419px-Porfirio Diaz

Porfirio Diaz, Mexican dictator

This is "reserve" article quod my article "Carranza War". Since my previous timeline was ASB, I decided to build a timeline that is not ASB.

North America: First Mexican Crisis (1910-1915)

Reform of Diaz

In 1910-1911, Porfirio Diaz, dictator of Mexico, successfully suppressed the attempt to overthrow his regime, eliminating his main adversary in the election of Francisco Madero (killed in prison). The Villa uprising in the state of Chihuahua and the uprising in southern Mexico, raised the brothers Emiliano and Eulalio Zapata, were suppressed. However, the Villa supporters took refuge in the United States and raided on Mexican territory. Zapata Brothers also created Liberation Army of South, lead against the regime of Diaz's guerrilla war.

In such a situation, it became clear that the reform long overdue. Although the management of Diaz ("Porfiriato"), Mexico has developed rapidly, almost the entire economy was in the hands of foreigners and standard of living was low. In reform course system of peonage was abolished. Also, under the pretext that the U.S. government supported the attempt of the liberal revolution of Madero, Diaz partially nationalized the railway system and petroleum-producing of Mexico in 1913, which previously owned by Americans. Diaz, who led the previously pro-American policy, even before 1910 began moving in the direction of cooperation with Japan and Britain, and now Britain and Germany were the main economic partners of Mexico, Diaz wanted to counter their influence to Americans.

Mexican-American conflict

Германский флот в Веракрусе

U.S. navy in Veracruz

In August 1913, in southern Mexico, supporters of Zapata renewed uprising. In early 1914 Zapatistas marched on Mexico City. In March, Southern Liberation Army captured Cuautla, which was defended by an "Golden Regiment" (elite soldiers of Diaz supporters). In this situation, Diaz ordered a shipment of arms from Germany, but the Americans seized load and occupied the delivery Mexican port of Veracruz in April 1914. Britain has offered to Mexico and the U.S. negotiate with her mediation. The British managed to convince Americans that Diaz "lesser evil" compared with the Zapatistas (far left agrarian). It was agreed that the nationalization which carried by Diaz, is registered as a "buy". Because Mexico can not pay for it, the money for United States undertakes to pay Britain. For this, Mexico is obliged to support the Entente in future European war (in OTL- WW-I).

In May, the Southern Liberation Army took Mexico City, but it was her last success. In the summer of 1914, with support from the U.S. and Britain, Porfirio Diaz defeated the Zapatistas. Nevertheless, Americans are not happy to find Diaz in power. By agreement with the British, Diaz remained chief of the army (and, hence, the de facto ruler of the country), but in August became president Venustiano Carranza. To eliminate the possibility of new rebellions in southern Mexico, Carranza undertook partial agrarian reform, giving land, most farmers. As a result, popularity of the Southern Liberation Army came to naught. At the end of 1914 brothers Zapata and Villa signed a reconciliation agreement with government.

Mexico and USA in European war


Mexican soldiers in Europe

Under an agreement with Britain, Mexico declared war on Germany. The war allowed Mexico to solve problem with a lot of landless peasants and acquire necessary experience that would be needed in case of conflict with United States. Commander of Mexican Expeditionary Force in Europe was Felix Diaz, nephew of Porfirio Diaz. July 3, 1915, using death of Porfirio Diaz, tried to raise the pro-German uprising general Victoriano Huerta, but he was depressed. After this, almost all Mexican military and generals were sent to Europe in order to avoid a new military coup. Carranza, having received Diaz death full control over the country and getting rid of the military, also took a number of laws that weaken the dependence of peasants on landowners and provide them with land. In Mexico, there was a two-party system United Liberal Party (supporters of Carranza) and Agrarian United Front (supporters of Zapata).

U.S. closely watching the European war. U.S. elections are won by William H. Taft (a Republican hasn't seceded, Theodore Roosevelt supported the candidacy of Taft), who was isolationist. He focused on domestic policy, seeking to strengthen U.S. control over the rest of America. In 1915, Americans occupied island of Haiti, establishing a protectorate over Haiti and Dominican Republic. In 1916 the status of U.S. protectorate was Nicaragua. Americans also supported the Entente, as in OTL, as hoping to get rich on the trade in arms and that the European powers make debts to them (even more so, that Britain has already assumed the debts of Mexico). Nevertheless, the United States belonged to the Entente worse than OTL, because they feared that after the war, Mexico will become a Japan-British satellite and the Mexican economy will come under English control. In addition, Americans wanted to return the lost property in Mexico and they did not like the fact that the death of Porfirio Diaz, the Mexican government and Zapatista influenced by all farmers is a more radical policy. In 1916 presidential elections in United States won Woodrow Wilson, promised to hold elections on social reform, and not entering United States in the European war.

Eurasia: European War (1914-1917)

Defeat of Ottoman Empire

Эскадра Антанты

Entente navy in Gallipoli

Before the 1915 European war was the same as WWI in OTL, except for the fact that the German cruisers "Goeben" and "Breslau" were unable to come to the aid of the Turks (were sunk by the British navy). However, the Entente made ​​sure that, first, the war was a positional, and secondly, the Germans are still too many forces to advance against them in Europe. It was decided to concentrate efforts on the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, then Austria-Hungary to crush, and finally force Germany to surrender. After Russia's victory over Turkey at the best Sarikamis Russia sent forces to the Caucasus, and the support of the Armenian population (Turks began the genocide of Armenians) took the Ottoman Armenia and the Ottoman Kurdistan. British troops landed in Mesopotamia and united with the Russian in July at Mosul, using the fact that the Turkish forces were pinned down in Anatolia.

Those Anglo-French forces, which in OTL in 1915 unsuccessfully attacked in northern France against the Germans, were sent to the aid of the British landing at Gallipoli. In August, Istanbul fell. September 19 the Ottoman Empire capitulated. At the same time, the Entente began negotiations with Bulgaria. In exchange for not joining the war on the side of the Central Powers (against Serbia), Bulgaria annexed Ottoman Thrace. After landing in Thessaloniki begun transfer of Anglo-French forces to help Serbia. Pro-German king of Greece Constantine was overthrown, the new king of Greece, Alexander declared war against the Central Powers.

Defeat of Austria-Hungary

Бои около Белграда

Serbian soldiers

Despite the victory over Turkey and the fact that Bulgaria remained neutral, Germany, as in OTL, expelled the Russian troops from Poland and Lithuania. Realizing that Germany is still strong, it was decided to crush her main ally, Austria-Hungary. In autumn of 1915 with the support of the Entente troops Serbs stopped of Austro-German offensive and recaptured Belgrade. In March 1916 Russian army launched an offensive against the Germans in Belorussia and French army- in the northern and eastern France, to persuade the Central Powers, that the main attack would be directed against Germany. In fact, in May launched an offensive of the Entente against Austria-Hungary on all fronts: Italian, Serbian and Ukrainian.

On Ukrainian front, Russian forces captured entire Austrian Galicia during "Brusilov offensive". On Serbian front, supported by Italian troops, Entente occupied part of Bosnia, Vojvodina and Dalmatia. During the attack on Isonzo Italians broke Austrian front and occupied Trieste and Trentino. Austria-Hungary collapsed. In Hungary was a socialist revolution and proclamation of Hungarian People's Republic, which took control of Slovakia (there was established Slovakian People's Republic) and Transylvania. Hungary concluded a peace with the Entente, giving Vojvodina to Serbia. In Zagreb the National Council shall have gathered and announced to join the Slavic areas of Austria-Hungary into Serbia. Revolution also took place in Austria, but it was suppressed by German army. Austria, Bohemia and Slovenia were included in German Empire, which continued war. By August 1916 offensive of Entente stopped.

Defeat of German Empire

Братание на русско-германском фронте

Fraternization on Russian-German front

Although Germany lost all the Entente, it was still strong, continuing to monitor the number of territories of France and Russia, and having the best army in Europe. Moreover, at the end of 1916 the German army decisively defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto, repulsed Austrian territory which Italians captured, and occupied Russian Kurland. But the German people were tired of war and food shortages that arose during the Entente blockade of Germany. In addition, among the Germans intensified Socialists, calling for revolution, following the example of the Austro-Hungarian Revolution. In November–December, the Entente broke through German front in northern France, first used tanks in the Battle of Cambrai.

In January 1917, during the food riots, German monarchy fell. Wilhelm II abdicated. It was created by Provisional Government, headed by liberal Max von Baden. Began decomposition of army and fraternization, especially on the Russian Front (Russian is also not particularly want to fight). Once in spring of 1917 Entente troops defeated Germans at Battle of Arras, and Russian reconquered Kurland and West Belarus, in June 1917 Provisional Government headed by Friedrich Ebert, a moderate socialist, and increased also radical socialists, requiring declaration of German socialist state. In Russian Poland, occupied by German, actually power were Polish Legions, troops of Polish nationalists formed by Germany for war with Russia, but openly requiring independent for Poland. In Germany was about to start a socialist revolution.

September Revolution in Germany


Karl Liebknecht proclaimed Germany a socialist republic

In July 1917, General Groener proposed to Ebert alliance between military and Social Democrats against radical socialists (Spartacus League and the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany), united in Communist Party of Germany. But Ebert (as opposed to the true story) refused, fearing that the receiving authority, the military deposed him, as well as Germany overthrew revolutionary government of Austria. Ebert-Groener Pact wasn't concluded. In August 1917 Groener tried to seize power, but hes revolt was suppressed by "RotFront" (armed forces of Communist Party of Germany). At the same time, Communists took power in regional government of Thuringia, Saxony, Bavaria and Austria.

In September began a new offensive of the Entente on all fronts. At the same time, Pilsudski's legions rebelled and proclaimed an independent Poland. September 28 Communist revolt across the country. Ebert had fled to the United States. Germany was proclaimed a socialist republic. Karl Liebknecht became president, Hugo Eberlein became Chancellor. Germany received support of Hungary and Slovakia. October 20 German delegation arrived in Belgrade for peace talks with countries of Entente.

End of European war

Германская делегация в Белграде

The German delegation arrived in Belgrade for peace talks

November 1, 1917 in Belgrade began peace negotiations between Entente and Germany. In fact, it meant end of the European war a year earlier than in OTL. Millions of people have survived, United States, Bulgaria and Romania haven't entered to war, and Austria and the Ottoman Empire out of it much earlier than in OTL. As a result, European war is perceived by historians as a limited European conflict, which has no global.

Europe: Peace talks (1917)

Plans of Entente

Планы Антанты по расчленению Германии

Plans of Entente: green- Russian border, light green - Polish, yellow- Czech, grey- Danish, blue- French, red- Austrian

Initially, Entente countries, especially France and set up anti-German anti-Communist Russian Empire, insisted on occupation of Germany and destruction of Communists. However, due to mass unrest, organized by left-wing parties under the slogan "Hands off Socialist Germany," and also began decomposition of Entente troops by anti-war riots, this idea was abandoned. Interfered with this plan and the contradictions in Entente, between Russia and Poland, Britain and France.

Also, Entente was going to make the transfer East Prussia from Germany to Russia, Alsace-Lorraine to France, Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium, Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark, Posen, part of Silesia, West Prussia and Danzig - to Poland, granting independence to Czech Republic and Austria, flooding of German fleet, reducing of German army to 100,000 soldiers and huge reparations payments by Germany. But Entente had pressure from the U.S. who don't want too strong Allies and too weak Germany. In addition, Britain realized that an excessive weakening of Germany would lead to domination in Europe of Franco-Russian alliance. Special commission of British economist Keynes convinced Entente abandon from idea of ​​forcing Germany to pay reparations.

Articles of peace


Europe after war: red is Communist states, taupe is international zone

In March 1918, 10, was signed a peace treaty. Germany kept all its territory, apart from Alsace-Lorraine, which Germans ceded France, Memel, which ceded Russia and Poznan, which ceded Poland. Germany was allowed to keep Austria; Czechia was independent, but remained communist. Germany was allowed to have an army and navy, but she had to temporarily demobilize their in exchange for a reciprocal demilitarization of Entente. Also in Germany imposed much, but is acceptable contribution. But Germany and her alies- Hungary and Slovakia (successor of Austro-Hungary) has recognized that Italy annexed Albania, Trieste and Trentino, Serbia annexed Montenegro, Vojvodina, Banat, Bosnia, Croatia and Slovenia, Poland annexed West/Polish Galicia (Krakow) and Russian Empire annexed East Galicia (excluding Uzhgorod) and North Bucovina. Also, the socialist countries to recognize partition of Ottoman Empire: Russian Empire annexed Ottoman Armenia, Bulgaria annexed Ottoman Thrace, Greece annexed Izmir region, France annexed Syria, Lebanon and south-eastern Turkey (Cilician Armenia), Italy annexed southern Turkey, Hijaz and northern Yemen, Istanbul and Holy Land (Palestine and Transjordan) was international zone ruling by Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia). Turkey has continued as a state in northern and central Anatolia.

North America: Second Mexican crisis (1917-1919)

USA after European war


Green is U.S., light green is American protectorates

In 1917, under influence of the German revolution, there was an attempt of revolution.on Cuba. The Americans have suppressed it, and declared Cuba a protectorate of United States. This inspired the U.S. government to negotiate with the Entente that in compensation for the huge debts (made during the European war) of the Entente and informal support against Germany Britain and France would agree to move the Central American countries under the direct Americans control. Also, Americans hinted to British, that due to the fact that they can not pay for Diaz "purchase", the U.S. must return the Mexican oil and railways. This led to a deterioration in relations between U.S. and Entente, American delegation was expelled from the Belgrade peace conference.

Felix Diaz's coup d'etat

Феликс Диас

Felix Diaz, dictator of Mexico

At the end of 1917 300000th Mexican army has returned from Europe to homeland. Based on it, Felix Diaz made ​​a coup and took power in December 1917. Carranza was killed. Immediately Agrarian United Front rebelled, embracing the whole south of Mexico. In the north of Mexico, Pancho Villa uprising raised, moving his forces to join with supporters of Zapata in southern Mexico. Along with him were Mexican liberals led by Alvaro Obregon.

U.S. intervention and American-Entente conflict

Immediately after the Zapatista uprising against Felix Diaz, the U.S. supported him, because, first, Diaz was a puppet of the Entente, and stood on pro-British position, and secondly, the U.S. would regain nationalized by Mexico property. In March 1918 U.S. Army under the command of John Pershing's troops came to rescue Villa, and in May, Mexican rebels and the Americans were released from troops of Diaz's Mexico City. In June, the last bastion of Diaz- Veracruz- fell and he fled to Belize (British Honduras). Since then, the relationship of the Entente and the United States have deteriorated sharply. President Wilson beginning to openly support separatist movements in the colonial empires of Britain and France and enemies of Entente, including communists. Was signed Mexico City Treaty about economic cooperation between United States, Mexico and Communist Germany.

Popular Republic of Mexico


Flag of Mexican Popular Republic

In July 1918 brought together Mexican Constituent Assembly, formed in main by supporters of brothers Zapata. Mexico was proclaimed Popular Republic of Mexico. Pancho Villa became president, Agrarian United Front became ruling party. The Liberals were not allowed into the government. Everything went counter to the plans of the United States: new government not only refused to return confiscated by Diaz American property, but also announced that an equal division of land among the peasants and nationalization of all industries. Mexico was proclaimed a socialist republic and received support of Germany.

Mexican war


Dark green is Northern Mexico, red is communist Mexico

It's not like the way the Mexican liberals, and U.S. government. In September 1918 Obregón, leader of the Mexican liberals, led a revolt against the socialist government of Mexico, arresting and killing Pancho Villa. Obregon came to the aid of American troops, who took most of country. However, mobilizing the majority of his old supporters, the Zapatistas have kept under control southern Mexico and even fought off Mexico City. In addition, the socialist government of Mexico has received support from abroad, not only from the socialist countries, but also from countries of the Entente did not want to turn Mexico into an American puppet. By 1919, front stabilized in vicinity of Mexico City. Were signed Belize peace agreements. Mexico was divided into two states: southern Mexico (communist, but with a strong British influence) and northern Mexico (American junior partner).

Partition of Central America


Red is Mexico and Honduras, light green is American protectorate

In 1919 Americans organized intervention in Honduras in order to suppress the revolution began there. Army of southern Mexico went to aid of Honduras, occupied Guatemala on road and overthrowing pro-US dictator Cabrera. Eventually, under pressure from international community, Americans withdrew from Honduras. Guatemala was annexed to Mexico, Honduras became an her ally. But United States for fear of further "spread of communism," entered army in rest of Central America and made ​​their own protectorates.

Europe: Summer of Nation-1

Second Russian Revolution

Provisional Government

Republican government of Russia

Russian Empire didn't suit a number of conditions of Belgrade treaty: that the communist states were not eliminated, the fact that Poland became an independent state, and under the control of anti-Russian configured Jozef Pilsudski, the fact that Russia has not received Istanbul, which became an international zone. Fearing a conflict with Russia (as with United States), Entente began supporting Cadets (Russian liberals), planning to removal from throne of Nicholas II, erection of throne of his brother Michael and transformation of Russia into a constitutional monarchy. At the same time, in 1918 started riots of Russian peasants demanding land distribution in their favor, and demobilized soldiers of the Russian army (most of whom were peasants). To appease people, Nicholas II appointed Prime Minister Miliukov, cadet, who started agrarian reform, but riots continued in countryside. However, excitement spread to workers, army and navy. Came to power moderate socialists led by Alexander Kerensky. Russia was proclaimed a republic, royal family exiled to Yugoslavia.

Aleksei Brusilov, who suppressed Bolshevik revolt

Began to disintegrate of country. Finland and Baltic countries declared their independence, Ukraine has achieved autonomy. At the same time to power in the country began to burst radical socialists (Bolsheviks), supported by Germany. In order to suppress of Communists, Kerensky was signed with Russian military cooperation agreement- pact of Kerensky-Brusilov (ATL equivalent of Ebert-Groener pact). In January 1919 the military began mass arrests and murders of Communists without trial, including their leader, Lenin and Kollontai, army was transferred to suppression of peasant revolts. The government embarked moderate Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks, in alliance with the Cadets, but sharply utilise military and extreme right, seeking to establish a nationalist dictatorship. Bolsheviks was banned by decision of Russian Justice's minister, Andrei Vishinsky.

Irish Revolution


James Connolly, leader of Irish Socialists

In contrast to OTL, Easter Rising in Ireland did not happen, because the Germans were too busy with war on continent. However, after European war and emergence of communist German, Irish Socialists, led by James Connolly, were aiming to establish an independent Socialist Irish State. In 1918, simultaneously with the revolution in Russia and the conflict between the Allies and the United States, the Irish, hoping for the support of Germany and the United States, rose revolt everywhere in Ireland. In hands of rebels were many cities, including Dublin and Limerick. British Government, realizing that retention of Ireland will be worth enormous sacrifices, went to peace talks with rebels. At the talks moderate leaders of revolt- Sinn Fein- agreed that Ireland will become an independent kingdom, united with British dynastic union and military alliance.

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