Alternate History

300 BCE's (Athenian Legacy)

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398 BCE-392 BCE- First Syracusan War -Dionysius I of Syracuse, the Cruel Tyrant of the City, decides to take matters into his own hands. Supported by Kamarina and Akragas, Dionysius marches upon Himera, a recent member of the Delian League. The initial Syracusan attack is extremely successful, and brings a number of Athenian Colonies to their knees. The Pagondas Reforms are then fully implemented. Athens eventually recovers and defeats Syracuse and Thebes in a large number of major military conflicts, culminating in an Athenian victory that forces major Syracusan concessions. Conon and Pagondas are slain in the battles. The Samus League is formed across independent Greek, Cretan and Italian states to counter the growing Athenian power. 

392 BCE-380 BCE.

Battle of Allia in 390 BCE, Gallic tribes sack Rome but are then driven out by a Roman ex-consul, Marcus Furius Camilius.

388 BCE, Spartans prepare to publicly denounce Athens and destroy the democracy, but are delayed by slave dissent.

387 BCE, Persia aligns itself with the Spartan conspirators, who are on the verge of returning the old Monarchy to power.

385 BCE, Plato founds his academy a few miles north of Athens. Pharos is founded in modern day Croatia by Athenian colonists with funding of nearly ten million drachma by the Assembly. 

384 BCE A Pro-Samus Party led by a Spartan conspirator overthrows the Theban rulers and installs a Pro-Spartan government in Thebes. The Athenian army then marches back into Thebes and restores the old government to the throne, foiling Spartan plans.  

381 BCE, Persia installs a puppet King in Cyprus. Athens makes its largest annual income in the history of its empire. Rome conquers Tusculum.

380 BCE, Spartan Conspirators gain the majority in Sparta, and begin to re-implement conservative policies. Civil strife in Egypt ends the reign of the 29th Dynasty.

379 BCE-370 BCE: On the fourth of March, the Athenian backed Spartan democracy is overthrown by the Spartan conspirators who place Agesilaus II, the half-brother of Agis II, on the throne of Sparta. Athens, infuriated by the act of defiance prepares to march on Sparta. The Samus League, however, announces its willingness to fight Athens in the scenario that Athens marches on Sparta. The Athenian Government, spearheaded by the victorious Hamener, is forced to back down under this threat of another Greek war, which Athens cannot afford with its lack of manpower reserve. The Samus League quickly becomes a force to be reckoned with, but its power dissolves during the Great Helot Revolt that ruins Sparta. Timotheus, the son of Conon the Great, becomes the leading statesman and Strategos in Athens, integrating other cultural and ethnic groups within Athenian borders.

In 374 BCE, Timotheus wages a series of short wars with neighboring states in the Pelleponesis. For the next four years, Timotheus leads Athens through its first "golden" era, though the situation begins to spiral out of control.

369 BCE-360 BCE- A series of conflicts in Thessaly and the North of Greece erupt, eventually dragging Athens to the verge of war.

369 B.C: After establishing his supremacy over the other claimants to the throne, the new King Alexander II of Macedon is pulled into a conflict in Thessaly. Alexander, the Tyrant of Thessaly, establishes a regime whose cruelty provokes King Alexander of Macedon to intervene on behalf of Alueadae of Larissa, a prominent "Lord" in Macedon. The King of Macedon successfully occupies Larissa in support of Aluedae, but breaks his word and garrisons the area to begin an integration process. This action prompts an Athenian emissary led by Thimotheus and his son, Helmetrus, to negotiate with Alexander II. The King of Macedon is forced to withdraw from Thesally under threat of Athenian intervention. Under the counsel of his advisors, Alexander hands over a series of hostages as part of an alliance pact- including the future king, Philip.

In 368 BCE, Tyrant Alexander continues his abuses in Thessaly, and the people of the region again cry out. Thimoteus rides back north with a new emissary, but is imprisoned by the Tyrant. The Athenian Assembly then votes for revenge, and Helmetrus is sent north to confront the Tyrant with a fresh army. Himetrus engages the Tyrant later that year at the Battle of Ctemenae , where he is victorious.

367 BCE:: Dionysus I of Syracuse, the unpopular ruler of Syracuse, dies at the age of 63 and is then succeeded by his son, Dionysus II. Dionysus, is a weak and feeble, allowing his uncle, Dion, to truly ascend to power.

366 BCE: Timotheus persuades the Assembly to begin the construction of a new city on the island of Kos, named Kos itself. Also, in Sicily, Dionysus becomes aware of the plot and attempts to banish Dion and his teacher, Plato, though a large group of supporters overwhelm the Tyrant. Dionysus himself is banished from Syracuse and Dion is proclaimed the Tyrant.

364 BCE: Phillip II of Macedon is returned from Athens to Northern Greece after being held held hostage for five years. Trouble in the North continues, as a series of aggressive actions against Athens by the Thracian King, Kotys I, brings Thrace and Athens to war. Timotheus, who is battling an endless war against rebellious cities in the east, allows his son, Helmetrus to march North. Helmetrus successfully defeats Kotys, and secures Athenian dominance in former Thracian areas as well as bringing in Thracian controlled Crimean territories as colonies.

361 BCE- Continued resentment between the former allies of Corinth and Athens eventually reaches its pinnacle when the Corinthian government declines any Athenian influence with its state, eventually resulting in the Corinthian invasion of the Isthmus of Corinth, initiating the Third Peloponnesian War. Amidst the invasion of Attica, Helmetrus is given total command of the armies of Athens. 

360 BCE- The Third Peloponnesian War continues to rage, but the Athenian armies manage to thrust back the invaders in a series of pitched battles. In Rome, Gaulic tribes arrive near the capital once more, but are thrust back and unable to re-sack the city. In Egypt, with help by a large Athenian envoy, Teos, the King of Egypt is ousted by Nectanbeo II, who would become the last Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty. 

359 BCE-350 BCE

359 BCE- Athens defeats the Peloponnesian League with help from the city-state of Elis, and annexes the peninsula---Elis becomes a client state of Athens. Invading Illyrian armies in Macedon assist in the death of the Macedonian King, who is followed by his young son, Amyntas IV of Macedon. Phillip of Macedon, the previously held hostage Macedonian, is declared Regent and desperately convinces the Athenians to intervene. By seceding Amphipolis to Athens, the Macedonian Kingdom is re-stabilized and the invaders are thrust back. Following his political victory, Phillip is declared king over his nephew, Amyntas. 

358 BCE- The remains of Northern Thrace (not under Athenian control), is inherited by King Cersobleptes. To the west, to counter the invading tribes, Phillip marches into Paeonia and assumes Macedonian control up to Lake Ohrid. Helmetrus's title of "First General", expires and is renewed by his supporters. In fear of increasing power by the rising family, Helmetrus inherits a group of rich opposition leaders, who are envious of the Strategos. Rome defeats the Volsci tribe and annex their territory.

357 BCE- The new Thracian King attempts an invasion of Athenian territory in the South of Thrace as well as in Thracian Chesonese. Timotheus and Helmetrus are dispatched to deal with the invasion, but by the time they arrive, Cersobleptes as already secured the peninsula. Despite under orders from the Assembly and Archon to return home and resupply, Helmetrus rallies forth and defeats Cersobleptes at the Battle of Sestus. Phillip II illegally occupies the Athenian city of Amphipolis, along with its gold mines. In response, the Athenian Navy moves to strike the Macedonians. 

356 BCE- War erupts across Greece and Persia as a result of Macedonian aggression and the quickly decaying political systems of the world. Chaos erupts in the Persian Empire, with several Satrap's rebelling against the King. The most prominent Satrap, Artabzos, defeats his Persian nemesis twice, throwing the Empire deeper into confusion. Phillip offers the Athenians a territorial deal, which the Athenians reject. The Macedonian army attempts to invade Athenian Thesally, but the Greek fleet destroys Phillip's armada and prevents any significant advances. 

355 BCE- Phillip withdraws from Thesally, and adopts a defensive stance against his enemies, no major engagements occur.

354 BCE- Timotheus dies of a lung infection, and a period of mourning is declared across Athens. In the absence of Athenian military motions, Phillip leaves his position and marches on the Athenian city of Methoni, which he burns to the ground as a message. This aggressive action throws the Athenian people at Helmetrus's feet, along with many of his supporters. Timotheus's backers also join Helmetrus, which ignites fears amongst the Assembly of a possible heredity succession. Helmetrus's enemies move against him, and attempts to assassinate him near his home outside of the city. The conspiracy is revealed as the plan is carried out, and Helmetrus is warned just in time. He kills one of the conspirators as they advance on him, before he forces their surrender by a contingency of Athenian guards. Helmetrus returns to the assembly, where the Athenian people grant him special administrating powers. The General elects a hike in taxes to support his war against Phillip.

353 BCE- Phoenicians move south against Athenian Thessaly, giving Phillip time to advance again. Helmetrus begins his march north with the Athenian army though the mountains with the full force of the empire.

352 BCE- Athens allies itself with the Phoenicians in a move against Macedonia, and engages Phillip in the bloodiest battle in Ancient Greek history, Volo. Helmetrus's greatest victory ends the war against Macedon, and forces Phillip to make personal secesions to Athens.

351 BCE- Athens passes a series of legislation, increasing funding towards defensive projects. The Athenian Treasury reaches its largest quantity in the last 30 years, two million drachma. Rome defeats the Etruscans are defeated by a Consular Roman army, and are forced to make peace. The revolts in Persia spread to Cyprus and Phoenicia.

350 BCE- King Arybbas of Epirus, defeats his cousin Alexander, who had previously received support from Phillip. Halicarnassus is finally completed.

349 BCE- The Rebellious city of Sion is besieged by Persian forces.

348 BCE- Sidon is taken after months of siege, and the Persian forces brutally sack the city. Rome and Carthage construct a trade and political agreement, ending aggression between Latin States and Phoenician colonies.

347 BCE- Macedon explodes into civil war and strife. Despite Phillips popularity in Macedon (for his previous victories against Athens), Amyntas IV, the rightful king of Macedon, rallies against his uncle who had stolen his throne. Now 18 years of age, Amyntas moves against his uncle with an army of 15,000. Phillip, who is fighting a series of wars in the north, is forced to retreat south to secure his throne.

346 BCE- Athenian politician and general, Eurphanes, defeats a series of barbarian incursions from the North West, as a result he is also proclaimed First General. Eurphanes is granted command of the Athenian expeditionary forces, and sails to Syracuse in response to a civil war in the nation between the current Tyrant, Sion (Dion's son), and the ex-king Dionysus II. As the war begins spilling into Athenian territory, Eurphanes seizes the moment and invades, defeating Dionysus three times before returning to Syracuse. Sion welcomes him into the city as a Syracusan hero, but instead, the Athenian turns his armed forces against Syracuse and sacks the city. Sion is killed in the massacre and the Athenian army tramples over much of the city. As a result, the Second Syracusan War comes to an end, and Syracuse and its territory is formely annexed to Athens. Eurphanes is recalled home as a victor and is bestowed a large drachma sum by Helmetrus. The Macedonian hostage to Athens, Alexander, begins to show prominence, and is adopted by Helmetrus himself.

345 BCE- Helmetrus becomes increasingly attached to Alexander, and legally makes Alexander's relationship to Phillip 'void'. When word reaches Phillip of the act, he quickly moves to siege an Athenian City, garrisoned by Amyntas's armies. He slaughters the small garrison and burns the city to the ground, sending its governorships head to Helmetrus.

344 BCE- Helmetrus and Eurphanes initiate a political alliance, and both agree to a renewed war against Macedon. Helmetrus's opposition, however, shoot down the appeal in the Assembly by bribing the people with three gold drachmas each. Phillip, pleased with the action, marches his army to directly confront Amyntas, who has assumed command of his army. Phillip seizes Europos while attempting to engage Amyntas, who simultaneously captures the city of Edessa.

343 BCE- The Persian King, Artaxerex III, invades Egypt at the head of a massive Persian army. The war is quick and decisive, and the 30th Dynasty of Egypt collapses. The entirety of Egypt is reduced to a client state and satrapy of the quickly growing Persian Empire. Phillip suffers extreme casualties in the early winter, halting all campaigns for the following year.

342 BCE- Amyntas seeks Phillip's weakening army throughout the early spring, finally engaging him 20 miles from Edessa. Phillip's army is decimated, and the King himself is captured within the fighting. As a result, Phillip is executed and Amyntas is promptly crowned the sole ruler of Macedon. He then demands Alexander's return as tribute, and execution to eliminate resistance. Helmetrus refuses without hesitation.

The war between Rome and the Samnites escalates, until finally the two opposing forces meet at the Battle of Mount Gaurus

341 BCE- Amyntas secures his power by warring in Thrace, soundly defeating and annexing all of Thrace, including several Athenian cities which he considers, "payback" for Helmetrus's refusal. Athens rallies a Grand alliance of the remaining independent states to crush Amyntas. Initially, the Athenian people are critical of the decision, and the opposition, led by the Archon, turns the proposal away for a second time. Helmetrus is forced to wait for the correct moment to appease the people, which occurs when the Macedonian army marches through Kisos, violating Athenian territory. In reaction, the Assembly unanimously votes for war. 

340 BCE- The Macedonian War begins. 

338 BCE- The Eunuch, Bagoas assassinates the Persian King and all of his elder sons, and replaces him with the youngest heir, Arses, who becomes a mere puppet for Bagoas.

337 BCE- Arsus attempts to free himself from Bagoas's rule, but is murdered by the eunuch's assassins, who attempt to install a new king, Codomannus as Darius III of Persia. Darius separates himself from Bagoas, who responds by assassinating Darius. With the throne empty, and Bagoas determined to sustain control, he appointed himself as temporary King of Persia, becoming the Regent until a proper heir could be found.

335 BCE- The Macedonian War concludes, resulting the total defeat of Macedonian Forces at the hands of the new Athenian Kingdom, whose victory had greatly reduced its war capacity. Cales is taken by Roman Forces, with a new colony established at the site.

334 BCE- With much of the Persian Empire in rebellion, and Bagoas, unable to find a stable heir, the Eunuch declares himself the legitimate King of Persia and appoints his nephew, Charecemous, as heir to the throne. Bagoas, coronated as Artaxerxes V, King of Persia, moves to secure his empire by centralizing his authority. Alexander passes the Πολεμιστές όλων των ανδρών, establishing Greeks, rather then Athenians exclusively, as prominent members of the nation. With these new proclamations, the Kingdom of Athens swells its manpower to pre-war levels, and prepares itself to a series of expeditions.

333 BCE- Artaxerxes, moves south to Egypt, in an attempt to pacify a local rebellion by the Egyptian Satrapy, which Alexander interprets as an opportunity to strike against his eastern enemies, and prepares a proper invasion of Egypt. Alexander's Invasion of Egypt, begins in July of 333 BCE, with 40,000 Athenians under his command. The Alexander's Invasion of Egypt (also known as the Egyptian Rebellion) begins with the Battle of the Nile.

332 BCE- The war concludes, and Alexander is married to Takelot's first daughter, Atramedes, securing the alliance between Egypt and Greece.

331 BCE- The Persians pay Alexander the total sum of the treasury of its new Northern Cities, the capital of which he names Alexandria and pours 200,000 drachma into its continued expansion. The expansionist policy of the Persian Empire ends, and Artaxerxes begins to solidfy his authority at home. The Battle of Pandosia occurs in Italy between the Latin States while Rome, though outside the war, begins to assert its power over central Italy.

330 BCE- New Laws open naturalization to all Greek and Egyptian Citizens, and taxes are levied on a new scale, expanding the wealth and trade of the new Kingdom. First shipments of grain arrive from Egypt, and the price of the commodity plummits, opening cheap food across the Athenian Dominions. Alexander begins to issue fortification editcs, the first of which is positioned along the Sinai to protect against possible Persian incursions. Construction will continue for the following three years.

Vitruvius Vaccus leads a failed rebellion against Rome, decisively defeated by the Roman Consuls of the year.

329 BCE- Atramedes bears her first son, Prince Alexander of Memphis, born of Athenian, Macedonian, and Egyptian blood.

328 BCE- Alexander levies new taxes on the Aegean Islands, bringing total income to 200,000 drachma a year.

327 BCE-  The Samnite Army marches and seizes Neapolis. The Romans, however, take this opportunity to siege the city, and force the Samnites to withdraw, snatching Neapolis from the hands of the Samnite Forces.

The Sinai Wall is completed, and at the time, is the largest defensive fortification center in the world.

326 BCE- The Samnites declare war on Rome in response to the seizure of Neapolis, igniting the Second Samnite War.

325 BCE- Artaxerxes V dies, and is replaced by his nephew, Darius IV, a General in the Persian Armies. Darius asserts his authority by launching a series of campaigns into Scythian territory, scoring numerous victories and earning a comfirmed popularity by the people.

324 BCE- Four Athenian statesmen, Helmrex, Windrethes, and Arimines, are convicted by Alexander's magistrates of misusing 30,000 drachma of state funds. All four politicians are put to death, but after the conclusion of the sentence, evidence is released that the magistrates had bribed the local heliasts to order the sentence, despite the lack of sufficient evidence. The Senior Magistrates, corrupted by opponents of the statesmen, flee Athens to the Kingdom of Epirus, a client state of Athens. The King of Eprius accepts Alexanders demand to extradite them, and when they are captured, it appears nearly half of Alexander's appointed magistrates were corrupted. Alexander's administration ablities are put into question, and nearly 60 officials are dismissed.

323 BCE- Greek Philosophers, most notably Aristotle, call together an intellectual council in Athens. Supported and funded by Athens, prominent new thinkers, such as Eristes, come to such conclusions on the relationship between state and the gods as written in the statement "Ο Θεός δεν κανόνα υψηλό, κάνουμε κανόνα χαμηλή. Θα αποφανθεί ως μία."

322 BCE- Alexander adopts the favorable conclusions devoloped at the intellectual council as guidelines for administrative and religious rule in an attempt to repair the broken reputation he suffered two years prior.

321 BCE- The Roman Army, while enjoying a string of victories, is trapped in a narrow mountain pass on the way to Samnium. The Army is attacked, and forced to make terms favorable to the Samnite nations.

320 BCE- The former city of Sparta, becomes the starting point of Alexander's new road system, called the Peloponnese Way, circumnavigating the peninsula, in an effort to promote trade and create a faster trading link between the south and Athens. The entire process requries 900,000 ducats, and begins a long decade production process that nearly bankrupts Athens.

319 BCE- The Athenian Diplomat, Demades, travels into Eprius in search of a possibile loan to aid the massive infrastructure effort that Alexander had ignited. The King of Eprius is unable to proivde more then 50,000 ducats, and Demades returns home to Athens, advocating a halt of the construction system. Alexander refuses, and the treasury of Athens continues to dwindle.

318 BCE- Athenian General, Antiperon, is assassinated by Athenian Patricians. Alexander appoints Relistin, as Antiperon's successor, while seeking the conspirators.

317 BCE- Alexander, while seeking the identification of Antiperon murderers, is assaulted and killed by Relistin, who reveals himself as the center conspirator in his attempt to return a degree of authority to the families while ending the absolutism of Alexander. Relistin proceeds to declare himself King of Athens, as Relistin I of Athens. Prince Alexander of Memphis declares himself King Alexander II, and appoints Demades as his regent, intending to march upon Relistin and his Athenian allies.

Forging an Empire

Reign of Alexander II 

(317 BCE - 300 BCE)

Alexander II

In the immediate aftermath of Relistin's proclamation, Alexander was faced with treasury depletion and a questionable Army. Takelot, grandfather of the King, advocated that Alexander gather his forces and conduct an immediate invasion of Hellas, before Relistin could rally his own armies. But Alexander, barely thirteen years of age, was incapable of making such a decision - as was Demades, whom lacked proper military experince. Relistin, in addition, commanded the bulk of the Athenian Fleet - and thus a invasion attempt of Greece would most likely conclude with the destruction of the transporting navy. After holding a convention of military commanders,

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