The Gregorian alphabet is developed and used for ecclesiastical communication in Iberia and Lasika.
Roman Empire (Imaziyen): More Gaetuli-tribe-controlled oases converted by Agonistic Christian missionaries have successfully requested admission into the Roman Republic. This year, the Conventum ratifies the admission of the civitates of Audagustum (OTL Aoudaghost) and Ivadalvane (OTL Ouadane).
Roman Empire: The Civitas Crobitium in Moesia joins the list of members of the Roman Republic, its territory neighbouring the existing civitates of Dionysopolis and Odessus in the East, Marcianopolis in the South, Nicopolis ad Istrum in the West and bordering on domains held by the federal Exercitus Istricus in the North is included in the federal map of the Republic.
Gaul (Britain): Picts cross Hadrian's Wall and plunder Northern Britain, including Eboriacum. Unable to confront them with his insufficient infantry and cavalry, Allectus submits to Tetricus II. Tetricus spares his life and begins the mobilisation.
Gaul: While the Gallo-Roman troops are pushing back the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in Britannia, the praeses provinciae in Baetica, Alcibiadus, leads the opposition of the relatively wealthy and safe South of the Gallo-Roman Empire against economically damaging over-taxation to finance the endless wars in the North. Alcibiadus is recognised as emperor in most parts of the Iberian peninsula as well as in parts of Gallia Narbonensis.
Sassanid Empire / India / Tamilakam: Many Brahmins have fled from Sindhu-Shakastan as well as from Southern India, where the Kalabhras pursue anti-Brahmin policies. Most of these Brahmins gather in Central India, many of them in the Vakataka Empire, where Pravarasena acts as protector of various orthodox Hindu cults and their supporters. In this year, Pravarasena leads an attack on Sassanid positions. Shahanshah Narseh I. replies with a punitive campaign which devastates Vatsagulma and weakens the Vakataka Kingdom. slowing down its dissemination of orthodox religious and socioeconomic concepts towards Southern Central India.
Gaul: Tetricus II. is forced to abandon a punitive campaign against the Picts in order to deal with the insurgence in Hispania and Gallia Narbonensis. Because he needs every soldier he can get hold of, he continues Carausius' policy vis-a-vis the Salian Franks.
Roman Empire: The collegium magistrorum in Alexandria has bought a large building in which many of its members now offer their courses (instead of scattered around town in different collegial buildings and elsewhere).
Gaul: Tetricus II. gains the upper hand over Alcibiadus and his rebels. Alcibiadus appeals to the Roman Consuls for assistance. But the MCM is unwilling to drag the Republic into a war against the Gallo-Roman Empire. Thus, Tetricus defeats Alcibiadus and restores (at least superificial) control over the Hispanian peninsula and Gallia Narbonensis. Salian Frankish and Alemannic soldiers are awarded with the land of Alcibiadus' closest supporters, mostly in Lusitania and Baetica, where they quickly assimilate.
Sassanid Empire: Persian scholars who came into contact with the Confucian philosophy in China establish the first faculty of political philosophy at the University of Taxila in the Sassanid satrapy of Gandhara.
Tamilakam: A Kalabhra attack on Muchiri fails, partly due to the assistance provided to the Chera defenders by several Sassanid and Roman ships and their military crew, who had accompanied merchant ships, who bought pepper for the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean markets.
Tamilakam: The Sassanid admiral negotiates a pact of military assistance with the Chera court at Muchiri, who only control the land a dozen miles around the port town. In exchange, Sassanid ships would not have to pay staple tolls.
Alemannia: Using weaponry produced in the Roman Republic, Ursicinus, petty king of the Bucobantes, subdues the Burgundians, who live on the upper Moenus. Some of them submit and become indentured servants on Ursicinus' new estates on the upper Moenus, whose fortification with new castles they must build, too, while others flee into and across the Hercynian forest. The Bucobantes become the most powerful gau kings in Alemannia.
Roman Empire: Mostly Germanic-speaking civitates in Western Dacia find agreements with their linguistic brethren outside the Empire - Gepids and other smaller Eastern Germanic tribes, who all seek to maintain their independence against the hegemony of the Gothic Empire. Without any political license from Rome or Alexandria, the civitates of Mariburgum and Crisiburgum decide to expand and include the dwellings of aforementioned tribes outside the Republic's territory, too.
Burgundians and Langobards come into conflict over the control of what in OTL is the Czech Republic.
The Meroitic Empire begins to fall apart as Blemmyes and Nobatians repeatedly go to war against each other in the North and the former also attack Roman Egyptian civitates like Talmis. Talmis and its Roman Egyptian neighbours (Swenett) send troops, and the Communio Sanctorum begins its infiltration-and-assassination strategy among the Nobatians and Blemmyes.
Roman Empire: The Consuls Constantinus and Galerius retroactively legalise the expansion of the civitates of Mariburgum and Crisiburgum.
Sheba / Persia: After Sheba has conquered the entire southern half of the Arabian peninsula, conflicts with the Sassanid empire over who controls the Strait of Hormuz erupt. Beginning of the first Sabaean-Persian war.
Sheba / Persia: The first Sabaean-Persian war ends with the Sassanids defeated, having been unable to use their superior ground forces, losing several naval battles. Although the treaty asserts Sabaean control over the Strait of Hormuz and imposes limits on the Persian navy, shah Narseh I starts a secret naval build-up.
Gaul: Caesar Tetricus II. dies. He is succeeded by Boudiccus.
Roman Empire: Among the Jewish population (most of whom live in the Roman Empire now), a deep doctrinal schism between different Amoraim schools develops, centered around the Jubilee and the prohibition of interest. Among Hellenised Jews living in Africa, Asia Minor and other centres of quick economic development, Jewish mutual insurance societies have developed. They also issue loans without interest, which are labelled as insurances, While groups close to the Temple of Jerusalem maintain that for these loans, this year's Jubilee applies, too, diaspora groups refute this interpretation. They, on the other hand, insist that the Halakha outlaws all interest on loans, even on those given to non-Jews, which is rejected by the Temple groups, on the other hand.
Persia: The windmill is invented in Northern Eran. In less than ten years, the innovation will have spread across the Empire to India and Mesopotamia, facilitating grain procession.
Lasika: St. Gregor dies. He leaves a strong and well-structured church, whose Iberian, Lasikan (and one Lezgian) bishops and abbots elect Aristakes, Gregor's son, as their new Patriarch. Lasika and Iberia are Christianised to more than 50%, and Gregorian Christian groups begin to succeed in converting the population of the Northern slopes of the Caucasus, too. They also start proselytising in Armenia, where Sassanid persecution has stopped.
Roman Empire / Imaziyen: Nasamones from Ammonium (Siwa Oasis) attack Garama.
Roman Empire: The (neoplatonic) Akademia of Alexandria joins the collegium magistrorum, which has acquired more buildings across town and improved its main building into a spectacularly ornated temple of education.
The Imaziyen of Garama, supported by a large number of voluntaries, all on war chariots or camel-back and fitted with good Roman weaponry, from other Agonistic communities, strikes back against the Nasamones. They conquer Ammonium, free the slaves, kill many of their former owners in fights in which many Agonstici also find their highly esteemed martyrdom, and begin to arrange the build-up of social structures similar to those found elsewhere among the Berbers / Libyans who adhere to the Communio Sanctorum.
Roman Empire / Bosporan Kingdom: A large group of Jews who dissent with the Temple interpretation on Jubilees and interest emigrates from Temple-oriented communities in the Eastern Mediterranean to other places, especially to the Roman civitates on the Northern pontic border (Olbia, Tyros) and to the Bosporan Kingdom, where they are very welcome as skilled defenders of the small kingdom against the Gothic threat.
Roman Empire / Imaziyen: The Conventum Romanum, following the advice of the Consuls, rejects the admission of a "civitas Ammonium" into the Roman Republic. They doubt the free will of the Nasamones to join the Republic. (In truth, many middle-class delegates from Italian, Dalmatian or Greek parts of the Republic begin to fear the growth of power of the Communio Sanctorum, whose civitates send delegates who exclusively join the most radically egalitarian faction of the Sociales (and who might start a new faction of their own every day now) and whose members are accused of common thefts and burglaries in the wealthy civitates of Carthage, Oea, Leptis Magna, Cirte, Cyrene, Tingis and Volubilis. In Carthage, the members of the self-proclaimed "communion of the saints" are nicknamed "circumcelliones" because they walk around larders (circum cella euntes).
The Imaziyen ignore this decision in their practical policies, into which they include the Ammonite Libyans fully.
Sassanid India: Sindhu-Shakastan finally appears to be under control. The province yields incredible amounts of taxes for the shahanshah, whose power now reaches across OTL Sindh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madya Pradesh, too. In this context, the lack of any tax money from the Tarim Basin oases goes almost unnoticed.
The three-field crop rotation and improved plows have become standard across Europe. After grain prices had initially dropped, increasing population levels have restored the balance.
Relatively stable trade relations between the Alemanni and Gaul as well as the Roman Republic have grown; the Alemanni sell grain and furs and buy wine and glass. The first urban culture in the Germanic speaking world begins to evolve in the Rhine valley close to the border with Gaul and along Hilara and Danube, close to the border with the Roman Republic. Syncretic religious practices and increasing Latin influences in Common Alemannic can be either explained by an integration of provincial Romans into the developing Alemannic society, or by the influence of economic exchange with the two empires.
Gaul: Caesar Boudiccus dies. He is succeeded by Sapientius. Seeking to foster a common identity and to redefine the empire as not being a mere breakaway from Rome, Sapientius mints new coins showing his face on one side, and the Celtic triskele on the other, together with the words "Imperium Galliarum" - no longer: "Imperium Romanum Galliarum". He also begins the construction of new temples in Lugdunum destined for the veneration of Belenus, Lugus and other Celtic deities, and creates a modification of the Roman calendar (the "Celtic calendar", circled around Celtic festivities). Sapientius' strengthening of a Celtic state cult is also aimed against the growing Christian minority, which he sees as a threat to imperial stability.
Roman spies in the cities along the Silk Road in the Sassanid Empire's Sogdian satrapy report unprecedented masses of nomads pouring into Sogdia and moving Westward, effacing Sassanid control over the region.
Roman Empire: For the first time, an arch-gravity dam is built not only for irrigation, but also in combination with two large watermills in Leptis Magna (Cyrene).
Many peregrini from among the Garamants work in this large project. Among the workers, they come into contact with Simonist Christianity.
Persia: Shah Narseh I dies. His young grandchild Shapur II inherits the throne. His custodians cannot agree on a military strategy for the defense of Sogdia that would find sufficient support from the empire's warlords, whose focus lies on India because the Silk Road has temporarily lost its relevance due to China's internal turmoils.
Imaziyen: The Agonistic strategy has worked once again. A conspiracy among converted Blemmyes kills King Tamal and overthrows the rule of his clan and entourage. Blemmyes and Imaziyen jointly attack Nobatia now from West and East.
Roman Empire: The Collegium Magistrorum at Alexandria has become a very powerful institution. By its own code, all the collegia which maintain academiae are collective members. After the Neoplatonist Akademia has moved into the collegium's main building, the latter has developed into the place specialising on higher education of all the sorts offered by the collegium - perhaps inspired by the Sassanid example in Gundishapur. No collegium wants to stand in the back row, thus you can study Philosophy, Medicine, Law, Architecture and Civil Engineering at Alexandria - besides the military training for high-ranking officers offered by the MCM´s academy. Alexandria has become the number one place for learning and studying in the entire Republic. Those teaching and learning in the main building of the collegium are named for the first time "universitas magistrorum et scholarum collegiorum Alexandrinorum" (in a Latin document; Alexandria's academy speaks Greek, of course).
Roman Empire: An attempted Langobardic invasion of Norican and Pannonian lands shatters at the Danube Limes.
The Nobatian capital of Para withstands an Imaziyen and Blemmye siege with help from the city of Meroe and the new Kingdoms of Makuria and Alodia. Here, Agonistic proselytisation does not fall on very fertile ground, either; a handful of Agonistic converts and conspirators are thrown across the city's walls by catapults, flung at their spiritual brethren, but with their heads already cut off. New Garamants, Blemmyes and others retreat for the moment.
Persia: Young Shah Shapur II decides to settle conflicts between the dehqan ("village lords"), urban guilds and the high aristocracy to a certain extent in favour of the former two (the latter having tutelaged him over the past years ...), while at the same time dealing with religious uncertainties caused by the rise of Manichaeism.
Inspired by the Roman model of the Comitia Civitatum, but also clearly delineating the Sassanid model against the democratic Roman one, Shapur II sets out to define the constituent units of the empire's satrapies. At the centre of each of these smallest political units is a Zoroastrian fire temple. Issues like the collection of taxes, the settling of (property and other) disputes and the upholding of public order are to be sorted out by dehqans in rural areas and town councils in urban environments; dehqans are to preside over rural assemblies, to provide census information and to announce imperial laws: town councils must do the same in the cities. Low-ranking local Zoroastrian priests (herbads) are to play important advisory and ceremonial roles in these political processes. The high aristocracy is only left with the governorship of satrapies and military command of the various segments of the Sassanid armed forces, while the high clergy (mobads) advises the satraps and the shahanshah and presides over cultic organisation, choosing herbads and overseeing theological education.
Tamil merchant guilds (nikamam), with members trained in armed and unarmed combat, revive trade with the hinterland and overland trade in Tamilakam. They travel in armed convoys through Kalabhra-controlled territory.
While Christianity becomes orthodox in Sheba, Aksum and Armenia, where it is a state religion, the plurality of Christian communities, confessions and practices in the Roman Republic and the Southern half of the Gallo-Roman Empire is virtually unlimited. The monepiscopal Latin and Greek Church is losing so much ground that it almost disintegrates; lively debates continue between Arianists, Trinitarians and Miaphysites, between groups who celebrate Easter on different days, and most of all between politically active and neutral and between socially integrated and monastic sects. Instead of large, representative churches, countless small places for common prayer and communion develop.
In its second decade of peace, the Gallo-Roman economy begins to recover, the de-urbanisation comes to a halt at least in Narbonensis, Tarraconensis, Lusitania and Baetica, and the Gallo-Roman navy consolidates its control over the Atlantic Ocean and North Sea, combatting piracy and preventing Germanic raids. Naval bases are established on several islands, including Abalus (OTL Heligoland).
Persia: Shapur II's communal reforms are implemented from the Euphrates to the Yamuna.
Persia / Sheba / Aksum: Shaipur II declares war against Sheba. The secret fleet planned by his grandfather defeats the Sabaean navy in several battles. Sheba asks its Christian neighbour (and long-time rival) Aksum for help. Aksum, fearing they would be next on Shaipur's list, allies with Sheba. Together, Aksum and Sheba manage to defeat the Persian navy.
Gaul / Alemannia: In a war between Bucobantes, Nicrenses and Brisgavii, several towns are laid waste. Their provincial Roman population calls the Gallo-Roman Empire, whose subjects they nominally still are, for help. Caesar Sapientius, who can spare troops, for his realms have enjoyed more than a decade of peace now, defeat the Alemanni in four important battles, restores imperial Gallo-Roman control over the towns in the Rhine valley, re-establishing castra there as well as along old roads, and adding more bridgeheads to the fortification of the Rhine. Alemannic control over the countryside is left untouched, though.
Sassanid Empire / India: The first Sassanid university in OTL India is founded in the booming port town of Barygaza, which has become a large city and a wealthy commercial centre, where Indian spices, cloth, cotton and medicinal plants are traded for wine, glass and petra oleum from Persia's heartland and Western provinces as well as from Roman Europe, and where the crafts blossom, Western and Indian techniques fertilising each other. The University of Barygaza is mostly necessary for the education of future civil servants - as such, it offers a unique opportunity for upward social mobility for the sons of Indians from different castes and joti and enhances the support for Sassanid rule. On the other hand, it also becomes a centre of Zoroastrianism in India, which begins to exert a perceptible influence on Indian religions.
Although the situation in Barygaza seems to be calm, tens of thousands of Barygazans belong to secret martial arts societies, who do not only provide self-defense, but also an alternative way of facilitating one's career within traditional Indian social structures like the shreni. Frequent Sassanid raids to enforce the ban on private weapons appear to be futile.
Roman Empire: After long debates, the Conventum Romanum accepts the admission of the civitas Blemmyorum into the Republic. The Blemmyes control a part of the economically vital Red Sea passage - the part between Roman-controlled Berenike Troglodytos and Rome´s ally, Aksum. Therefore, skepticism towards the Agonisti gaining too much power is overruled.
Roman Empire: The Greutungs have rebuilt a considerable empire. Having brought the Bosporans and their navy under their control, a fleet of Ostrogoth boatmen raids Sinope.
The Republic retorts by moving its navy from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea, hunting down the pirates and helping the Bosporans in regaining control over their cities. A punitive campaign in the steppe fails utterly, though. The Goths cannot be grasped, and the Republican troops must withdraw before the advent of winter.
The Consuls negotiate a closer co-operation with the Bosporan Kingdom and the Kingdom of Lasika, who both allow the Roman Republican navy to be stationed in their ports. But beyond the coastline, Rome is not yet able to stop the consolidation of the Greutungs' imperial power.
Iberia: Supported by King Mirian, Nino becomes the first woman to lead a Christian monastery.
Agonistic saboteurs set Meroe on fire. The city never recovers from its destruction, its power having already waned in favour of the successor kingdoms of Makuria, Alodia and Nobatia.
Sassanid Empire / Arabia: The Abd al-Qais, an Arab tribe living in OTL Bahrain, crosses the Persian Gulf and plunders Persia.
Gaul: Caesar Sapientius, who has restabilised the Gallo-Roman Empire, dies. He is succeded by Indutiomarus.
Sassanid Empire / Arabia: Shapur's retaliation is not limited to the Abd al-Qais. Together with his Lakhmid allies, Shapur's armies penetrate deep into Arabia and persecute the (mainly Christian) Taghlib and Banu Bakr ibn Wa'il, too. The Taghlib appeal to their Christian brethren in Sheba and in the Roman civitates of Palmyra and Petra, who send support.
The war in Arabia thus threatens the peace between the Roman Republic and the Sassanid Empire. Consul Antonius Sicilius barely manages to contain the diplomatic damage. The republican leadership is angry but has no means to stop its Arabian cities from pursuing their own policies. Their exclusion from the Republic is discussed, but dismissed, since this would endanger Rome's economically extremely important control over the Maris Erythrae (Red Sea).
On the battlefield, the united Palmyran/Petraean, Sabaean, Taghlib and Banu Bakr troops are about to suffer a final defeat when news of the establishment of an independent Kidarite kingdom in the Sassanid satrapy of Bactria reaches Shapur II.
The Sassanids retreat from the Arabian Peninsula, leaving only a few garrisoned troops to control Bahrain, and ride to the Empire's Northern border.
The fortunate outcome of the military confrontation for the Christian Arab alliance - only the Abd al-Qais have been deported and enslaved in greater numbers, while the Taghlib only suffered minor losses - strengthens both Sheba's ascendancy to hegemony on the Arab Peninsula and the close ties between the Roman civitates dominated by Simonist Ghassanids and their fellow Christians in Arabia.
Aksum / Imaziyen / Alodia: The Alodian Queen Amanipilade calls to Aksum for help against Agonistic attacks from the West as well as from the Blemmyes. After discussions with Aksum's King Ezana, Amanipilade converts to the moderate miaphysitic type of Christianity which has become a state religion in Aksum, and so do many of her subjects in a great baptism before the joint military operation of Aksumites and Alodians against the Agonistic crusaders. The ensuing defeat of the Agonistici is ascribed to divine intervention in Alodian and Aksumite legends formed during the Christianisation of all of Alodia and its integration as a relatively autonomous sub-kingdom into Aksum, which transforms from a kingdom into an empire.
Sassanid Empire: Shapur II's first military campaign against the Xionite / Kidarite / Hephtalite / Huna nomads in Bactria ends inconclusively, with the nomads retreating far beyond the Oxus. (Three years later, they will have returned.)
Civitates like Athens, Pergamon and Rome, where academies and teachers are organised more within the professional collegia whose skills they teach and philosophical academies do not see themselves as close kins of these applied science academies, found (and generously fund) their own "universitates magistrorum et scholarum civitatis": public universities, which seek to emulate the Alexandrian model.
Roman Empire: Among Christians, the schism between Arianists and Trinitarians breaks out.
Roman Empire / Gothic Empire: After a Gothic raid on Olbia, two less pacifist Consuls mobilise several legions and march them against the Goths, who had already retreated to the steppe. The confrontation takes place much farther East than Rome had expected, and the heavily armed, inflexible Roman cavalry is soundly defeated by light Gothic riders, who had learned from the Sarmatians.
Rome's Dacian and lower Moesian cities must prepare to increase their defenses against the Greutungs. Colonists begin to retreat and move into safer regions West of the Carpathians as they see that their neighbours beyond the Republic's border become vassalised by the Greutungs.
Roman Empire: The Comitium Civitatis of Alexandria decides, at the eloquent suggestion of its collegium magistrorum, that every citizen must send their children to a litterator and have them learn how to read, write and calculate. A moderate, but still profitable price is fixed for tuition.
Roman Empire: In the long overdue conference on military challenges for the empire held at the Academia Collegii Militum, the twin challenges of a) defending the empire's North-Eastern flank against nomadic riders from the steppe and b) securing naval safety to maintain the important trade with India are discussed and weighed against each other. The feeble republic cannot yet master both challenges at once.
The proponents of the "Hun Thesis" argue with the Roman incapacity vis-a-vis Ostrogothic attacks and the fate of their Sassanid neighbour and call for a surge in diversified cavalry buildup and co-operation with Persia. The proponents of the "Naval Strategy" argue that the fortified limites will have to suffice and territories beyond the limites should be given up. Rome should rather build up and modernise its classis (navy) to be able to secure Roman-Indian trade, as they see the Sassanids more as an enemy, not a partner.
In the following years, the A.C.M., the military leadership and even Consuls and the Senate are deeply influenced by this heated debate - actual military policies reflect a bit of both approaches.
Gaul: Scotes attack and plunder Britannia's relatively unprotected West Coast. A large group of Scotes is defeated at Deva. Lacking the financial means, Indutiomarus must postpone new plans to create a Classis Maris Scotici (Irish Sea fleet). Towns, vici and villae in Western and North-Western Britannia must undertake the heavy costs of improving their walls and other fortifications. More conscripts must be drafted for Britannia Inferior.
Aksum: In the process of the integration of Alodia, the archbishop of Aksum becomes the Patriarch of Aksum, who in future times would be jointly appointed by the Emperor of Aksum and a synod of bishops from Aksum and Alodia.
Roman Empire: Rural co-operatives in the Padus valley have developed a new concept against the ponding of ever more formerly fertile arable land. Following their initiative, the civitates of Cremona and Placentia implement the necessary collective system of tile drainages and their registration as well as the establishment and enforcement of new agri compascui (protected forests). Over the next years, thousands of hectares of marshland are reconverted into arable land.
Tamilakam: The Kalabhra ruler Tiraiyan converts himself and his entourage to Buddhism. He invites monks from Gandhara into a monastery he builds near Urayur.
Roman Empire: The refurbishment of the Alexandria-Bubastis-Red Sea Canal, begun in 333, initiated and co-financed by the Egyptian civitates and supervised by the Republican Aedils, who have covered half of the costs, is finished. It is expected to double the trade volume with India, Persia, South Arabia and East Africa over the next decades.
Further maintenance is expected to be financed through toll payments. Ships sailing under the Roman flag pay a reduced rate. A small detachment of the classis is stationed in Bubastis to secure the safety of the passage.
Tamilakam: Tiraiyan guarantees the nikamams of Korkai, Kanchipuram, Muchiri, Cochin and Kanyakumari safe passage through the territory controlled by him.
Aksum / Makuria / Nobatia / Imaziyen / Blemmyes: Imaziyen and Blemmyes continue their "crusade" against Nobatia and have begun to include Makuria on their agenda, too. The Nobatian King Charamadoye and the Makurian King Shekanda accept the overlordship of Aksum's Emperor Mehadeyis in exchange for Aksumite protection against the Agonistic crusaders.
Hermundurians migrate Southwards into the lands left by the Burgundians and "Alemannise" themselves, copying the model of territorially delineated gaue with a ting and a king for each one.
The Bosporanian king Thohorses II strengthens the close alliance of his small beleaguered kingdom with the Roman civitates of Olbia and Tyras, where many Roman Jews live, by converting to Judaism.
Roman Empire / Aksum / Imaziyen / Blemmyes: The Roman Consuls repeatedly demand from their member civitates controlled by Agonistici to stop their involvement in the "crusade" against Rome's important ally, Aksum. They are not heeded by the crusaders.
Roman Empire / Aksum / Imaziyen / Blemmyes: Roman federal troops intervene in Nobatia and Makuria together with Aksumite troops against militia of their own Roman citizens, who still won't stop their "crusade" in the towns on the Nile.
Sassanid Empire: Another Xionite attack, this time reaching deep into the South. This time, Shapur II prepares a very comprehensive plan after having stopped the incursion. He leads a huge army, with Arab and Indian cavalries, into the battle, making sure that a huge provisioning corps guarantees the army's supplies at all times and even in very dry regions. His troops encircle the nomads, then he forces negotiations upon their leaders. Among the leadership of his troops, there are dozens of skilled military and political leaders in whom Shaipur trusts to take over the administration and defenses of Bactria and Sogdia.
Persia / Arabia / Sheba: With Sassanid troops bound in the North, Sheba conquers the Gulf Coast, together with a couple of Christian Arab allies.
Roman Empire: A group of 72 Agonistici-dominated civitates led by the Synode of the Communio Sanctorum in Theveste, most of them ethnically predominantly Berber / Libyan / Blemmyes, react to the slaughter of their own citizens committed by the federal Roman troops in Makuria and Nobatia with their secession from the Roman Republic. The Roman Consuls threaten them with war.
Roman Empire / Imaziyen: The War of Circumcellion Secession begins.
Gaul: Under Caesar Indutiomarus II., a strong, modern and well-manned system of fortifications and an enlarged Classis Gallica protects Britannia's Western and Eastern shore and Batavian settlements near the Channel.
Sassanid Empire: Shapur's second campaign against the nomads in the North becomes a great, but incredibly cruel success. His army secures the Oxus and a line from there Westward to the Caspian Sea first, then pushes hundreds of thousands of nomads into the Karakum Desert, where an unknown, large number dies. Some tens of thousands of riders manage to break through the Sassanid lines in the Balkani province near the Caspian Sea and flee onto steppe land controlled by the Alani.
Sassanid Empire: Shapur's armies lead tens of thousands of nomads, who give themselves in, into slavery. Now the fights are concentrating on the remaining pockets of Kidarite and Hepthalite resistance in Sogdia, where they will continue for another four years.
The influx of a great number of refugees destabilises the power structures of the Alani confederacy; a civil war ensues.
Roman Empire / Imaziyen: In the War of Circumcellion Secession, Garama and Theveste are burnt to the ground. Agonistic terrorists commit suicide attacks on the MCM in Alexandria and other key institutions of the Republic.
Sassanid Empire / India: Samudragupta I's troops cross the Yamuna.
Roman Empire / Imaziyen: In the War of Circumcellion Secession, Carthage and Utica suffer severe destruction.
In spite of limited Roman military aid, the Bosporanian Kingdom is once again defeated by the Gothic Empire; Thothorses II becomes a vassal of the Greutungs.
Out of the civil war in the lands of the Alani, an aggressive group emerges victorious. They call themselves Huns, or more specifically, Black Huns.
Roman Empire / Imaziyen: The War of Circumcellion Secession ends with the Peace of Syracuse. 53 former Roman civitates dominated by Agonistici, many of them in the Northern Sahara, but some also quite close to the Mediterranean Coast, form a separate state whose supreme body will become an assembly (Ljama'a) which is at the same time a Synode of the Communion of the Saints (the Agonistic theological council), located at Theveste. Rome withdraws its federal troops from these civitates. Both sides agree on a common border, which becomes the Roman Republic's new African border, considerably more Northernly than it was at 263. Some formerly Agonistic civitates were depopulated, among them also the tribe of the Blemmyes, in whose former lands a small military outpost (the Hydreuma Omichle) is erected to secure the Red Sea passage.
Following the conclusion of the treaty, the Agonistic faith is the first and only religious group which becomes outlawed by the Conventum Romanum.
Sassanid Empire: Shapur II. concludes his massive campaign to secure Balkania, Choresmia, Marginia, Bactria, and Sogdia. In negotiations, two Hephtalite tribes have joined his side and accepted Sassanid suzerainty; they will be allowed to herd in specific places, join the Sassanid cavalry, and participate in the administration of Bactrian and Sogdian cities. City walls and roads are to be rebuilt and improved over the next years. Shapur replaces many of the local satraps and city kings, who had proved incapable of defending their towns against the nomads, with leaders he trusted, and gave land and administrative functions to his most loyal followers from Arabia to India, creating a unique cultural blend in the Northern parts of the Sassanid Empire, while at the same time strengthening Sassanid control over this region considerably. No Iranian speaking nomads would ever threaten these lands and the Silk Road again.
Lasika / Iberia: The joint troops of Lasikans and Iberians manage to halt the advance of those Alani who had been defeated by the Huns and not joined them on their move Westward.
Nevertheless, rests of the Alani have managed to gain control over the more mountainous regions of the Northern Caucasus, becoming the overlords over several dozen tribes. These Alani will soon turn to sheep- and goat-herding, convert to Gregorian Christianity, become semi-sedentary and fortify their dwellings, which are no longer inhabited exclusively during winter times.
Roman Empire: Reports about Hunnic migration across the pontic steppe and into the Roman sphere of influence creates alarm in Rome and Alexandria. Troops are drafted and moved across the Republic.
400,000 Agonistici are deported or flee from the Roman Republic after their creed has been outlawed. In exchange, almost 100,000 non-Agonistici flee from the new theocratic Berber state into Roman civitates in Egypt, Morocco and on the Mediterranean Coast.
The Huns (and many Alani, although it is not certain whether it makes sense to differentiate here) overrun the Gothic Empire. A large part of the Greutung royal court and nobility are killed in battle. Without leadership, the "Goths" (again, among them many different ethnic groups, only few of which speak Eastern Germanic Gothic) flee to Tauris in the South and toward the Danube.
Constructions on an improved Limes Africanus and Limes Tripolitanus are begun.
Waves of refugees, fleeing from the devastation brought about by the Huns, arrive at the Roman Empire's border with Gothia. They circumvent Moesia Inferior's Eastern border protections sailing on board overcrowded ships. The Roman port town of Olbia is flooded with refugees.
The civitates of Olbia, Borysthenes, Tyros, Harpis, Arganum and Histria cannot control the crowds of refugees, many of them still armed. They call for help from the Republic.
The moderate Consuls Antonius and Pius send a medium-sized army of 20,000 to restore order in Moesia, disarm the Gothic refugees and create the infrastructure for increased supplies as well as shelters for the refugees outside the fortified towns - which they manage to do - and then to march and ride against the Huns.
18,000 Roman soldiers encounter the Hunnic hordes as the latter attempt to cross the river Tyros. The battle ends in a terrible Roman defeat.
Constructions on the Southern limites are halted as all available troops are mobilised in preparation of defensive battles against the Huns.
Sassanid Empire / India: Shapur II. reconquers the Sassanid possessions in India up to the Yamuna. His punitive campaign strikes deep into Gupta territories, plunders many cities and enslaves a great number of Samudragupta's subjects, leading them into the Empire and spreading them across all the satrapies, where they would contribute greatly to the dissemination of Indian culture and philosophy in the Middle East, in spite of their low social position there. Shapur II. only stops his war against the payment of a huge sum of tribute by Samudragupta. To pay this sum, Samudragupta must indebt himself to the Licchavi. Soon after the humiliation, Samudragupta is found dead.
Roman Empire: Accounts of the surprising military tactics of the Huns, the skilled archers and their strong composite bows are taken very seriously now.
Because the MCM considers the local Moesian defenses and the Limes Transalutanus as practically indefensible, imperial Aedils organise the evacuation of Dacia and the trans-danubian Moesian coastline, while troops already stationed in Moesia are organised into a strong defense of the Danube. Only Roman citizens (and a small handful of Gothic leaders, who were able to bribe the Roman authorities) are evacuated from Dacia and the Moesian coastline, though, because Moesian and Thracian civitates refuse to accommodate the great numbers of Gothic refugees. The evacuation is conducted with Roman thoroughness: even much of the Dacian gold is carried across the Danube. Less mobile valuables like heavy machinery are carried into half a dozen mountain forts in the Carpathians, which are guarded by small groups of soldiers.
Farther to the North, Slavic tribes like the Antes and Ugro-Finnic peoples formerly subdued or tributary to the Ostrogoths (Komi, Mordwinians and Mari) are not swept away by the Hunnic tide. Instead, they have regained their independence.
Sassanid Empire / India: Only with the help from the Licchavi clan and important shreni (guilds) from Magadha and Pataliputra can Ramagupta claim the throne of his father against his younger brother Chandragupta II., who has more support among other, militarily more directly implied kshatriya leaders than Ramagupta, who is considered a military anti-genius. But Ramagupta finds a formula for an oligarchic system, and wins the political battle for himself. Shapur II.'s retreat behind the Ganges had been negotiated by Samudragupta already, but its fulfillment is Ramagupta's first success. Ramagupta releases the lands between Yamuna and Ganges, dominated by the two powerful cities of Prayaga and Mathura, from his realm, agreeing with Shapur II. on the establishment of a "neutral zone".
Sea-faring merchants from the Sassanid Empire and a handful of Arab merchants build the new port town of Barawa on the ruins of the former Roman emporium Essina.
Roman Empire: Huns penetrate the Roman empire for the first time, plundering towns and villages in Dacia, but not finding much that is of any value. A number of Roman scouts is killed at Porolissum, but the survivers, who manage to march the long way to the Danube, bring valuable examples of the powerful Hunnic bows, which the Academia Collegii Militum begins to analyse.
Famine and diseases haunt the refugee camps north of the Danube - and then, things get even worse ... The Huns reach the Danube at Tegulicum, where tens of thousands of refugees live in camps on the unguarded Northern side of the Danube, to which Roman soldiers bring provisions until the Huns arrive, at which moment they all retreat in order to secure the Southern shore.
The Huns take control of the masses of panicking refugees and commit one of the most gruesome atrocities of this war. They force unarmed refugees to advance across the Danube bridges as human shields. The Roman defenders are compelled to slay thousands of helpless men, women and children - when these news reach Rome and the other great cities of the empire, the "civil society" is outraged. A small minority blames Moesian policies of refusing the refugees, while the vast majority of Romans foams about the contemptible Hunnic barbarians, who ought to be seriously "sorted out".
But the Danube Limes still holds ...
The Huns retreat onto the Sub-Carpathian plains of Dacia. Hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Gothic Empire are on the move again. An estimated 70,000 refugees treck back East and reach Tauris (OTL Crimea) and roll over the weakened Bosporanian Kingdom and take control of what the Huns have left of great cities like Kerkinitis, Chersonesos, Kimmerikon and Nymphaion. The Greek elite temporarily submits themselves, as they had been compelled to do before with Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths etc.
Another more than 100,000 displaced persons move Westwards into Vandilian Pannonia.
Sassanid Empire / Arabia: In a swift campaign, Shapur II destroys Sheba's positions on the Gulf coast.
Chaos and tribal wars devastate Vandilian Pannonia after the arrival of the refugees from the East. Huge masses of refugees seek asylum in Roman civitates across the Danube. The Comitia Civitatum of Aquincum (OTL Budapest) and Brigetio (OTL Komarom) accept unarmed women and children into their city walls.
Tauris: The old Bosporanian Kingdom has come to a definite end. Tauris is overcrowded with starving refugees. From out of the chaos, a mixed group of leaders of Greek, Ostrogothic, Antic, Mordwinian and other backgrounds arises (the Tauris Group). They re-establish contacts with the Roman Republic, asking for grain and help in reconstructing their water supplies, while offering manpower in the Roman defense against the Huns. The Conventum is still in doubt whether to see them as (dangerous) Goths or as (traditionally allied) Bosporans and offers only very limited aid, especially since the humanitarian and military situation at its Northern border demands more attention now.
Tamilakam / India: The Pallava King Kumaravishnu of Amaravati attacks Kalabhra possessions on the East Coast, as in OTL. After initial successes, he attempts to conquer Kanchipuram. In contast to OTL, Kanchipuram is full of Roman and Sassanid merchants and their thriving Tamil trading partners, and the city, which has been left in great autonomy by Tiraiyan, is full of well-organised self-defense groups. Both a siege and a direct attack fail. Kanchipuram remains the strongest and most independent city in Southern India.
After the Huns had nurtured their herds on the abandoned Dacian plains and meadows, they ride Westwards again, establishing control over formerly Vandilian Pannonian plains and the adjacent hills. Most of the Gothic refugees, Hasdingian Vandals, Iazyges et al., who don´t wish to become dominated by the Huns, flee further to the West, into the lands of the Markomanni, Langobards and Burgundians. Rumours are heard of a large pan-tribal alliance against the Huns.
Roman Empire: In reaction to the Hun danger, in the Conventum Romanum, a militarily aggressive majority forms for the first time and elects equally imperailist Consuls.
Military engineers manage to copy the Huns' composite crossbows. Mass production and training of both cavalry and infantry is started. The federal cavalry is increased; already trained units are moved to the Danubian border.
The Alliance of the Five Nations is formed in response to the Hunnic threat. The Quadic King Gabinus, the Markomannic Queen Fritigil, the Vandal King Stilicho, the Burgundian King Gibicho and the Langobardian King Albert have gathered a huge army, supplemented by refugees from the Gothic Empire and aided by military advisors from Norican and Pannonian Roman civitates. The army marches against the Hunnic positions in Eastern Pannonia. In the Battle of the Tissus, both sides suffer heavy losses. The numerically far inferior Huns still prove tactically more flexible. The Five Nations' armies disintegrate after Albert is killed by a Hunnic arrow, and Hunnic groups chase after them deep into Markomannic lands. Hundreds of thousands of refugees move Westwards. Some women and children find asylum in civitates like Boiodurum (OTL Passau), Cetium (OTL St. Pölten), Lauriacum (OTL Enns), Lentia (OTL LInz) and Cannabiaca (OTL Zeiselmauer). A larger number marches Westwards into Alemannia or retreats into the forests of the Langobardian (OTL Czech) and Quadic (OTL Slovakian) mountains.
Tauris: In spring, a diplomatic mission of the Tauris Group to Rome finally succeeds. The Taureans have adapted the Judaist faith and improved their Greek in the meantime to appear more "civilised" to the Romans. The Consuls Severus and Liquinius begin to include them in their plans of how to sort out the Hun problem, and send humanitarian aid, too.
Roman Empire: An earthquake and tsunami devastate the island of Crete and causes destruction and the loss of many lives in the Delta of the Nile, including Alexandria, too. Severus and Liquinius postpone the counter-offensive against the Huns and send federal troops to help with the reconstruction.
The Roman MCM and the consuls' diplomatic corps intensify their talks with the leaders of several important groups who now live under Hunnic control in the pontic steppe. Plans for a reshaped pontic space are drafted in Rome and Alexandria and discussed across the Republic, and allies are gathered for a large military campaign, the likes of which the world has not seen from Rome for a century.
They also provide support for the efforts of Danubain civitates to bring the Alliance of the Five Nations back together for another offensive against the Huns whose presence in Pannonia is, according to Roman intelligence, severely weakened.
Alemannia: Hundreds of thousands of displaced Germans from the East move into Alemannia and plunder villages and little towns in what is formally still the Gallo-Roman province of Germania Superior. Towns and gau kings gather their banners, but they are overrun by the mere masses.
Sassanid Empire / India: At the Southern border of Sassanid Sindhu-Shakastan, more specifically, at the Konkan Coast, the small Kingdom of Traikutaka (governed by Abhira kshatriyas, heavily influenced by exiled Brahmins) disturbs Sassanid sea trade with Tamilakam by supporting piracy. A Sassanid anti-piracy campaign knits an alliance with the small Buddhist republic of Ratnagiri and erecting a naval outpost at Gharapuri (OTL Elephanta Island).
Alemannia: Fightis over the scarce resources of a now overcrowded Alemannia escalates in dozens of places into bloodbaths. Tribal war devastates Alemannia. Increasingly, distinctions between former Visigoths, Hasdingi, Quadi, Varisci or Markomanni begin to blur. Local Alemannic kings fight against the newcomers on their own. Over a hundred thousand refugees, among them also Alemanni now, treck Northwards and then along the Moenus into the lands of the Hermunduri and the Franks.
Calls for help directed at the Roman Republic and the Gallo-Roman Empire remain unanswered, as the empires are quite busy with catastrophes and Hunnic and Pictish threats resp. inner revolts, too.
Roman Empire / Germania: Owed to massive Roman intervention, the Alliance of the Five Nations is rebuilt, this time under a collective leadership. (Albert has been succeeded by Ibor as King of the Langobards.) Aided by substantial Roman federal cavalry and border civitates militia, the allied forces manage to encircle the Huns this time and massacre them.
Gaul: In the West, the chaos continues. Having waited in vain for help from the Gallo-Roman Empire, whose subjects they nominally still are, three Alemannic tribes cross the frozen Rhine in January, falling into the lands of the Raurici, then moving Westwards.
Caesar Marcus Vasco could not help the Alemanni because at same time, Picts and Scotes invade Britannia. They even reach the capital of Britannia Superior, Londinium, before Gallo-Roman troops manage to push them back. A dozen towns are plundered. At the end of the year, Britannia Inferior is still under control of Picts and Scotes.
The Christian community at Abila (OTL Ávila) elects Priscillian as their new bishop. Priscillian is an outspoken critic of slavery - one of the most outspoken critics, in fact, since Simonism has not attracted many followers in the Celtic Empire - and also a staunch pacifist, in the midst of a generalh mobilisation against Picts, Scotes and the chaos beyond the Rhine.Then, Priscillian also posits a complete equality of men and women, and opposes torture in judicial trials. Religiously, he stresses asceticism to a much greater extent than the Simonists. The provincial authorities begin to persecute Christians again.
India: Dissatisfied with Ramagupta's achievements, a conspiracy of oligarchs dethrones him and installs his brother Chandragupta as maharaja.
Alemannia / Francia: In the lands of the Franks, chaos does not last very long after the arrival of the refugees. Lothar, king of the Bructeri, achieves the position of High King among the Franks after defeating the chieftains of several Suebic groups. His new army, which also incorporates many of the newcomers, burns down the Gallo-Roman castra East of the Rhine, then also sets fire on a part of the Rhine fleet again and crosses the river with a great number of people. The limitanei are overrun in spite of the heavy fortifications, which had held almost a century. Franks swarm into Belgica. In contrast to earlier invasions, the Franks now secure the positions they have gained like the Romans and Gallo-Romans had shown them during the occupation of Francia. Frankish military leaders take over Gallo-Roman towns and forts and assume a role which the Latin-speaking inhabitants call "comes" ("count").
Gaul: The Gallo-Roman Empire is about to break apart. In Hispania, persecutions of Christians (especially Priscillianists) cost many lives and instigate a rebellion. Here and in Gaul, new Bagaudae emerge on the aristocratic latifundia. Some of them are Christian and others pagan. Some ally themselves with Baetican and Mediterranean towns, which have declared themselves independent and cease sending troops and taxes for the defense of the Rhine and Britannia and sent envoys to Rome to negotiate their inclusion into the Republic. Others raid and plunder their surrounding towns. All Bagaudae are combatted by the few regular troops which Caesar Marcus Vasco can spare, and by militia of free peasants in Gaul, who want to keep the Empire together to be able to defend their land against the Franks. Additionally, the Bagaudae of different orientations and aims also fight against each other. This civil war brings the Gallo-Roman economy close to a standstill and causes a severe famine. It cripples the military might of the empire.
The Alpine provinces are marauded by Alemanni, who are ultimately defeated by Marcus Vasco and retreat into remote mountain valleys. Picts and Scotes still control Britannia Inferior.
Roman Empire: The Consuls remain skeptical with regards to the adherence wishes of Tarraco, Caesaraugusta, Narbo, Massilia, Corduba, Gadis, Hispalis and other cities. Public opinion and commercially oriented collegia favour the re-union, but the top-level politicians and the armed forces fear the chaos that would result from a disintegration of Gaul.
Alliance of Five Nations: The refugees, women and children, return to the lands now secured by the confederacy - and by considerable Roman military presence (bridgeheads, fortresses on important passes and castra in Eastern Pannonia). Although the Romans formally have no say, they deeply influence the establishment and fate of this Germanic alliance.
Roman Empire: After their contribution to the successful anti-Hun campaign in Eastern Pannonia, the Danube fleet joins the rest of the Classis Romana in the Black Sea, Many warships are anchored in Taurean ports and the Roman civitates on the coast, to where they bring both the soldiers and the material for the largest offensive the Republic has ever seen, aimed at clearing the pontic steppe of the nomadic threat once and for all. The current settlement area of the "new Ostrogoths" - Tauris and the Kimmerian isthmus - becomes the Roman Republic's first "margo" - a new structure of association with the Roman Empire, which adapted the idea of a client state to the conditions of Roman republican democracy - and be called "Tauris te Bosporos Kimmerikos". The margo and its towns would rule themselves, but harmonise their political institutions, their military and economic structures with Roman ones. This, along with the currently powerful presence of the Classis Romana - would make sure that Rome does not send its aid to a potential new rival or enemy. A Pontic Campaign of a Roman-led alliance against the Huns, similar to that in Pannonia but significantly larger, is planned in detail with the new partners, but postponed for the moment, for fear of the consequences of massive migratory movements from a potentially disintegrating Gallo-Roman Empire.
India: Prayaga and Mathura become flourishing city republics, not only because they conveniently lie along trade routes, but also because they need not entertain expensive military forces.
Gaul (Britannia): Without reinforcements from the South, the Latinised military commanders in Britain include the chiefs of Brythonic clans into military and political power structures with the aim of drafting a greater army. In this greater Britannic army, even military commands are uttered in Common Brittonic, not in Latin anymore. The new army of the Britons, although tactically ill prepared and commanding only little cavalry, repels the Picts and Scotes from Britannia Inferior. The celebration of their victory takes place in Mona and involves a lot of traditional Celtic rites. The more the urban population of Londinium, Camulodunum, Lindum, Aquae Sulis, Verulanium and Eboracum hear of this, the more alienated are they.
(Gaul:) Marcus Vasco sends the few remaining troops he has to combat the Bagaudae. In Belgica, Lothar consolidates his position between Mosa, Rhine and Mosella.
Roman Empire: The new Consuls Alexandros and Pamphylikos orchestrate a policy change pushed by the business-minded and patriotic middle classes. They negotiate contracts of adherence to the Republic by more than two dozen civitates in Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania Baetica.
The evacuated Roman Dacians are slowly moving back into their (often destroyed) towns, accompanied by three Republican divisions which comb the lands and restore safety West of the Carpathians.
The Alliance of Five Nations has settled down and constituted itself. Langobards and Burgundians inhabit OTL Czechoslovakia and the forested hills to its West, Quadi inhabit OTL Slovakia, Marcomanni inhabit the land North of Roman Noricum, while the Vandals retain Eastern Pannonia. The high council of the confederacy meets twice a year, if there is no emergency, in rotating places. Because Vandilian on the one hand and the Suebic dialects of the other tribes on the other hand are not mutually intelligible - and because the influence of Roman soldiers and merchants is quite strong - Latin is used in the official confederal proceedings.
Imaziyen: Among the theocratic elite of the new Imaziyen state (the Ljama'a Amazigh), someone - allegedly from Capsa - has come up with new and generally accepted signs for vowels in the Tifinagh alphabet.
Gaul / Roman Empire: Alexandros and Pamphylikos sign the contracts with which the civitates of Illipula (OTL Niebla), Hispalis (OTL Sevilla), Gades (OTL Cadiz), Astigi (OTL Ecija), Malacca (OTL Malaga), Illiberri (OTL Granada) and Corduba (OTL Cordoba) join the Roman Republic, and adapt their structures to the republican constitution. The Conventum Romanum ratifies the contract.
Negotiations had also been close to conclusion with the civitates of Aquae Sextiae (OTL Aix-en-Provence), Arelate (OTL Arles), Avenio Cavarum (OTL Avignon), Massillia (OTL Marseille), Narbo (OTL Narbonne) and Nemausus (OTL Nimes), when imperial forces of Marcus Vasco, together with Alemannic troops, restore imperial control over Narbonensis. Marcus Vasco rewards Alemannic auxiliaries with the land of "traitors" who had supported the cause of independence.
In Hispania, Priscillian preaches against joining the wars of the Roman Republic, and also against joining the wars of the bagaudae. Abela, Segobria and Toletum thus form the "neutral" "Sancta Communitas Hispaniorum", where the most egalitarian and humanist republic of the Gallo-Roman civil war begins its short-lived existence.
Alliance of Five Nations: Queen Fritigil describes her first religious revelations, which are the foundational sources of the new faith of the Lausai or "redeemed" - a group which quickly finds followers not only among Markomanni.
Gaul: Marcus Vasco is strangled by a group of conspirators in Lugdunum. The Gallo-Roman Senate elects Anaraudus as his successor. Anaraudus, a pragmatic leader with a 3rd century bagaudae peasant background from Aremorica, manages to seize on the internal divisions between the rebel groups, and pacifies almost all of Gaul North of the Pyrenaei. Making concessions (including socio-economic ones) to many players and promising much to many people, he manages to raise an army which could attack the Franks successfully.
In the Sancta Communitas Hispaniorum, monastic communities emerge, where men and women live together as brothers and sisters (quite so - without forming families or having sexual contacts, at least not to anyone's knowledge).
Armenia: Christianity and social protest of the dispossessed classes have fused over the past decades. A Christian revolution, led by Vaihan Mamikonian (one of the few Christianised nobles, even with Arsakid ancestry), aimed at eliminating the rule of King Varazdat, breaks out. Varazdat appeals to Shapur II for help, while Mamikonian allies himself with Lasika and Iberia, promising to integrate Christianity in Armenia into the Gregorian framework.
Roman Empire: Huns reappear on Roman soil, pillaging the civitas of Prioboridava East of the Carpathians. Alexandros and Pamphylikos, who had been elected on quite a different platform, are now compelled to begin the massive campaign which had long been planned. The only new form they give these plans is a close co-operation with the Sassanid Empire and a central role for Bozh, King of the Antes, in the Pontic Campaign.
Well-equipped and well-adapted to Hunnic strategies now, the large Roman cavalry and infantry forces and the forces of their Taurean and Antic allies attack Hunnic (and other nomadic groups, for the camapign made no difference here) groups between the Carpathians and the Volga.
India: Under internal pressure, Chandragupta attacks Pushyavarman, defeats his army and conquers Kamarupa.
The Pontic Campaign goes well for Rome and its allies. The Huns are encircled and attacked and driven Eastwards into and across the Borysthenes. Provincial militia and their local allies conquer the land West of the Tyras and divide the secured land West of the Pyretus among themselves.
Gaul: Anaraudus leads a large army, composed of units in the traditional Roman structures as well as a number of less regular forces, against the Franks. After two decisive defeats at Virodunum and Augusta Treverorum, Lothar submits and negotiates a safe retreat across the Rhine, at the cost of 3,000 Franks who shall become Gallo-Roman slaves.
Alemannia: Serapio, a leader of the Bucobantes who had spent his youth in Narbo, manages to have himself elected Gau King of the Bucobantes amidst the chaos. He assumes the Alemannic name Agenarich and restores stability in his gau.
Armenia: Instead of sending troops, which Shapur II needs in the Pontic Campaign, he sends military equipment to Varazdat. Vaihan Mamokanian, assisted by Lasikan and Iberian military forces, defeats the Varazdat's forces in the battle of Avarayr, and declares himself King of Armenia.
The Pontic Campaign concludes with a thorough victory for Rome and its allies. Romans, Sassanids, Antes and others have annihiliated the nomadic intruders. Thousands die on the battlefield, during the marches or, malnourished, in captivity. Those who survive are mostly shipped to Lasika and from there marched into Sassanid Albania, where the Sassanids use the new slaves in the fortification of their Northern Caucasian border, then march the survivors into Persia, where wealthy people from across the empire buy them for their estates, mines, manufacturers, harems or brothels.
The Pontic Campaign marks the disappearance of the Black or European Huns, Sarmatians, Western Alani and Onogurs from history. Caucasian Alani and Sabirs only survived to a small degree as refugees in the Caucasian mountains, where they focused their herding on sheep and goats and became partly sedentary. It prevents the appearance of the Bulgars, who, in OTL, emerge from some of the former tribes and federations.
Franconia: An attempt to kill Lothar fails. War among rivalling Frankish factions ensues.
Gaul: Anaraudus leads various Gaulish, Brythonic and Salian armies across the Pyrenees to subdue the Hispanic Bagaudae and restore control over the peninsula. The Sancta Communitas Hispaniorum puts up only passive resistance and is reintegrated without many problems after Priscillian and several other Christian leaders are imprisoned. Anaraudus is halfway through with this Hispanic campaign by the end of the year.
Alemannia: Agenarich Serapio knits a very large alliance of loyal followers from among the Nicrenses, Brisgavi, Lentienses, Hermundurians and Alcmunians AND also from among the provincial Roman elite from towns like Aquae Mattiacorum, Lopodunum, Aquae, Arae Flaviae, Aquileia, Nida and Alisinensium (OTL Wiesbaden, Ladenburg, Baden-Baden, Rottweil, Heidenheim, Heppenheim and Bad Wimpfen). He and his followers proclaim the conversion to the Lausai faith and unite a huge army behind them, which begins to put an end to violence and looting in Alemannia.
Armenia: Vaihan Mamikonian sends tribute to Shapur II. and accepts a vassal title from him in exchange for the recognition of relative Armenian autonomy. At the same time, Mamikonian also invites Gregorian monks and nuns into his country, converts several fire temples and their Zoroastrian schools into monasteries, and orders the construction of the third large Gregorian cathedral in his kingdom's new capital, Dvin, which has come to replace Vagarshapat, the Zoroastrian Arsakids' capital.
The new political and military reality in the pontic space created by the Pontic Campaign is formalised at a conference in Chersonesos on Tauris in 375:
- The civitates West of the Pyretus would join the Roman Republic.
- The land between the Pyretus and the Tyras would become a margo: Rei Publicae Romanae Margo Tyrensis. Land would be divided between the two Roman civitates, a Dacian tribe and the Slavic tribe of the Tivertsi.
- The land between the Tyras and the Hypanis would become a margo, too: Rei Publicae Romanae Margo Hypanensis. At the periphery of the political talks, many contracts were signed between the new lords of this margo and Roman collegia, especially from the domain of civil engineering: the land between Tyras and Hypanis would need a lot of canals, aquaeducts and roads to become productive ...
- The Taurean margo would be extended for more than a hundred miles upriver along the Borysthenes and the Tanais. Permanent Roman naval bases would be established at Kerknitis (on Tauris), Phanagoria (on the margo's Sindican land strip), Kallipolis and Castra Luhana (on the Tanais) as well as Nikopolis, Chortitia (OTL Zaporizhyn), Neapolis Borysthenea and Severopolis (OTL Dnepropetrowsk) on the Borysthenes. Aorsean Sarmatians and Severian Slavs were incorporated into the Greek-speaking margo.
- The Antes establish an independent kingdom between the Tanais and the Ra.
- Roman, Antic and Sassanid forces would continue to co-operate against invasions from the steppe, alerting each other immediately. Rome would be responsible for the steppe West of the Tanais, while the Sassanids would be responsible for the steppe East of the Ra, with the land between the Tanais and the Ra being under the responsibility of the Antes.
The revenues for the federal budget from the sale of the war captives are used to fund infrastructural projects for the irrigation of the steppe and its integration into the Roman road network.
Reports from the steppe battlefields divide the society into enraged pacifists and hawks, who have found new pride for their empire. Christian Simonist communities of the Garamants turn away from the Roman Republic.
Gaul: Anaraudus restores imperial control over the Hispanic peninsula except for the Baetican civitates which had joined the Roman Republic. The latter are secured by federal Roman forces, and Anaraudus does not seek a conflict with Rome.
Persia / India: Shaipur II realises he must foster local Indian religions as well to enhance Sassanid acceptance. At the (now four) Sassanid universities in the Indian world (at Taxila, Debul / Kolochi, Kabura and Barygaza), Buddhism is promoted, too, now.
The Kushan and Sindhu-Shakan satraps are free to define the constituent political unities of their satrapies by other means than around Zoroastrian temples, where rural or urban councils or assemblies are to be held. (This gives the Indian satraps greater power than their Western equivalents, where the political constituencies could not be redefined by worldly leaders.)
Over the next decade, the last in Shaipur's reign, several temples for the veneration of Kali (a goddess popular with simple commoners, but not with educated anti-Sassanid Indians) are erected, too.
Gaul: Anaraudus decides that the Gallo-Roman Empire must learn from the economically more prosperous, politically more stable and militarily more powerful Roman Republic if it wants to survive in the midst of all the difficulties it faces.
His prioritised reform project concerns land use and ownership. Imperial laws copy Italian anti-ponding and anti-erosion measures across Gaul and Hispania. Because he lacks a reliable provincial administration, he has divisions of the Classis Gallica oversee the implementation, rewarding the marines with property rights over the converted land. Across Gaul and Hispania, the "traitors" who had supported independence movements or evaded taxation, are expropriated and their land reverts to ager publicus. This enlarged ager publicus is given for usufruct to landless peasants and unemployed townfolk on the condition that they serve fixed terms in the army and remain on reserve duty until the age of 45.
Alemannia: Agenarich Serapio and his followers have defeated dozens of warlords and brought a New Order to all corners of Alemannia.
The new Alemannia is a confederacy of Roman towns and Alemannic gaue. Its leaders are elected by a Concilium Municipiale or a Gauting - for life, if they are not recalled, but not as hereditary monarchs. All these leaders regularly convene in a high council named Senatus Foederationis in Latin and Bundsting in Alemannic, which in turn elects the High King also for lifetime, but recallable and non-hereditary. All members of the confederacy swear an oath of eternal peace. Should the Ting peace be in danger or Alemannic lands be under attack by foreign forces, then a common intervention force would be commanded by the High King.
Gaul: Caesar Anaraudus' new administration begins implementing his land reforms. He creates a new political body - the Concilium Urbium, into which all pagus-free municipia and coloniae send representatives. He delegates the task of defining tax levels and overseeing fiscal administration to this council.
Alemannia / Franconia: Agenarich Serapio successfully intervenes in and ends the Frankish civil war. He establishes Gennobaudes as the new Frankish High King (by Alemannic grace ...).
Gaul: Caesar Anaraudus delegates the task of overseeing the aedilian administration of public infrastructure onto the Concilium Urbium and reforms the internal structures of the Gallo-Roman armed forces (excepting the Salian Frankish and Brythonic units), allowing soldiers to elect their leaders after the Roman model.
Roman Empire: Constructions on the Limes Africanus and Limes Tripolitanus are resumed.
Tamilakam: The Tamil poetess Kaakkaippaadiniyaar sings religious hymns, in which Munishswaran and Pei are described as the dual supreme deities, using ample fire and light metaphors. Both the imagery and the dualistic conception are interpreted as influences of Sassanid Zoroastrianism, which in ths timeline exerts a much stronger influence on Tamil religion, replacing the OTL influence of Vedic religion.
Gaul: Caesar Anaraudus allows the Concilium Urbium to create two additional Censor offices in order to deal with the massive new administrative tasks.
Alemannia: Agenarich Serapio signs a contract concerning the borders as well as eternal peace and mutual assistance with the Alliance of Five Nations.
Alliance of Five Nations: Gabinus, a great friend of the Romans, dies. A Taiding of the Quadi elects Agila as his successor. As King of the Quadi, Agila pursues an emancipation of the alliance from Roman tutelage and poses as a great promoter of the Lausai faith.
The religious movement of the Lausai expands quickly even after the death of Fritigil. It becomes the common bond that culturally unites the Five Nations of the Alliance as well as the new Alemannian Confederacy.
Gaul: The reformist Caesar Anaraudus decrees maximum rents, increased rights and better protection for the coloni on the remaining latifundia. The Senate, which sees itself as marginalised by the new Concilium Urbium anyway, is outraged, and Anaraudus dies only weeks after the announcement of this law under uncertain circumstances. Antonius Gallaecus becomes the new Caesar.
In Abela, Ardobicum Corunium and Narbo, urban magistrates and the delegates to the Concilium Urbium are no longer elected by the decuriones, but by popular assemblies similar to the Roman comitia. This process of democratisation spreads to more and more coloniae and municipia, but takes more than two centuries to encompass every single one of them.
Alemannia: Agenarich Serapio signs a contract of eternal peace and free trade with the Roman Republic. The Rhine, Hilara and the Danube are recognised as the borders between Alemannia and the Roman Republic.
Alliance of Five Nations: Stilicho dies. Godigisel follows him as King of the Vandals - the last Vandal king who acceeds to the throne by inheritance. After Godigisel converts to the Lausai faith, he institutes elective Taidings among the Vandals, too.
India: Chandragupta conquers Twipra and its capital of Kharongma.
Imaziyen: The Bible in its Agonistic canon is completely translated into Tamazight by scholars in Theveste.
Rome ends its grain deliveries to Tauris after the canals which provide the peninsula with water have been repaired and the new Ostrogoths have resumed agriculture on the Southern shore of the continent and in the proximity of Rome's naval bases on the Borysthenes and Tanais, too.
The first Taurean division trained entirely in Roman Academiae Collegiorum Militum begins operations to fortify the margo's core territory. The margo has given itself a republican constitution after the Roman model. Its consuls forge treaties of non-aggression and a trade agreement with Lasika, the Antes and a dozen tukhums of the Nakh.
Gaul (Britannia): Picts and Scotes attack Britannia Inferior once again, but are repelled by Brythonic forces.
Gaul / Alemannia: Anaraudus and Agenarich Serapio sign a similar contract to that with the Romans. Anaraudus thus finally recognises the independence of Alemannia from the Gallo-Roman Empire.
The Tyras-Hypanis canal is completed. It facilitates both transportation in the Margo Hypanensis, trade with the neighbouring Margo Tyrensis and the rest of the world, and irrigation of the steppe for agricultural purposes.
Imaziyen: Agonistic converts assume power among the inhabitants of the oasis town of Djaddo with military help from camel-backed New Garamant crusaders.
Alliance of Five Nations: Queen Fritigil dies. The Taiding of the Markomanni elects Hunimund as their new king. In her role as prophetess and founder of the Lausai faith, Fritigil has become immortal.
Imaziyen / Agisymba: The Imaziyen defend Djaddo against a military expedition from thecivilization of OTL South-West Niger which the Imaziyen, following Greek sources, call Agisymba.
Refurbishment of the Limes Tripolitanus is completed.
Nobatia: The Nobatian archbishop Stebanos decides against coercive and for peaceful proselytisation, declaring religious freedom in his lands, except for the Agonistici. With means from Aksum's profitable control of the important Red Sea passage, an influential school is built in Para.
Imaziyen: Agonistic converts, aided by crusaders from the North, assume power in the oasis town of Segedin, which has an important salt production site and is the entrance to the Vallis Cavuaris, an important passage in Transsaharan trade routes.
India: The University of Mathura is built around an existing Jain school.
After the death of Shapur's last cronies, who had been granted governorships in Bactria and Sogdia, all the cities in the region are governed by city councils now which are immediate to the Shahanshah Yazdegerd. Yazdegerd's royal imperial cavalry and infantry, where soldiers and officers of formerly Hephtalite, Arabian, Persian and Indian descent serve together, protects the countryside and the important roads of the Silk Route, whereas the cities have their own guards.
Refurbishment and improvement of the Limes Africanus are completed.
Imaziyen / Wagadu: Gwafa, an Agonistic missionary, and a group of followers from among the Gaetuli preach their brand of Christianity to the Soninke. They are imprisoned and staked at the order of Wagadu´s Divine King (Gana). Back home, he is declared a martyr and a saint.
The port town of Merca, ruled by local Biyomaals, begins to rival the neighbouring port town of Barawa. Its inhabitants trade their own products (instead of being just a stop over like Barawa) with merchants from India and the Mediterranean - among them also small red berries with a vitalising effect on humans and animals (= coffee).
Alliance of Five Nations: With Gibicho of the Burgunds, the last king of the five founders of the confederation dies. The Ting of all Burgundians elects Gundobad as new king, who continues the good cooperation.
Roman Empire: The administration of the Civitas Attica apprehends over a hundred unlicensed practitioners of medical services. They are condemned to the payment of hefty fines. Dozens of them are unable to pay them and are imprisoned instead.
Roman Empire: Toll payments from Gallo-Roman ships at the Alexandria-Bubastis-Red Sea Canal have halved over the past two decades, although the Gallo-Roman economy currently experiences a spectacular recovery. It is speculated that Gallo-Roman traders commission Ostrogothic ships, who enjoy lower tariffs due to Tauris' status as a Roman margo, to carry their goods to and from the Middle East.
Led by their Queen Tin Hinan, Gaetulian tribes from the Hoggar begin a massive crusade across the desert against the Wagadu Empire, laying siege to Koumbi Saleh and conquering the town after a few weeks. The Ghana (divine king) and his court are slain. The inclusion of Koumbi Saleh and its colonies into the Ljama'a are celebrated with a great mass and communion. The Imaziyen have now gained access to the areas of cotton production and control an entire Western passage across the Sahara, which promises enormous gains from trade with the Celtic and Roman Empires.
Sassanid Empire: The first Sassanid university with Sogdian as official language is established by the city council of Samarqand.
Roman Empire: By the end of the century, the use of waterpower to replace the force of oxen and human slaves has become so frequent that the total power of watermills installed across the Roman Empire has grown by the factor 320 as compared to the beginning of the century.
This required the building of many smaller and larger dams, which in turn made expropriations and relocations necessary. Such processes polarise civitates and leads to violent conflicts in some places. The same controversial status applies to question of the ager compascus - land protected and prohibited for construction or agriculture -, which some groups try to enlarge in order to stop erosion and improve existing lands while others want to lay claim to it and cultivate it.
On the other hand, increased use of waterpower and higher productivity have made many jobs superfluous - and created highly skilled ones instead, needed for the construction, maintenance and operation of the dams, millwheels, turbines, sawmills, grain mills, hammers, etc.
These workers need training. Provinces often reward innovators by hiring them as professors. Since the 360s, these gather in Academiae of applied sciences. Some of these academies were endowed with the Hun money and have risen above the others to empire-wide excellence.