Economy & Technology
- Across the Mediterranean, wood shortages create crises and rising prices, leading first to the shutting down of many public baths and a widespread change in diet toward vegetables and fruit (popularised also by Jainist peregrini), which do not require cooking, then to increased efforts in finding new coal deposits and new ways of extracting coal from deeper strata.
- Steel production improves and increases considerably in the Celtic and Roman Empires, in Sheba, Aksum, Eran and India. It spreads across South-East Asia, both in the Indianised and the Sui-controlled regions..
- Sui emperors impose the introduction of a textile industry after the Roman model based on water dams, mills with turbines and carding, spinning and weaving machines powered by them, against resistance from silk craftsmen.
- China does not face wood shortages like in Europe because it has secured vast forests in the North-East.
- Persian engineers discover and use electromagnetism.
- Roman, Persian, Aksumite, Indian and Chinese cities begin to grow beyond control. The respective governments try to regulate this process with different measures, from restrictive residential policies to reforms aiming at making rural life more bearable, but none of them really succeed.
- The invention of steel-enforced concrete facilitates the building of larger dams, taller buildings and deeper mine shafts.
- Eastern Europe (the land of the Potamian Koina and, to some extent, of Great Perm) turns from steppe and woodland to a carefully water- and nutrient-managed bread basket for the populous Mediterranean Empires.
Firearms are continually improved, with most innovations made in Roman military academies. Portable ones become lighter, faster and more precise, while cannons become larger, more powerful and better to maneuver.
They revolutionise warfare. Instead of skilled warriors, economic power (to either buy weapons or produce them themselves), skilled weapons engineers and labour in weapon manufactures as well as great numbers of soldiers now decide wars. Fortifications must be continually thickened and enhanced.
Philosophy / science
- In an Alemannic oil shale deposit some miles East of the Rhine, great numbers of diverse fossils are found by workers. A Celtic businessman hears of the discoveries and stretches them into tall tales, which are divulged by cheaper, popular Celtic newspapers. Albertus Drusus, a biologist from the University of Argentoratum, becomes curious and travels to the oil shale deposit. After years of excavations, preparations and studies, he develops a theory positing an unimaginably old age of planet Earth, during whose long history entirely different species must have lived.
- First primitive microscopes are built in India, then also in Iran, Sogdia and the Roman Republic. Alexandrian empirical natural philosophers discover the cellular structure of living organisms. Conflicting theories are developed concerning the underlying principle behind plant and animal life
- Codified and scripturalised Tengrism blossoms in the Uyghur Empire, which takes on the role of spiritual leader of the Turkic world.
- Buddhism and Bön still contend for supremacy in Tibet.
- Inspired by Masuna, a zealous and literalist theologian born in Mune but who had become synodal secretary at Capsa, orthodoxically Agonistic Berbers as well as Pulaar bridge the theological gaps between the West and East and conduct a crusade in the Sahel, where Malinké, Asante, Songhai, Agisymbians, Sao and some Hausa and Banza are practicing an Agonistic Christianity syncretised with sub-Saharan African theological and cultural traditions.
- After three decades of "crusades", many Sahelians rally behing Samaila, a Wangara priest and political leader from Djenné. Theologically, the dispute between Masunist Crusaders and Samailans is focussed on the dogmatic question where the righteous deceased dwell before Judgment Day and the coming of the New Jerusalem:
- the Masunist Simonists hold the view - shared by their Roman Apostolic, Nestorian, Celtic, Paulician and Aryan Christian brethren in Europe and the Middle East - that the deceased, whether saints or sinners, remain dead until awoken on Judgment Day. Although they do not condemn prayers to the saints directly (a very common practice among the non-Paulician Christians in the Roman Republic), they insist that any miracles ascribed to saints are in fact deeds of God or his Holy Spirit, the latter being conceived of as a pure part of the trinity.
- the Samailans, on the other hand, hold the view - shared by their non-Christian Southern neighbours like the Poro Society, the Edo, Yoruba, Igbo, Kwararafa, the non-Christian Hausa and Banza and others - that the spirits of the saints remain a real force, capable of perceiving the deeds of the living and interfering into their lives, before all humans would become corporally alive on Judgment Day. They see prayers to the saints as prayers to actually powerful entities. Samaila formulates the view that the souls of the deceased saints became merged in a communion with the Holy Spirit.
- After the military failure of the Masunist Crusades and the unification of the Gao Federation, Pulaar and Berbers are expelled from the Sahel, and the Mediterranean-influenced Imaziyen lose their influence over the Sahelian Christian communities.
Nations of Europe
- Roman Empire: Eight years of schooling become compulsory. Imperial and provincial aedils define binding curricula, comprising reading and writing, rhetoric, mathematics, natural sciences, Roman history, Roman constitution, Latin resp. Greek as a foreign language, preparative military training and physical education. Both Simonist anarchists and old upper class families oppose the new "mass schools", but lictores and drastic fines against uncooperative parents coerce many into compliance.
- More and more landless Romans settle in the city republics along the Borysthenes and the Tanais. They contribute to the rebellious and revolutionary potential of the (predominantly Slavic) peasantry, who demand a greater share of their increased agricultural output, and full and equal rights like their Roman neighbours.
- Celtic explorers discover Nova Hibernia (Newfoundland). Here and in Polaris, first contacts between Europeans and Northern American indigenous people occur. So far, Celtic (and generally European) interest remains marginal: the hunter-and-gatherer cultures here are not so different from those living on the Arctic Sea shore beyond Bjarmaland, and they have similarly little to offer.
- Former Kangar tribes along the Kama form the Pechenegs. They ride Southwards and attack the Magyars, who have begun to settle down and build towns.
- Great Perm helps the Magyars in fighting back the Pechenegs. The Magyars become a part of Great Perm.
- Rome increasingly includes Great Perm in its pontic policies and acts as an arbiter in territorial disputes between the Potamian Koina of the Borysthenes and Tanais and Great Perm, in order to unite both against threats from the East like the Pecheneg Empire. In 862, the Watershed Solution is defined and agreed upon in the Treaty of Nikopolis.
Nations of Asia
- As official state Mazdakism in Eran continues to become more and more moderate, and social inequalities return to Persian society, a new, radical branch develops (Rashnoism) develops. Excluded and politically marginalised by the new Mazdakist middle classes, waves of Rashnoists are compelled to emigrate.
- In their multiethnic empire along the Kama and Rha, the Pechenegs settle down among their Mari and Magyar subjects. Agriculture in the region improves greatly with modern irrigation, draininge and fertilisers. The empire builds a magnificent capital at Suvar. Pecheneg clan leaders own huge farms, too, where Mari and Magyars work as indentured servants. Rebellions begin. An attempted Westward expansion into the lands of the Antes and the Merya halts and is reversed after the Potamian Koinon of the Tanais and Great Perm form a military alliance for the first time and defeat the Pecheneg army, whose cavalry does not yet use any firearms and relies solely on archery.
- The Confederacy of the Six Oghuz loses its power and becomes a merely traditionalist association as the towns of the Silk Road, where people of Turkic, Sogdian, Chinese, Indian, Tibetan and other backgrounds are living together, all revert to independent, wealthy city republics.
- Kimeks and Kyrgyz are increasingly assimilating to modern civilization as it is transmitted along the Silk Road to their South. They provide wood and iron for Central Asia, and adopt modern agricultural techniques. The quickly growing capital of the Kimek Khaghanate is Imeka, while that of the Kyrgyz Khaganate is Kemidjkat. In their formative processes, the two khaghanates repeatedly go to war against each other.
- China: In search of wood, more fertile land, treasures of the soil and control over sea routes, Sui expands North-Eastward. Treaties are made with the Ainu; Chinese companies begin exploiting the islands of Kuyue (OTL Sakhalin) and Ezo (OTL Hokkaido).
- Also, Sui undertakes joint operations with the Uyghur Khaganate to subdue rebellious Mongol tribal federations (the Tatars, Oirats and Mongyol). After thirty years of wars, Sui has firmly established control over the Eastern woodlands of Mongolia, spanning the territory with roads and planned towns, while the Uyghurs have subdued the steppe tribes in all of Western Mongolia.
- China: To control the sea trade with India, Arabia, Europe and Africa, Sui expands its fleet and subjects the merchant fleet to the imperial navy. Sui occupies strategic parts of OTL Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. They have also occupied the the Ryukyu / Liuquiu islands and launch gunboat campaigns against pirates.
Nations of Africa
- Using firearms, orthodox Imaziyen and Pulaar conduct Masunist Crusades against the syncretic practices in Wagadu and Agisymba as well as among the Songhai, Asante, Sao, Hausa and Banza. The crusaders, financed through the control of gold mines, terrorise the Sahel with an Inquisiton.
After three decades of religious terror, a large underground resistance group rallies behind the Wangara theologian Samaila. They acquire Celtic firearms through Djolof. Their political and military centre becomes Gao, which is geographically well-protected against even the strongest Imaziyen artillery. In twelve years of war, centralised federal structures emerge, which unite communities from the Upper Senegal to the Chari. After the final retreat and capitulation of the Imaziyen crusaders at Timbuktu, orthodox Agonistics and Pulaar are expelled from the Gao realm.
- Fleeing Pulaar attack and overrun the Djolof Empire. Its ruling elite, which calls itself "Horon" (the free), seeks military assistance from the Celtic Empire, which is granted. The Celts send a naval detachment with cannons and hand-held guns and engineers which help with fortifications. In a series of very bloody battles, the Pulaar (OTL Fulbe / Fulani) are defeated, decimated and scattered.
- The Mossi in OTL Burkina Faso, who had never been proselytised by Imaziyen, join the Gao Federation, too.
- After Aksumite towns on the Nile were plundered by Maba, Aksum defeats and conquers them and adjacent tribes, expanding its Empire further South-Westwards. Having secured the White Nile, Aksum intensifies its contacts with the Great Lakes region, where agriculture develops quickly.
- Two attempts by the Kirinyaga Alliance to reconquer their ancestral lands fail. The Christian Church of Sheba establishes missions and schools among the Kirinyaga. The nascent social and political elites of Kirinyaga, who are based on wealth generated by owning modernly farmed land and controlling the trade of its produce, who transcend tribal boundaries and who absorb the culture of the developing Eurasian empires through Sabaean mediation, are increasingly divided into a Christianising, pro-Saba faction, which remains fixed on regaining their ancestral lands from Aksum, and a pro-inner-Africa faction, which stresses the necessity of finding a genuine way into modernity and seeks alliances with central African polities (causing, among other things, disputes and divisions within Kitara).
- Population along the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers increases, with fortified towns like Mapungubwe. Increased trade with various Indian, Persian, Swahili and Roman merchants speeds up processes of urbanisation and diversification which in OTL take many centuries.
- Rashoonist emigrants arrive on Madagascar and join the Mazdakist communes there. Here, their radical approaches fit in perfectly.
Nations of Atlantis
- Among the Inuit, Beothuk and Miqmaq, diseases, which Celtic explorers, tradesmen and monks carried with them and which were harmless for them, ravage and kill more than half of the indigenous population in the coastal regions. Pharmaceutically educated Celtic monks experiment with all sorts of roots and chemical substances and treatments, but cannot find any effective cures. The Beothuk believe that the diseases result from a disturbance of the natural balance brought about by the advent of the Celts, and rise in a rebellion against the settlers on Nova Hibernia. Weakened in number and lacking firearms, their rebellion fails. Only a small group is able to retreat and, using their knowledge of the grounds, to hide away from a punitive campaign, saving the Beothuk nation from complete extinction.
- Three Ostrogothic syndicates undertake successful exploring missions into the Atlantic Ocean. Each of them discovers small islands inhabited by Taino and other Arawak tribes. Ostrogothic colonies are established, who begin to trade with Europe and Africa. The sea route is still kept secret knowledge among each syndicate. Conflicts with the Taino are rare; often, they are employed as wage labourers or live off rent payments by particularly profitable Ostrogothic businesses. A first wave of epidemics hit the Taino late in the century, killing a quarter of them.
- From the Taino islands, Ostrogoths (and partly assimilated Taino) sailed farther to the West in search of the "real" Atlantis from European mythology (concluding from the wealth of gold among the Taino and their relatively primitive society on the other hand - the famous golden civilization had to be near!). In the stormy Caribbean, many ships sunk. Those who reached new shores found belligerent Carib tribes in OTL Venezuela and equally belligerent Maya city states, whose societies were more complex and open for new trading opportunities. Contacts were few and far between in the 9th century, though.