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800 CE (Superpowers)

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These historical statistics detail the demographic, economic, and political facts on the year 800 CE of the Superpowers world. Many numbers are the kind of approximations a historian would be able to make given available records and do not flawlessly reflect reality. What they undoubtedly provide is a look at the relative strengths and weaknesses of states in different respects.

Global statistics

  • Human population: 369 million people
  • Land area: 148.9 Million km²

Global rankings

  • Wealth:
    • Wealthiest: Roman Empire
    • Strongest: Maya Conglomerate, based on GDP per capita
  • Population:
    • 1st - Roman Empire
    • 2nd - Chinese Empire (Tang)
    • 3rd - Maya Conglomerate
    • 4th - Rashtrakuta Kingdom
    • 5th - Pala Empire
    • 6th - Kingdom of Khazaria
    • 7th - Umayyad Caliphate
    • 8th - Great Sarmatian Empire
    • 9th - Fatimid Caliphate
    • 10th - Kingdom of Venetia
  • Military:
    • Largest: Chinese Empire, based on standing army
    • Most Advanced: Roman Empire, based on combined arms and equipment
  • Land:
    • 1st - Roman Empire
    • 2nd - Chinese Empire
    • 3rd - Umayyad Caliphate
    • 4th - Fatimid Caliphate
    • 5th - Kingdom of Khazaria

Senatus Populusque Romanus

  • Capital: Rome
  • Population: 144 million people (39% of global population)
    • Citizenship: 98 million cives (68% of Romans)
  • Total area: 9,037,000 km²
  • Population density: 15.9 inhb/km²
  • Life expectancy: 44 years
  • Urbanization: 20-30%
  • Literacy rate: 32%
  • Head of government: Caesar Paulus
  • Legislature: 1,000 senators

Demographic statistics

Interactions on the Germanic frontier between citizens of different origins has produced an ethnicity without exact similarities to earlier Mediterranean peoples. Instead, these Hellenes as Romans call them are a mixture of various Mediterranean ethnicities, always including Roman, Greek, or both. Most Hellenes are descended from Phoenicians, Numidians, or Ægyptians and vary from light olive to dark olive in the color of their skin. They are the result of the melting pot of Roman civilization. Similarly, the Gallians are a mixture of Celts, Romans, and Hispanic Phoenicians, giving them an almost olive skin tone but light hair.

  • Ethnicities:
    • Roman: 42 million cives (~29.2%)
    • Hellene: 19 million cives (~13.2%)
    • Gallic: 16 million people (~11.1%)
    • Greek: 13 million cives (~9%)
    • Phoenician: 10 million people (~6.9%)
    • Ægyptian: 10 million cives (~6.9%)
    • Æthiopian: 10 million people (~6.9%)
    • Dacian: 6 million people (~4.2%)
    • Syrian: 5 million cives (~3.5%​)
    • Semitic: 4 million people (~2.8%)
    • Slaves: 5 million servi (~3.5%)
    • Other (Germanic, Mauri, Nubian, etc.): 4 million people (~2.8%)
  • Religions:
    • Roman Christianity: 129 million people (~89.6%), including 98 million cives
    • Traditional Polytheism: 7 million people (~4.9%)
    • Germanic Polytheism: 3 million people (~2.1%)
    • Judaism: 2 million people (~1.4%)
    • Druidic religion: 2 million people (~1.4%)
    • Islam: 1 million people (~0.7%)
  • Social classes:
    • Patrician: 48,000 cives
    • Equestrian Order: 4.2 million cives
    • Middle-class Plebeian: 43 million cives
    • Lower-class Plebeian: 51 million cives

Military statistics

  • male citizens fit for military service: 33 million cives
  • Total armed forces: 722,000 military personnel
  • Legion: 314,810 professional soldiers (~0.9% of available manpower)
    • Infantry: 192,000 legionaries
    • Officers: 2,400 centurions, 300 signiferii, 30 duces, 10 legati, 1 Generalissimus
    • Sagittarii: 48,000 archers
    • Ballistarii: 60,000 artillerymen
      • polytrahoi: 22,800 mobile semi-automatic artillery pieces
      • manuballista: 30,000 snipers
      • testuda: 14 armored land vehicles, all five pilots are specially-trained legionaries
      • additional: 7,200 support artillerymen
    • Kataphractoi: 12,000 heavy cavalry
    • Chirurgii: 2,400 field surgeons
  • Auxilia: 180,000 auxiliary soldiers (~0.5% of available manpower)
    • Comitana: 85,000 milites
    • Limitana: 95,000 milites
  • Classis: 280,000 crewmen and marines
  • Border fortificationsVallum Vistillum, Magnum Vallum Judaecum, Vallum Cimbrianum, and Vallum Tripolitanum.

Provinces

  • Italia: 18 million cives, plus 1.1 million servi
  • Sicilia: 2.1 million cives, plus 180,000 servi
  • Sardinia et Corsica: 1.7 million cives, plus 50,000 servi
  • Alpes Ulterior: 420,000 people
  • Alpes Maritimae: 870,000 people
  • Narbonensis: 3.3 million cives, plus 160,000 servi
  • Lugdunensis: 7.1 million people
  • Aquitania: 3.9 million people
  • Tarraconensis: 6.1 million people
  • Baetica: 2.6 million people
  • Lusitania: 2.4 million people
  • Belgica: 1.6 million people
  • Britannia: 4.1 million people
  • Caledonia: 1.9 million people
  • Hibernia: 1.3 million people
  • Raetia: 2.4 million people
  • Noricum: 2.7 million people
  • Pannonia: 1.6 million people (two provinces)
  • Dalmatia: 1.8 million people
  • Dacia: 4.6 million people
  • Moesia: 2.1 million people (two provinces)
  • Macedonia: 2.5 million cives, plus 80,000 servi
  • Epirus: 1.1 million cives, plus 30,000 servi
  • Achaia: 2.4 million cives, plus 140,000 servi
  • Thrace: 2.7 million people
  • Bithynia: 3.6 million people, including 350,000 servi
  • Asia: 2.4 million people
  • Lycia et Pamphylia: 1.6 million people
  • Galatia: 1.1 million people
  • Cilicia: 960,000 people
  • Cappadocia: 1.7 million people
  • Creta: 340,000 people
  • Melita: 220,000 cives, plus 15,000 servi
  • Cyprus: 680,000 people
  • Syria: 4.6 million people
  • Judaea: 1.4 million people
  • Arabia Petrae: 1.7 million people
  • Africa Proconsularis: 4.8 million people, including 940,000 servi
  • Mauretania: 960,000 people
  • Cyrenaica: 1.5 million people
  • Ægyptus: 11 million cives, plus 630,000 servi
  • Nubia: 2.1 million people
  • Æthiopia: 10 million people
  • Germania Inferior: 3.9 million cives, plus 740,000 servi
  • Germania Superior: 3.2 million cives, plus 230,000 servi
  • Gothica: 1.3 million cives, plus 170,000 servi
  • Cimbria: ~1,000 milites

Wealth

A measure of money that gives a good sense of the wealth of one society relative to another society is the price of wheat in the given currency, since this quantity can be used to estimate the average income of a society in terms of how easily its people can feed themselves on their incomes. In the year 800 CE, the GDP per capita in the Roman Empire was ~1,500 kg of wheat, where the average income for a citizen was four times that of a non-citizen.

  • 1 Denarius (Dn) = ~$17 US
  • 4 Sestertius (HS) = 1 Dn
  • 5 Ases (As) = 1 HS
  • 1 Aureus = 25 Dn
  • 1 Libralea = ~559 Dn
  • Price of gold: 1.7 Dn per gram
  • Gold content: 8.45 grams per aureus coin
  • Silver purity: 95.2% for a 4.12 gram denarius coin
  • (all currency equivalencies assume 1 Dn = USD17 and all monetary values in Dn are approximate)
  • GDP: 12,953,000,000 Dn (~$222 billion US)
  • GDP per capita: 90 Dn (~$1,529 US)
  • Government revenue: 1,393,000,000 Dn (~$23,681 million US)
    • Taxes: 828,000,000 Dn (~6.4% of GDP)
    • Public services: 34,000,000 Dn
    • Public land: 531,000,000 Dn (~4.1% of GDP)
  • Government expenditure: 1,444,563,400 Dn
    • Municipal transfers: 34,900,000 Dn, for cities with >80,000 people
    • Provincial transfers: 244,600,000 Dn
      • Hispania: 17 million Dn
      • Gallia: 24 million Dn
      • Magna Germania: 31 million Dn
      • Dacia et Illyria: 19 million Dn
      • Graecia: 29 million Dn
      • Asia: 21 million Dn
      • Ægyptus: 38 million Dn
      • Africa: 19 million Dn
      • Syria: 17 million Dn
      • Judaea et Arabia: 11 million Dn
    • Health care: 349,000,000 Dn
    • Grain dole: 68,000,000 Dn, as 1.5 billion kg of grain
    • Child subsidies: 255,000,000 Dn, at 15 Dn per natis civilis
    • Census: 1,770,000 Dn
      • Salaries: 970,000 Dn
      • Writing materials: 800,000 Dn
    • Tax collection: 11,400,000 Dn
    • Public academies: 17,000,000 Dn
    • Postal service: 4,600,000 Dn
    • Public transportation: 14,000,000 Dn
    • Public slaves: 1,700,000 Dn, spent in Rome
    • Bureaucracy: 12,680,000 Dn
      • Propraetorian profits: 11,700,000 Dn, from public land
      • Civil servant salaries: 4,980,000 Dn
    • Legion expenditure: 205,100,000 Dn
      • Legionary salaries: 70,080,000 Dn
      • Officer salaries: 12,720,000 Dn
      • Equestrian salaries: 26,400,000 Dn
      • Sagittarius salaries: 12,000,000 Dn
      • Artilleryman salaries: 45,600,000 Dn
      • Praetorian salaries: 8,000,000 Dn
      • Praemiae: 38,400,000 Dn
      • Legionary equipment: 6,900,000 Dn, including repairs
      • Testudae: 1,200,000 Dn, including maintenance
      • Artillery: 14,900,000 Dn, including maintenance
      • Support salaries: 8,100,000 Dn
      • Supply costs: 4,000,000 Dn
    • Naval expenditure: 101,800,000 Dn
    • Public works: 1,003,400 Dn, spent in Italy
    • Festivals: 24,000,000 Dn, spent in Italy
    • Embassies: 32,000,000 Dn
    • Other expenditure: 38,000,000 Dn (largely money lost due to corruption)
  • Treasury: 44,500,000 Dn (~$756,500,000 US)

Wealth by the numbers:

Average annual income, by profession for citizens

  • peasant farmer - 26 Dn, mostly non-monetary (non-citizens)
  • plebeian farmer - 78 Dn, partially non-monetary
  • unskilled laborer - 80 Dn
  • skilled craftsman - ~170 Dn
  • baker - ~210 Dn
  • armorer - ~340 Dn
  • town guard - 180 Dn
  • legionary - 365 Dn
  • praemia, for ending a term of military service as a legionary - 3000 Dn
  • sagittarius - 250 Dn
  • ballistarius - 760 Dn
  • praetorianus - 800 Dn
  • centurion - 2000 Dn, or 8000 Dn for a primus pilus
  • signiferius - 16,000 Dn
  • dux (commander of a legion) - 44,000 Dn
  • litterator (elementary school teacher) - 140 Dn per student
  • philosophy teacher - ~7700 Dn
  • rhetoric teacher - ~14,000 Dn
  • numerarius (accountant) - ~900 Dn
  • argentarius (banker) - ~1600 Dn
  • medicus (doctor) - ~2400 Dn
  • chirurgius (surgeon) - ~1900 Dn
  • latifundium, covering 350 acres (small) - ~25,000 Dn, before expenses

Average or local prices,

  • one amphora (26.2 L) of water - Free!
  • one modius (6.67 kg) of grain in Italia - 0.4 Dn
  • one modius of grain in Ægyptus - 0.15 Dn
  • a rough wool tunic - 1.15 Dn
  • a donkey - 55 Dn
  • a draught horse - 120 Dn
  • a war horse - 1400 Dn
  • a paper scroll - 0.05 Dn
  • a crucible steel gladius - 40 Dn

Diplomacy

  • Embassies: Kingdom of Venetia, Great Sarmatian Empire, Kingdom of Lombardy, Umayyad Caliphate, Fatimid Caliphate, Kingdom of Kiev, Khaganate of Khazaria, Somali region.
  • Enemies: Kingdom of the Danes, Kingdoms of the Geats, Kingdom of the Swedes.

Tang Chao

  • Capital: Chang'an
  • Population: 72 million people (19.5% of global population)
  • Total area: 3,740,000 km²
  • Population density: 19.2 inhb/km²
  • GDP: ~2,000,000,000 Dn
  • Military: ~320,000 professional soldiers
  • Head of government: Emperor Dao Zong

Tlahtocaque Maya

  • Capital: Teotihuacan
  • Population: 48 million people (13% of global population)
  • Total area: 2,690,000 km²
  • Population density: 17.8 inhb/km²
  • GDP: ~6,800,000,000 Dn
  • Head of government: Kuhul Ajaw J'awiil

Kingdom of Venetia

  • Capital: Venetia
  • Population: 2.8 million people
  • Total area: 401,400 km²
  • GDP: ~64,000,000 Dn
  • Available levies: ~170,000 men
  • Head of government: Emperator Bradis II

Great Sarmatian Empire

  • Capital: Maghas
  • Population: 6.5 million people
  • Total area: 1,090,000 km²
  • GDP: ~195,000,000 Dn

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