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|Reign of Amulius:|
771 BC - 700 BC
|Reign of Didius:|
699 BC - 600 BC
To the north of Latinum, the Italic tribe of the Umbri settled, ruling across the Appennine slopes of the Adriatic for centuries. They stretch between the Tiber and Nar rivers, creating dozens of small settlements in the area. The Latins viewed them as among the oldest in Italy, believed to have been called Ombrii (here, "the people of the thunderstorm," after ὅμβρος, "thunderstorm") by the Greeks because they survived the deluge (literally "the inundation of the lands by thunderstorms, imbribus), or the infamous Greek flood myths of old.
Most Umbrian settlements were founded on hilltops or slopes across this region to defend against attacks. During the Reign of Didius, the Latin king to the south, the Umbrians begin to venture down from the hills and settle along the fertile banks near the Latin-Umbrian border. Rural communities and sanctuaries appeared, in which sacrifices or bronze figures were offered to the Umbrian deites; Feronia, Valentia, Minerva Matusia, and Clitumnus. All these customs became documented in an Umbrian volume, known as the Iguvine Tablets, which became a popular handbook for such practices. These religious sites in the countryside were characteristic of a society dominated by agricultural and pastoral concerns, unlike the town life of Etruria.
The Latins eventually made contact with the Umbri, coming into contact with their system of government, ruled by two men who held the supreme magistracy of uhtur and were responsible for supervising rituals. The Umbri traded with the Greek and Etruscans, trading for foreign pottery, and other goods. The Umbrian city of Camars became one of the first Umbrian urban areas to form. Situated on a hill above the valley of the Clanis river near lake Clusium, the city could access the Tiber River through a series of drainage systems, which were navigable by boat. By traversing an old Etruscan road south, the city could also reach Alba Longa by land.
Other Umbrian cities included Assisi, an ancient Umbrian site on a spur of Mount Subasio. It is believed that the city was founded by Dardanus in 847 BC, after waves of immigrants arrived and settled between the upper Tiber valley and Adriatic Sea around the year 1000 BC.
With the border between the Etruscans and the Latins established and fortified, the Etruscans turned their attention to other parts of the peninsula. Settlers began to venture from the Etruscan region of the Po Valley, south toward Umbrian lands. Starting in the 600's BC several bands of Etruscans would cross the Appennine Mountains into Umbrian territory.
Profitable metals such as copper and iron were mined and traded in this region by the Etruscans, and would ultimately fund their conquest and assimilation of this area. The Etruscans would eventually become rulers over Camars, and other Umbrian cities, assimilating the native population and settling across the former Umbrian lands.
The Pelasgians (Greek: Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí; singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) were a group of people who the Greeks are descended. Used loosely by several ancient Greek writers, the term came to describe any and all peoples who existed before and fathered the Greeks. The Pelasgians were indigenous inhabitants of the Aegean Sea region, including Greece and parts of Italy, existing before the existence of the Greek language.
The Pelasgians wandered across ancient Greece, migrating from the Peloponnese to the region of Thessaly. It is believed that this group of Pelasgians from the region of Thessaly left their country, settling on the island of Sicily where they made battle with the native Sicels.