400s BCE

Continued Greek Expansion

The Greek states continued to expand and, by 350 BCE, half of Keltia was under Greek control. Greeks held complete control over Italy. Native and Greek peoples were identical. Overall, the states were no longer Greek, but were developing separate identities. Meanwhile, the Greek colonies in Spain were invaded and conquered by Carthage. The other Greeks did not fight against this as they had too many domestic issues.

Alexander's Rebellion

Alexander was a Greek living in Punic-occupied Spain. He declared himself king of New Macedonia (because he came from Macedonia) in 335 BC. Carthage did not take this lightly and sent their army across the Pillars of Hercules(OTL Gibraltar Strait) to keep this province from gaining independence. However, this ultimately failed, with a Greek alliance leading to Carthage losing its colonies in Italy and most of Spain to Greeks. Alexander conquered much of the peninsula by 330 BC. However, the Pillars of Hercules was unable to be crossed after several hundred triremes were destroyed by the Punic army. However, he died in 320 BC. Although Carthage came back from the south and claimed and conquered much land, Greek Spain had its independence assured.

Rise of the Maurya

In the 320s BCE, an empire rose in India. The Maurya Empire was powerful, so powerful that they declared war on Persia. This war was won by the Maurya and much of eastern Persia was conquered. This war convinced many in the ancient world that the Persians were not invincible.

Seleucus' Rebellion

A Greek prince living in the semi-Hellenized territory of Macedonia declared rebellion. Soon, Greece and Ionia were both in rebellion. The prince, named Seleucus Nicator, led the rebellion. However, former slaves declared support for the Persians. This is what kept the Greeks from winning the war.

200s BCE

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