and set aside their traditional style of constant warfare. Despite this the Zaire could not be avoided. The Zulu Republic had to defend their western border from which the Zaire were invading. Their light weight ships were coming up the river and their armies were making many advances in the starting period of the war. on the borders of the Zulu Republic were the Kingdom of Satavahana and the Bantu Kingdom. The Zaire River was not unknown to either of them and the opportunity to control it was attractive to both these neighboring states. The war between them had stopped but their rivalry would persist even though they would not attack each other directly. The Satavahana, who were still looking to keep any possible gains from the Bantu and assure the survival and supremacy of their Kingdom, chose to take on the Zaire from their eastern border.
The relationship between the Zulu and the Bantu was much different. The Bantu, who at one time were prospects for conquest by the Zulu, developed a close relationship with the Zulu people. The establishment of the Zulu republic depended heavily on a pact made with the Bantu chiefs not to invade the Zulu lands. This cooperation extends prior to the Nigerian mass migration but it came to serious consequences at this time. The Bantu, with the assistance of the Zulu, would make sure that neither the Satavahana or the Zaire would conquer their new republic. This War for the Zaire River became two conflicts, named The Second Bantu-Satavahana War and the West Zaire War.
The Second Bantu-Satavahana War
In order to provide the security on the eastern border which the Zulu Republic needed in order to fight the Zaire Empire of the western border the Bantu Kingdom fought to keep the Satavahana from entering the Zulu Republic and claiming the origins of the Zaire river. If the Satavahana could control the Upper River then they could launch ships downstream which would devastate the country, cleaving it apart by the seams. The Bantu were promised, by the Zulu Republic, special access to some of the resources of the Zaire River area. Some in the Bantu Kingdom wished to become part of the Zulu Republic and some felt that they should conquer the Zulu republic all together and claim the Zaire River by force. In spite of these objections and feelings the King of the Bantu, Belay, chose to keep his word to the Zulu.
The Satavahana were not so inclined and desired greatly to reaffirm their place as the dominant power in Southern Africa. Many new cities and fortifications appeared on the continental parts of the Kingdom, many of which were supported, at first, by the military installations at the center of the towns. It was from these that many of the fighting took place in the early days of the Second Bantu-Satavahana War. In order to keep the Satavahana from invading the Zulu Republic. The current, and new, King of Satavahana was Lankesh III and he learned from the actions of his father as to how to handle warfare. First of the changes he made was that the King would play a more active role in the actions of the military. Though many of the initial decisions were made by the senior generals, who would continue to hold their leadership positions after the death of Lankesh II, the new and under-experienced King wanted to make a statement to his subjects. The youth, of around twenty, was going to use the newer tactics which the Satavahana learned after the failure of their old methods in the First Bantu-Satavahana War which was still fresh in the minds of the leadership and the subjects of the Satavahana.
As the Satavahana were moving into the Southwest border of the Zulu Republic the Bantu were working on defending their ally. This project was very difficult especially because of the terrain and open area which provided many different maneuvers for the armies to take. The Bantu eventually decided to take on the Satavahana directly and march in from the north as they had from the first Bantu-Satavahana War. Though the Satavahana did make some moves into the Zulu Republic as the Bantu diverted themselves, they quickly had to stop this movement and turn back to defend their own lands. The defenses of the Satavahana had actually been some of the first things to be used to invade the Zulu Republic, a move which the King of Satavahana was going to regret. Lankesh III had to turn back from the moves he had pushed so hard to make but was faced with losing some of the most important cities of the Satavahana Kingdom.The fighting in the cities of the Satavahana Kingdom resulted in a treaty in the city of Namulandra. The Treaty of Namulandra set an end to the involvement of the Satavahana Kingdom with the Zulu Republic in the year 1079 (326 AD). This would earn the King of the Bantu a lot of criticism at home. The conditions of the treaty were actually considered very amiable from a later point of view. However, the common people of the Bantu Kingdom did not want to let the Satavahana go. They wanted to gain more lands and to take the Satavahana down from their position but the King had grown different and was much more diplomatic in his approach. This being as it was the Satavahana were not going to take on the Zulu again.
The West Zaire War
At the same time as the signing of the Treaty of Namulandra, the war between the Zulu and the Zaire had been fighting for nearly two years already. The Kasai river was the first areas to be taken and the Chiefdom of Pahuin was almost entirely dominated. When the troops on the other side of the Republic were freed by the Namulandra Peace Treaty there was a shift in the trends of this war. The momentum that it took to take on the Pahuin chiefdom was a tremendous one and now the Chiefdoms of Bambara, Gwari and Meta were being threatened. They all began to take hits that made them almost entirely in the control of the Zaire before the eastern border’s troops arrived on the scene.
The Zaire people were ecstatic at their success and truly believed that they had the Zulu on their knees. But as the river systems which they needed to control became more and more vast the army was spread thinner and thinner. The backlash from the eastern troops combined with the Zulu reserves were beginning to challenge the Zaire’s momentum. In about two months the fighting was pushed back to the border of the Zaire and Zulu lands and the Zaire were no longer making any advances into the Zulu’s territory.It was also at this time that the nation at home needed to begin rationing and taxes were raised to purchase more weapons. Some of the hungry and poor in the cities began to attack areas of power and the Zaire Empire started to fall apart. The Emperor of the Zaire sent back many instructions about how to keep the people from rising up any further against them, including lying about the state of the battles to make the war seem like it was going better than it was. The Zaire were no longer listening to the Emperor. Anarchy began to consume the Zaire’s cities and the people who were conquered on the mouth of the river reformed their state and the rest of those lands fell apart. The front lines of the Zaire army were also falling apart as many of the Generals in areas away from the Emperor were declaring themselves the leaders of new countries. The Zulu, still fighting together at this time, were able to dismantle these lone wolves were retaken into the Zulu republic and the chiefdoms that existed before were rebuilt. The rest of the Zaire Empire fell to the Zulu and the coastal areas formed a new and independent Chiefdom which was part of the Zulu Republic. The former Zaire territories fell into a militarized dominion to make sure these people do not rise again. At the end of the year 1082 (329 AD) the war was over and the Zulu Republic was the largest nation in Africa.
|888-1082 (135-329 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)||1082-1155 (329-402 AD) (L'Uniona Homanus)|