Mexico was a small nation, which many considered virtually part of the USA. However, it was ruled by a benevolent dictatorship, in contrast to the US to the north. This dictatorship was cruel and was out of favour by 1905. This all changed when Pancho Villa, father of the revolution, went to the US in 1909. He requested aid from Theodore Roosevelt, who granted it. America was already not very isolationist in Africa because of their holdings of Liberia and Sierra Leone, so it was not very hard to convince the Americans to support him.
In 1910, Villa arrived back in Mexico, but this time with American troops behind him. The states of Chihuahua and Sonora were quickly invaded by the Americans and from there, American troops and Villa's army liberated Mexico By 5 May 1914, he captured Mexico City and all of Mexico was liberated.
This war ended Mexican hatred for the "gringos" and began an era of co-operation between Mexico and America. This era of co-operation would be vital in the American entry in the First World War. To this day, people celebrate the capture of Mexico City by Revolutionary forces as Cinco de Mayo, or Fifth of May.
First World War
By 1915, the German-French rivalry was at heads. France sought to restore the glory of France under the Napoleonic Empire, and Germany sought to restore the might of the Carolingian Empire. French troops had accidentally crossed the unmarked French-German border in 1915, beginning the First World War.
French Invasion of Germany
One of the first campaigns of the war was the French invasion of Germany. Germany was too well defended. The only way France could hope to invade Germany was by invading Belgium. This was done. However, such an act of aggression caused Britain to join the war on Germany's side. Serbian troops, supporting the French, invaded Germany and Russia. This caused the opportunistic Ottoman Empire to join on the side of Germany and Britain and much of the remainder of the Balkans and Greece joined France in its alliance, known as the Entente. Germany, Britain, and the Ottoman Empire had an alliance known as the Central Powers. The war was truly world wide after the Japanese conquest of French Polynesia.
Russian Civil War
Over the course of the same period, right-wing and left-wing rebellions in Russia took place. Germany agreed to back Russia in exchange for Russian-controlled Poland. Russia agreed and, with German backing, White Russians won the civil war. However, in the war, both the Tsar and the Tsarevich were murdered by rebels. For the first time in over 100 years, Russia had a queen, Queen Olga Nikolaevna. Immediately, she began reforms which removed the serf class and began to make Russia a more modern place and, hopefully, a great power once again.
By 1917, the war was indecisive. The US was the world's largest economy. It would help a lot if it joined the war on either side. The British ambassador to the US, Sir Cecil Spring-Rice, stated that Britain had just decoded a French message stating that they will attack America through their few Caribbean possessions. The Americans immediately declared war on the Entente and joined the Central Powers.
The war turned in the Allied favour after the American entry in the war. By 1921, the war was over with a Central victory.
Treaty of Versailles and Aftermath
In the post-war Treaty of Versailles, German control over Alsace-Lorraine was recognized and France had its army cut down heavily.
Rise of the Pahlavi
The Safavids were in deep decline, losing much of their territory to other nations. This set the stage for Reza Shah Pahlavi to overthrow the Safavids and establish the Pahlavi Dynasty of Iran in 1925. Hindustan realized that the pro-Hindustani government of Iran had fallen and set up relations with the new government. Despite this, the nation was mostly independent.
Wars of Independence
In France, national currency was hyperinflating. One American dollar was 4,210,500,000 francs in 1925. This environment was one in which minority groups could gain independence. However, in France, almost all groups were assimilated into Francophone culture. The Corsicans were the only non-assimilated group in France. In 1926, Philippe Baggioni, a notable Corsican, declared the Corsican Republic (Ripublica Corsu). Although, by 1927, the franc had stabilized, French military defeats led to Corsican independence being recognized by France in 1927.
Even in the victorious nation of Germany, calls for independence were increasing amongst minority groups. Two of them were successful. Polish rebel Josef Pidulski declared Poland to be independent in 1925. The Free Polish Army famously temporarily captured Konigsberg in 1926, although it was recaptured in the same day. In 1927, Germany recognized Polish independence. In German-ruled Czechia, Tomas Masaryk, an ethnic Slovakian who felt fraternity with the Czechs, declared the independence of Czechia in 1925. This group raided Berlin in 1926. Recognition of Czech independence was immediate.
Even in Britain, Irish rebels famously blew up several ethnic Brits' homes. Although the rebellion failed, the Dominion of Ireland, an autonomous part of the British Empire, was created in 1931. With the exception of Ulster, all of Ireland gained dominion.
Great Depression and Rise of Fascism
However, these times were interrupted by a stock market crash in the US in 1929. This crash spread throughout the world, beginning the Great Depression. France was beginning to destablilze once more, and General Philippe Petain of France formed the Napoleonic Party, which believed in creating "Napoleon's dream" of a Europe under the yoke of French client states. In the 1931 elections, Petain was voted as President and Prime Minister of France. He merged the two into the position of Meneur, or Chief. Petain also suspended democracy and, in a famous speech, called Jews German spies, using Jewish surnames like Blumenstein, which sound like German ones, as proof. He called Germans to be members of an inferior "Nordic race." He also stated that France must be restored to "Gaulish rule" and this must be done by separating Jews, gypsies, and homosexuals from remaining populace in concentration camps. This caused most French Jews to flee to Germany, where they would be safe, but not for long. In addition to antisemitism and anti-German beliefs, Petain also purged his political enemies. One political enemy, Charles de Gaulle, was exiled to Madagascar. He took over the island and established the Free French Forces.
Meanwhile, in Italy, the leader of the Italian Fascist Party, Benito Mussolini, overthrew the current regime, and under a policy of a "New Roman Empire," Ethiopia was invaded by Italian forces. Its forces were beat.
Second World War
Main Article: Second World War
Japanese troops collaborated with Chiang Kai-Shek to establish a "Provisional Government of the Republic of China" and in 1937, invaded British China through Manchuria, which already had a Japanese puppet regime. In that same year, Fascist France invaded Germany. This act was seen as an act of war by Britain, but, just prior to the invasion of Germany, an agreement with Russia giving it backing in an invasion of Poland led to Russia invading Poland. The Second World War had begun.
The French invaded Britain in 1938. Securing beachheads on the British shore led to the land invasion of Britain, Operation Hastings was a success. The British Isles fell to France, but Free British Forces fought on.
Japanese Invasion of Asia
In 1938, the Japanese also invaded British South East Asia. All of it fell to Japan by 1939 and the only area still controlled by Britain was British Ceylon and Western China. Japan realized Hindustan was ruled by pro-Allies officials and quickly established the Provisional Government of Azad Hind. Japanese troops invaded and occupied all land east, and including, Bengal.
Meanwhile, in 1940, France decided to break its pact with Russia to establish Napoleon's dream of invading Russia. To keep this second invasion of Russia from being like the first, hydrogen canisters were distributed. These would be lit, warming the soldiers. However, this winter invasion of Russia failed as the French, although having achieved more than Napoleon, with St Petersburg under French rule, were attacked by Russian suicide bombers. These suicide bombers blew up all of the French hydrogen canisters, ruining the French effort.
Pearl Harbor and Aftermath
However, Japan did something that severely hurt the war campaign. They attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. This caused the USA to sign a declaration of war on Japan and French in the same year. The USA went into full-time wartime production and ended the CS blockade. All these ships confronted French ones and quickly, in the Battle of the Atlantic, destroyed their infamous submarines. The French were losing the war.
Battles of the Pacific
The US battled Japan in the Pacific, quickly gaining many islands to use as airports to capture more islands. However, the closer they got to Japan, the more difficult it got. The US went into negotiations with the CS to join the war campaign in 1942. However, their ships were at 1930s level. The massive numbers of these ships, along with another nation waging total-war on Japan, gave much-needed relief to America. Meanwhile, Hindustan was beginning to defeat Japan, restricting their control to Assam. Even that was reclaimed as troops from the heavily militarized Free British-controlled Ceylon came to support the campaign. Troops from Ceylon began to reclaim British Indochina, while rebels in the Malay archipelago accomplished successes.
Invasion of British Isles
In 1943, several American beachheads were made in Ireland. These beachheads slowly expanded as Irish rebels reclaimed the island. In addition, Confederate troops also claimed London for Britain, in the invasion of the British Isles known as B-Day. This gave Free Britain a home and new numbers of British troops were conscripted. In addition, African troops from colonies were also conscripted in the preparations for the invasion of British Asia.
Invasion of British Asia
British Asia rapidly fell to troops sent from Ceylon and Hindustan and British Asia was truly British again. By the end of 1944, Japan only consisted of Japan proper, with even Korea under Soviet-British administration. However, Japan stated it would never surrender. A super weapon was needed to end the war. For now, though, many of these troops were sent back to Britain for the invasion of Normandy.
Invasion of Normandy
On March 15, 1945, the invasion of Normandy began. Allied troops invaded and liberated Normandy, while Free Germans began to liberate Germany. The war was finally ending.
In March 1946, Paris fell to the CS. Germany was also split into occupation zones. Polish-speaking regions of Germany were occupied by the Soviets, while the remainder was under Free German control. Germany was at last liberated.
Meanwhile, a nuclear bomb was used on Japan in May 1946 on an uninhabited stretch of Japanese land. The sheer power of the bomb caused Japan to surrender unconditionally to the USA. Japan was forced out of Taiwan, the Kuril Islands, and Korea. The emperor was forced to resign and a president took his place.
The Free French Republic was established in German, American, Confederate, and British zones of occupation of France. In the war, four hundred thousand Jews were killed in the Holocaust. This resulted in many Jews moving to Palestine. By 1947, Jews were now as populous in Palestine as Arabs. Despite talks of partition, it never occurred because Arabs were scared of under representation.
Post-war, Russia was a right-wing dictatorship ruled by Prime Minister Iosif Stalin and the old and weak Tsar Olga. The philosophy of Stalin, Stalinism, was the main Russian ideology. Although Stalinism made Russia a superpower, it was a cruel right-wing ideology which was highly undemocratic, even encouraging purges against enemies. Meanwhile, the US was a more left-wing nation, with Democrats and Socialists being the two main parties. However, the US is known for its democracy. In short, the Cold War was a proxy war between Stalinism and democracy.
Mao Zedong, a Chinese nationalist, wanted independence from Britain. However, Britain was in absolute control of China and China, being central to Britain's colonial empire, would never be given independence. The PLA, or the Peoples Liberation Army, was set up by Mao in 1945. From their bases in Central China, they slowly made their way to the capital of Nanking in 1949. Britain had no choice but to grant them their independence as the decline of the United Republic sped up. Conflicts with Stalinist Uyghuristan and Mongolia proved futile, as with Stalinist Manchuria. As with Tibet, Hindustan would invade China if any invasion of Tibet were to occur. China was no longer the Middle Kingdom and never would be.
Throughout the world, colonies were gaining independence from their now weak colonial empires. In Africa, almost all colonies gained their independence and were led by native Africans. However, in South Africa, Rhodesia and Uganda, they were led by their white minorities. In 1971, however, a coup from revolutionary Idi Amin led to the downfall of the racist regime. Amin recognized that he needed the whites for a strong economy and kept the white minority from leaving.
Spain was the only remaining Fascist nation in the world, while Portugal was the only remaining dictatorship in Western Europe. The British declared war on the two in 1960. Soon, the rest of NATO joined, while most of the free world sent aid to NATO troops. The war ended in a NATO victory in 1962. Fascism ended. But Spain no longer existed. Aragon, Catalonia, Basque, Castile, Andalusia, and Leon gained their independence. All of them, except for Castile, began to discourage the use of Spanish as a language, renaming it Castilian.
Martin Luther King's Achievements
In 1960, the Socialist Party candidate Martin Luther King won the American election. He was the first African-American president in American history. During the Dominican Missile Crisis, he famously defused the situation by stating that the US will remove nukes from Hindustan if the USSR removes nukes from Dominica. In addition, he began to use tax money to equalize income between all peoples. He is the "champion of liberals."
Ronald Reagan became the president of the United States. During his presidency, tensions with Russia were increased and the American economy, which was suffering from a recession was revived. Despite being called by Socialist Party candidates a Stalinist, he is remembered for his role in causing the decline of Russia. He is an idol for right-wing American politics today.
Autumn of Nations
All Stalinist nations either collapsed in a period between 1980 and 1986, like Romania, or became democratic, like Russia. Prime Minister Gorbachev of Russia began to de-Stalinize Russia with re-instating free speech through glasnost and perestroika.
Decline of Russia
Although Gorbachev's reforms improved the quality of Russia, as its allies left Russia and several governorates declared independence from Russia as more and more citizens learned about the way their regime was horrible. With a new 1986 constitution, Russia was made a democracy and a more decentralized state. With the signing of the Russian-American Friendship Treaty, the Cold War was declared over as Russia lost their superpower status but its level of economic development went up. The Russian Empire was a very different place from then on.
After the Cold War, the European Union expanded eastward toward the Soviet Union. With Ukraine joining the Union in 1995, the Soviets realized that their influence would be greatly decreased in the next century. American hegemony was established in this new unipolar world.
First Mesopotamia War
In this period, President Bill Clinton organized a war against Mesopotamia, a nation ruled by the iron fist of Saddam Hussein, after he invaded and occupied Kurdistan. From Iran and Turkey, American troops liberated Kurdistan. The efficiency of the war has made Bill Clinton famous. It helped in his establishment of free health care.
Meanwhile, Yugoslavia fell into civil war. It eventually ended with the independence of all republics of Yugoslavia.