100s CE

Roman Invasion of Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt was invaded by the Roman Empire in 203 CE. It finally fell to Rome in 210 CE. Many Lower Egyptians ran away to Upper Egypt. However, Rome was now connected by land from Rome to Africa. The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent in this period.

Rise of the Sassanian Empire

However, Parthia fell to the Sassanians. In the new Sassanian Empire, a shift started to occur. Persians now saw their land as Eran rather than Parsa. Although they thought, and still think, of themselves as Parsis, Persia was called Eran by the Persians.

Fall of Africa

Led by Mago Barca, Carthage successfully gained the Roman province of Africa in 226 CE. It was renamed Ifriqiya and the best days of Rome were behind them.

Fall of the Roman Empire

Rome was facing a series of rebellions not unlike the ones that the Achaemenids faced.


Greece felt that Rome was like the Achaemenids and declared independence from Rome in 230 CE. This broke Rome apart, setting the stage for several other rebellions.


Upper Egypt, looking to reunify Egypt, invaded Rome in 237 CE. This broke Rome even further.


Ionia fell to Greek invasion in 242 CE. Rome was only made up of East Keltia, Germania, and Italia.

Second Roman Republic

The Senate of the Roman Empire murdered the Caesar and declared the Second Roman Republic in 246 CE. Carthage invaded Sicily in 250 CE. Rome was only a shell of what it once was.

Fall of the Satavahana

Meanwhile, in Bharat, Eranian Kushan invaders invaded Bharat and established the Kushan Dynasty in 260 CE.

Great Nubian Invasion

Nubians invaded Egypt and established the Nubian Empire in 268 CE. This exposed a weakness, that the North African nations do not look to their south.

Punic Exploration

To do nothing more than to keep tribal groups from destroying Carthage, Carthage razed forests to their south. However, ironically, this enraged African peoples. They, being uncivilized tribal peoples, failed in invading Carthage. However, in 288 CE, Carthage expanded southward. What they found was sand, and nothing more than sand, other than tribal peoples. This restored the Punic love of exploration. Hasdrubal the Navigator, the great seafarer, was sent to go along the path Hanno took along the coast of Africa. He was sent to establish a settlement along the coast of Africa. Along the Senegal River, he made a town called Hadic-Qart-Hadast, or New Carthage in 291 CE. This city still exists.

300s CE

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