Quebec was granted independence by Napoleon in 1812, but remained loyal to France throughout the 19th century. It allied with France, Russia and Italy in the Quadruple Entente. This was proved to be the nation's undoing, in August 1914, Canada and the USA launched a surprise attack against Quebec and the CSA. However, the Republic managed to hold the line, despite the cutting of all aid from France after September 1917. The tide soon proved unstemmeble and in November 1919, Montreal fell. It was this which finally prompted the surrender of France and Quebec. Canada, in the rapture of victory, promptly annexed the country following the end of the war, although it remained under military occupation until 1998 (when it became independent once more).