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Early Louisianan History
In the winter of 1709, the harshest weather in over 500 years fell across Europe, causing widespread famine and disruption across the continent. France was hit particularly bad, and estimates of deaths from cold and famine range from 500,000 to 1.2 million, in addition to fighting an ongoing war. Because of this, when a colonist from Louisiana wrote the mainland speaking of a plemtiful harvest and milder conditions, thousands of people jumped at the opportunity to flee the hardships of France in favor of the new colony. Within a year, 100,000 people had reached the shores of Louisiana, and this number would exponentially grow as the years went by.
By 1750, Louisiana was one of the most prosperous colonies in Europe, with a population matching that of British America. This made Louisiana a very important bargaining chip for future conflicts, one of which just happened to be around the corner: the Fourth Intercontinental War, which broke out in 1754 and lasted nine years. Louisiana would play a key role in the defense of New France, but unfortunately they were not able to save the colony.
The Fourth Intercontinental War was fought in New France and British America. It was caused by border disputes between the two colonies, and tensions boiled over when George Washington's forces ambushed a French patrol at the Battle of Jumonville Glen. When the war broke out, King Louis XV of France decreed that the colonies must fend for themselves, and demanded that an army be formed out of the colonists in Louisiana. The colonial military had some successes at first, capturing Fort Necessity and repelling the British at Fort Duquesne. Their successes would continue throughout the early years of the war, until in 1758, their resources were expended and the British blockade of France prevented any aid.
In 1758, John Forbes and his men successfully took Fort Duquesne from French control, and from then on the war was a forgone conclusion. The French were surrounded and the British were closing in. In 1759, the loss of Fort Ticonderoga furthered this horrendous situation, and the British firmly established domination in the east. The Brits went on to claim victory at the major city of Quebec, followed by Fort Niagara, and culminating in the Battle of Montreal, where the French were slaughtered. The fighting didn't end there, however, and two years later, the French captured Newfoundland for a short time. Eventually, Newfoundland was retaken by the British and the French were forced to surrender.
Global Implications of the War
After the war, the French were forced to give much of northern New France to the British, and Louisiana to the Spanish in 1763. This was a horrific scenario for the French, losing all of their territory in the new world and losing the most important colony in the world. The people of Louisiana did not simply take this defeat though, they started a war. They made it clear they did not want to be under Spanish rule, and fought for 7 years to gain their independence from Spain. Europe saw the victory of Louisiana in securing is independence to be a sign of things to come from other territories, and this turned out to be right, as colonial America began resenting its European rulers. In 1776, the British even had to squash a revolution in the 13 colonies.
The Age of the Revolution
The Louisianans had ushered in what came to be known as the Age of the Revolution. Following the Louisianans, the 13 colonies revolted twice, gaining their independence in 1788 during the second war and forming the only democracy on earth at the time. This event was very important too, as several events that this revolution set in motion would come to a conclusion in the European War nearly 30 years later. After the Americans rebelled, the French Revolution came the following year, flipping the entire European mindset on its ear with its radical left-wing implications of personal liberties, establishing the First French Republic, and spilling across the continent with the Revolutionary Wars and the European War. France set in motion feminist movements across Europe that would prove impossible to stop.
As a mindset of personal freedom began sweeping the peasants in Europe as they learned of the revolutions in the new world, tensions rose greatly among age old nations in Europe, the very institution of the monarchy was challenged. Threats of being overthrown, civil war, and rebellions plagued the states of Europe with France at the forefront, conquering the low countries and spreading their influence across western and central Europe. The terror swept France with the goal of rooting out royalists and crushing any form of resistance to the new government, which in turn was detrimental to the cause of the royalists outside of France.
On the other end of the issue, Britain was at the forefront of the anti-revolutionary movement, assembling several coalitions against Revolutionary France in order to end the outbreak of disruption. Britain also cracked down on colonial possessions, increased security at home, and aided other monarchs in keeping power in their nations. In essence, an all out war was declared on revolutionary ideals by Britain, Prussia, Austria, etc. in the late 18th century. These nations cut off trade with France and its allies, hoping to suffocate their economies and force them to submit to the agenda of the royalists. Even within France, a constant threat of more civil war loomed as French loyalists contested the powers of the Directory and other institutions of the French Republic.
The Age of the Revolution seriously concerned European rulers, and several tried to roll back these revolutions and their accomplishments with wars like the Spanish-Louisianan War in 1778. Despite the efforts of Europe's greatest nations, the revolutionary force kept its momentum and Spain was defeated that same year along with the first and second coalitions against Revolutionary France toward the end of the century.
British Exapansion & The Australia Dispute
Having lost their 13 colonies, the British began to look westward in Canada. They felt that they needed to maintain their dominance on the American continent to keep it from falling out of European control, an did so in an aggressive expansion campaign in the 1790s. In doing so, they accelerated their exploration of Canada and reached the Pacific by 1797, leading to a small boundary dispute between Russian Alyeska and British Canada that was settled quickly.
Meanwhile, the British African colonies expanded forcefully, starting wars with local inhabitants and subjugating the general population. The redcoats expanded their holds in south and west Africa, claiming a very large amount of land in just a few years, including the prosperous colony of South Africa.
In 1788, the British had founded the colony of South New Wales in the eastern half of Australia and began moving west. However, in 1798, Albert Lachance claimed the western half of Australia as the colony of New Louisiana and began settling the area. The British were infuriated by the interference with their ambitions, and nearly went to war over the land, but were too occupied with France to be able to do so. Therefore, reluctantly, the British signed the South-Pacific Claims Treaty with Louisiana in 1799, giving Louisiana the right to colonize wherever it pleased in the south Pacific with no interference from Britain as long as the land did not border a British colony.
Politics of the Times
Louisiana was set up as a kingdom and the former governor of New France, Marquis Vaudreuil, was proclaimed king. He aided the successful American Revolution and established friendly relations and trade agreementswith his neighboring country and its first President, Patrick Henry, in 1788. Overwhelmingly, the people of North America (excluding New Spain) favored liberty and freedom, although Louisiana was still a monarchy. The southern United States was favorable toward slavery, however, which led to a bump in the road down the line.
In terms of relations with Europe, North America wanted nothing to do with Europe outside of France, which was a like-minded nation in several respects. When Marquis II came to power in 1791, he abolished the practice of slavery in Louisiana and had to crush a few rebellions, though he felt it was better to fix the issue early than to let it grow into a much larger problem later on.
In 1700, the Great Northern War broke out among the nations of northern and central Europe, with Sweden and Russia the main combatants. The war ended in 1721, and cemented Russia's status as a great European power after the defeat of Sweden. With Russia's new status, they gained territories around the Baltic Sea, and the territorial possessions of Sweden in central Europe were largely given to Prussia.
Meanwhile, the animosity and hatred between France and Britain ignited the Seven Years' War in 1756 which ended disastrously for France, and the humiliation and harsh terms they faced eventually became the French Revolution and were possibly the reason the Americans were victorious in their second revolution. Alliances began to form among Europe's empires and kingdoms, leaving France a bit isolated and with enough aggression and resentment to start a war that would last 28 years.
Abridged Timeline: 18th Century Timeline (Louisiana Revolution)