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1880 to 1889 (Principia Moderni III Map Game)

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Archive Forty-Seven:

1870 - 1879

Archive Forty-Eight:

1880 - 1889

Archive Forty-Nine:

1890 - 1899

This page is an archive for the Principia Moderni III map game, from 1880 to 1889.

1880

Gilbert Schuster is elected Chancellor and the new Diet immediately re-nationalizes the grain industry. A Ministry of Industry is established to enforce and monitor these regulations. Karolina Baumbach is given the position of Chairperson on the newly formed Women’s Wing of the Liberal Party.

The winter of 1880 begins as one of the most devastating winters in Borealian history. The blizzard blankets the land in snow banks so high they completely cover trains. Scandinavian and Algonquian troops freeze by the hundreds as they are effectively snowed in and unable to fight for much of the winter. Supplies and rations are hard to transport by boat or train. Overall, the effects of the winter reduce morale for both sides by three.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The results of the Belizian referendum regarding their status in the New Munich Pact is released after two thorough recounts: 82% voted against observer status in the New Munich Pact, 18% voted for it. Not only that, the Belizian National Party, who accepted foreign donations from the Commonwealth of Borealia drastically hurting their public image and their campaign as a whole, loses all but one of their seats in Belize's new, more autonomous, legislature. Most of the former BNP seats are lost to the Centrist Party, a member of Hamburgs center-right governing coalition. Charles, Duke of Belize, comments that the matter is settled, and the New Munich Pact should accept it. Nevertheless, troops on the border with Mexaca are out on alert, in case Mexaca decides to invade in disregard for the referendum. In such a case, the Parliament passes a law which would cut funding and support for Borealia in their war against Scandinavia if they or Mexaca decides to push the issue.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at.175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengal. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultan dies and is succeeded by his daughter, Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah. Being a descendant of the Jaunpuri and Bengali royal families as well the daughter of the Jaunpuri and Bengal rulers, is it assumed that the Sultanates of Jaunpur and Bengal would merge under her rule. [Mod Response] [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominance against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Mod Response: Mmmmm, sounds good.
  • '​'Korea:b'' Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • Andea:' Military stands at 450,000 men, with a large number of them being active in Vorylayacor and Osea to facilitate the reconstruction. In total, 100,000 men remain active in Osea and 200,000 in Vorlayacor. An additional 21,000 men are placed on the Falkland Islands to restock the military bases in the region. The military is reorganized. The First level of organization is an Army (four), the second is a Legion (five per Army), then a Corps (four per Legion), then a division (five per Corps), then a company (ten per Division). This system of military hierarchy is designed to establish a clear chain of command and improve organization. Labour strikes in the city of Arequipa break out. Though the National Guard is quick to disperse the strikes, the growing call for labour reforms begins to emerge. Andea also erects the first national Library in the nation, combined with an increasing number of universities in Andea (including the territories) and Osea. Funding is also placed into primary education in order to increase literacy. Agricultural sectors of the economy also grow as well. The navy also sees  expansion, with the construction of new shipyards and ironclads. Population stands at 38 million. The Marines, Navy and National Guard are reformed. Construction of the Trans-Continental Railroad continues, with the railroad now stretching from Cuzco to Buenos Aires. The Andean's reform the banking system to try to reduce the negative effects of a possible panic. Plans to expand the railroad to Nov Xoyron continue as well. The Treaty of Patagonia is signed, and the war is over. 'We accept the Japanese request. We request trade with Pskov.
    • Vorlayacoran Territories: Following a similar model to the aftermath of the Osean Civil war, Andean leaders co-operate with local leaders in order to rebuild the nation from the war. However, unlike in Osea, the area formerly known as Vorlayacor is annexed into Andea. Several areas in Southern Vorlayacor are admitted to the Andean Union. The military presence is gradually decreased down to 180,000 throughout the year as more and more municipalities are re-incorporated.
  • Osean Confederation: Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean Settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (1.3 million), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (750,000), Cordoba (550,000), San Salvacion (350,000), Buenos Aires (320,000), East Osea (300,000), Bolivia (230,000), Granada (220,000), Santiago (200,000), Castile (110,000), and Paraguay (80,000). More universities and libraries are funded by Andea. These institutions continue to promote a national identity rather than an ethnic identity. With the end of the war for Patagonia, the people of Osea celebrate. Many Oseans see co-operation with Andea as a critical thing now. The nation is granted all of the Patagonian Territories, further increasing Andea's popularity in the nation. Meanwhile, the navy of Osea is officially formed, with the nation constructing its first ironclad this year. The nation is also sold three ironclads from Andea. Rifles remain scarce in the Osean military. The Total population of the Nation stands at 7.6 million
    • Patagonia: The Territory formerly under the British sees its first year separate from the British Empire since the War of the Grand Coalition. The Nation of Patagonia is incorporated as a territory of Osea, with the plans to draw up new Republics from the territory. Population stands at 2.4 million. The area is rebuilt by Andea and Osea efforts.
  • Britannia: Currently, there is still no monarchy re-established in Britannia yet, so Prime Minister Oswold Chaddock is still the technical leader of the Regent-Republic. Seeing no end to this regency yet, Prime Minister Oswold decides to go forward with his newfound powers in an attempt to restore Britannia to stability. He first sets about trying to reorganize the naval branch of the military to deal with the absence of the Nordic Union and replenish the officer and captain pool, and therefore increase shipping protection by increasing the number of Britannic ships in the oceans. In order to attempt to control the inflation, Prime Minsiter Oswold also introduces a bill that is designed to cap how much money a Britannic citizen is allowed to take out of their bank over a given period of time in order to try to prevent the sudden withdrawal of all the banks funds and a lack of money in the Britannic economy due to hoarding. Plans to reintroduce the pound sterling are considered, in both coinage and paper currency in this current year. Banks begin to allow equal exchange of the Nordic Union currency for Britannic Pound Sterling of equal value, artificially pegging the strength of the new currency to the old one before the collapse. Protests and riots still continue due to the inflation not being stopped immediately, the wage decreases still in effect, as well as gradually more unsafe working conditions in many heavy industries. This leads to the ever-growing popular of Devon Goddard, a popular protestor and syndicalist, to the point that the Parliament is starting to consider him a threat. Navy/Econ turn.
    • Britannic Desircit: The colony halts expansion for a brief time as it attempts to consolidate itself and not stretch its resources too thin in these rougher times. Current Governor Kenton Alhstan requests an extra garrison of Britannic soldiers be left at Desircit to keep the peace when the inevitable protests begin in earnest. This is denied, however, due to the belief that the protests will only be tied to the main nations with heavier industry.Navy/Econ turn.
    • New Guerney: With the arrival of much materiel, soldiers and weapons from the withdrawal from the Britannic Patagonia, the economy begins to look up slightly with an increased demand and market suddenly. The Governor of New Guerney, Widec Foster, invites the former Governor of Patagonia, Richard Waldwin, to be his personal advisor and prevent him from becoming jaded and protesting against the government of Britannia following the loss of his prestigious position and a lack of new position for him immediately. Navy/Econ turn.
      • ​Britannic Diplomacy: We accept the alliance and trade offer of the Union of Borealia, hoping to foster renewed friendships and economic prosperity with the nation.
  • Mexaca: Requests an alliance with Britannia, and sends diplomats to open trade. Noting the fearsome winter, Mexaca will not be adding Borelia militarily, but does send economic aid. As the military continues to grow in strength, with Mexacan troops receiving some of the bets training available. Noting that France, the UGK, and Reme are all hostile towards Mexaca, an alliance offer is sent to Pskov and Roman Empire, as both nations will provide a counter weight towards the aggressor powers.
    • Andea requests that Mexaca reaches a diplomatic solution. We also invite 'Reme and Mexaca to the Congress of Chan Chan, with hopes that the two can reconcile their differences. Despite this, we offer to station a legion (21,000 men) in Mexaca to deter any aggressive attitudes towards our ally'.
    • Roman Diplomacy: While the Roman Empire would rather not get into military conflicts in the New World that doesn't directly involve the security of its Antillian or Atlantic provinces, the Roman Empire is willing to act as a mediating power between any of the nations in the region who may have strained ties or territorial disputes.
    • Reman Diplomacy: Reme would be interested in attending the Congress, as long as it would be moved to a more neutral setting, such as Antillia (OTL Puerto Rico).
    • Andea will accept.
  • Algonquia: Continues to fight Scandinavia alongside its New Munich allies, although popular enthusiasm for the war begins to cool as winter sets in. Algonquia asks for trade deals with Madagascar and the Zulu (Mod Responses).
  • Mod Response: Each accepts trade.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built. Industry continues improving and more factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. A few ironclads are built and added to Moroccan Navy. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines comes into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation-wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politician, gains popularity, and gains influence throughout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Reme withdraws its troops from Nunavut, due to the horrible winter and worrying tensions with Mexica. Reme also offers to trade with Scandinavia and Pskov, and to trade with Rome as well.
  • In Aragon, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Aragon lays claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. Aragon seeks the return of the Aragonese island of Minorca from Hamburg, who are currently wrongly in possession of native Aragonese lands. Aragon is willing to pay money for the island, but would prefer the peaceful transfer of land. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Repeating weapons continue to improve in the military. Anesthesia becomes commonplace for surgeries. Borealian ironclads continue to be constructed. The first motor car is demonstrated in Franznacken. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. The war against Iceland continues to drag on, in spite of the harsh conditions of winter. As many more Borealians are dying from the cold than from the sporadic battles against Helluland's thin population, many people of the younger generation are beginning to show disfavor to the conflict. The largely Romanesque Curia, although not wanting to lose face, still continues to engage the Nordic Republics in the hope of achieving some moral victory. In the east, the Curia offers to sell gold and textiles to Marrikuwyanga. 
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and provides the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment as well as integrate the Empire and its various ethnic groups in a way never before possible. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. The Empire continues to recover from the Italian Civil War, and while the war ended in a Roman victory, the war upset most of the previous assumptions that the Imperial government had. As a result, legislation and reform are passed in order to help heal the country and prevent issues that spawned the war in the first place. The bombing in Scandinavia is condemned, aid and support is offered to the Scandinavian monarchy, and security in Constantinople and other cities are stepped up in case others try such attempts in the Empire. In Egypt, after many years of toil and economic investment by the government, the Suez Canal finally opens to ship traffic. The canal offers a much shorter distance for ships traversing the world, and the Roman Empire stands to gain considerable wealth from possible tolls as well as trade. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia, or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. Under the pretext of trade violations and potential threats to European enclaves, the Empire deploys a large number of troops to the Malabar Archonate, under the pretense of defending the territory. After a series of tension, Roman troops and local Malabar militias invade the state of Venad, hoping to protect Malabar and the protectorates of other European powers.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.

Imperial Japan: The combined Borelian, Roman, Mexacan, and Andean trade agreements and various industrial advisors from these nations (and we thank all these nations) in addition to the investment in our infrastructure, industry, and economy and the rapid modernization from last year (and previous modernization of our nation) to the virtual completion of modernization of mainland Japan and an economic boom of our nation and the expansion of the middle class. Land reform also continues. The Emperor looks out of his palace window and sees that mainland Japan has become a modern nation and now he invests in furthering this by investing in science, engineering, and education to further improve the condition of Japan. The modernization of Japan spreads to other places of the Empire as well. Infrastructure/econ turn.

Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/econ turn.

Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Infra/econ turn. ' Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia.


  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. In the aftermath of school secularization, the religious of the nation are in uproar. Out of the ashes of this arises one man, formerly the "leader" of the nationalist faction, creates what he deems an "alternative" to the National Conservative Party, the Christian Social Union. After gathering enough members, the Christian National Union is officially registerd as a political party, currently holding three seats in the General Assembly. The Nationalist faction, a faction that once held government and official opposition, has effectively ceased to exist. The African west coast colony expands by 10,000 sq km, so does Zlatobrezhie.

1881

Laws prohibiting married women from owning property independently are repealed, while similar ancient laws prohibiting women to enter government, economy and law jobs are repealed as well. As a purely symbolic gesture, Gilbert Schuster declares that men and women are legally equal in Bavaria

As the snow from the winter of 1880 begins to melt in late spring, considerable damage is done to towns in the region as the snowmelt creates floods.

Pashtun tribesmen raid several towns near the Afghanistan-Bengal border.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The data of last year's census are published: the population sits at 17.4 million citizens. Another interesting result is that, for the first time, a majority (57%) of citizens in Kuba report German as their first language, those reporting Spanish as such has dropped to 5%, while those with English as their first language remains at 37%. The New Munich Pact is sent a request for them to influence Mexaca to stand down its military.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at.175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. The rising Afghan raids on Bengals borders are taken note of, but no retaliatory measures are undertaken as the Sultanate is busy. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominance against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • Mexaca: Continues building up the armed forces, which now stand at about 200,000 men, and an ever growing amount of weaponry, from artillery to rifles. New naval ships are built to help defend the Mexacan Empire, with some being deployed along the East Coast. New plans are made for a purposed invasion of Belize, and the possiblety of war with Reme. Support for the New Munich Pact continues.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built. Industry continues improving and more factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. A few ironclads are built and added to Moroccan Navy. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Last year's election results are as follows: The Government is formed by a coalition of the United Liberal party, controlling 368 seats, the Workers' and Farmers' New Socialist Party, controlling 81 seats, and the Grand Union Agrarian Party, controlling 37 seats. The Official opposition is represetned by the National-Conservative Party, controlling 284 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Industrialist faction, loosely represetned by 38 seats, the Christian Social Union, controlling 35 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, controlling 34 seats, the Latvian National Democratic Coalition, controlling nine seats, and the Communist Party of the Grand Union, controlling four seats. 110 members sit without allegiance.  The African west coast colony expands by 10,000 sq km, so does Zlatobrezhie. one fo the first acts of the Grand Senate is declaring support for the United Republics in their war with Algonquia. some supplies are given, and thoughts about future involvement are talked about as well.,
  • Britannia: Currently, there is still no monarchy re-established in Britannia yet, so Prime Minister Oswold Chaddock is still the technical leader of the Regent-Republic. Seeing no end to this regency yet, Prime Minister Oswold decides to go forward with his newfound powers in an attempt to restore Britannia to stability. He focuses this year on the Britannic military in order to increase the size of the officer pool and increase the normal soldiers combat abilities in order to prepare them for any increase in revolutionary sentiment. In order to attempt to control the inflation, Prime Minsiter Oswold also introduces a bill that is designed to cap how much money a Britannic citizen is allowed to take out of their bank over a given period of time in order to try to prevent the sudden withdrawal of all the banks funds and a lack of money in the Britannic economy due to hoarding. The Britannic Pound Sterling is moderately successful at becoming the new currency of Britannia, but due to the volatility of the markets and relative newness of the currency, it fails to still take hold in the smaller and more private markets. Protests and riots still continue due to the inflation not being stopped immediately, the wage decreases still in effect, as well as gradually more unsafe working conditions in many heavy industries. This leads to the ever-growing popular of Devon Goddard, a popular protestor and syndicalist, to the point that the Parliament is starting to consider him a threat. Army/Econ turn.
    • Britannic Desircit: The colony halts expansion for a brief time as it attempts to consolidate itself and not stretch its resources too thin in these rougher times. Current Governor Kenton Alhstan requests an extra garrison of Britannic soldiers be left at Desircit to keep the peace when the inevitable protests begin in earnest. This is denied, however, due to the belief that the protests will only be tied to the main nations with heavier industry. Army/Econ turn.
    • New Guerney: With the arrival of much materiel, soldiers and weapons from the withdrawal from the Britannic Patagonia, the economy begins to look up slightly with an increased demand and market suddenly. the Governor of New Guerney, Widec Foster, invites the former Governor of Patagonia, Richard Waldwin, to be his personal advisor and prevent him from becoming jaded and protestful against the government of Britannia following the loss of his prestigous position and a lack of new position for him immediately. Army/Econ turn.
      • ​Britannic Diplomacy: We accept the alliance and trade offer of the nation of Mexaca, eager to renew agreements with past allies after the suddenness of the dissolution and secession from the Nordic Union.
  • Russia: In the fields of the farms, growing disillusionment with the authoritarian and secretive regime spreads like wildfire after massive crop failure leads to starvation. A testament written by, of all people, a Finn, begins to spread throughout the distraught populace. Things get even worse when the duke's only son dies of a terminal illness, leading him to a lasting depression and even more isolation from the people he rules. Blame also falls on the cities and the rich nobleman. Riots begin to become more frequent as the snow of the past season melts, but it really explodes when protestors are fired upon in the heart of Moscow. The workers of the nation begin to arm themselves, and in late November, peasants storm the duke's palace and various noblemans houses in revolutionary fervor. The great revolution has begun!
  • Not sure if it means anything, but the snow only affects North America, not anywhere else. -MP
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: Reconstruction begins in Neu Norderney after the devastating blizzards of last year and subsequent floods. Infrastructure destroyed is rebuilt better than it was before.
  • Czech: Lukas Kliment is the new King. Just as in Bavaria we give women equal rights just as men have. We ask the Roman Empire, Bavaria and France for an alliance. With a surplus of food made we sell our extra food to our soon-to-be allies. This surplus helps the economy. We continue to build up our military.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and provides the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment as well as integrate the Empire and its various ethnic groups in a way never before possible. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. The Empire continues to recover from the Italian Civil War, and while the war ended in a Roman victory, the war upset most of the previous assumptions that the Imperial government had. As a result, legislation and reform are passed in order to help heal the country and prevent issues that spawned the war in the first place. The bombing in Scandinavia is condemned, aid and support is offered to the Scandinavian monarchy, and security in Constantinople and other cities are stepped up in case others try such attempts in the Empire. In Egypt, after many years of toil and economic investment by the government, the Suez Canal finally opens to ship traffic. The canal offers a much shorter distance for ships traversing the world, and the Roman Empire stands to gain considerable wealth from possible tolls as well as trade. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. Under the pretext of trade violations and potential threats to European enclaves, the Empire deploys a large number of troops to the Malabar Archonate, under the pretense of defending the territory. After a series of tension, Roman troops and local Malabar militias invade the state of Venad, hoping to protect Malabar and the protectorates of other European powers. The war is ended with total victory. 
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. One scientist demonstrates wireless communication with radios this year. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Machine guns begin to be manufactured from the European design. Anesthesia becomes commonplace for surgeries. Automobiles are becoming increasingly common, and this supply is beginning to cause horses to be more expensive. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. The Romanesque Curia approves the Treaty of Reykjavik, and the media declares this to be a victorious end to the Winter War. In the east, the Curia offers to sell gold and textiles to Marrikuwyanga (Mod response, please). 
  • Mod response: mmmmm. Go for it. 
  • Imperial Japan: The combined Borelian, Roman, Mexacan, and Andean trade agreements and various industrial advisors from these nations (and we thank all these nations) in addition to the investment in our infrastructure, industry, and economy and the rapid modernization from last year (and previous modernization of our nation) to the virtual completion of modernization of mainland Japan and an economic boom of our nation and the expansion of the middle class. Land reform also continues. The Emperor looks out of his palace window and sees that mainland Japan has become a modern nation and now he invests in furthering this by investing in science, engineering, and education to further improve the condition of Japan. The modernization of Japan spreads to other places of the Empire as well. Infrastructure/econ turn.

Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/econ turn.

Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Infra/econ turn. ' Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia.


  • 'Andea: Military stands at 450,000 men, with a large number of them being active in Vorylayacor and Osea to facilitate the reconstruction. In total, 100,000 men remain active in Osea and 200,000 in Vorlayacor. An additional 21,000 men are placed on the Falkland Islands to restock the military bases in the region. The military is reorganized. The First level of organization is an Army (four), the second is a Legion (five per Army), then a Corps (four per Legion), then a division (five per Corps), then a company (ten per Division). This system of military heirarchy is designed to establish a clear chain of command and improve organization. Labour strikes in the city of Arequipa break out. Though the National Guard is quick to disperse the strikes, the growing call for labour reforms begins to emerge. Andea also erects the first national Library in the nation, combined with an increasing number of universities in Andea (including the territories) and Osea. Funding is also placed into primary education in order to increase literacy. Agricultural sectors of the economy also grow as well. The navy also sees  expansion, with the construction of new shipyards and ironclads. Population stands at 38 million. The Marines, Navy and National Guard are reformed. Construction of the Trans-Continental Railroad continues, with the railroad now stretching from Cuzco to Buenos Aires. The Andean's reform the banking system to try to reduce the negitive effects of a possible panic. Plans to expand the railroad to Nov Xoyron continue as well. The Treaty of Patagonia is signed, and the war is over. 'We accept the Japanese Request. We Request Trade with Pskov.
    • Vorlayacoran Territories: Following a similar model to the aftermath of the Osean Civil war, Andean leaders co-operate with local leaders in order to rebuild the nation from the war. However, unlike in Osea, the area formerly known as Vorlayacor is annexed into Andea. Several areas in Southern Vorlayacor are admitted to the Andean Union. The military presence is gradually decreased down to 180,000 throughout the year as more and more municipalites are re-incorporated.
  • Osean Confederation: Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean Settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (1.3 million), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (750,000), Cordoba (550,000), San Salvacion (300,000), Buenos Aires, (320,000), East Osea (300,000), Bolivia (230,000), Granada (220,000), Santiago (200,000), Castile (110,000), and Paraguay (80,000). More universities and libraries are funded by Andea. These institutions continue to promote a national identity rather than an ethnic identity. With the end of the war for Patagonia, the people of Osea celebrate. Many Oseans see co-operation with Andea as a critical thing now. The nation is granted all of the Patagonian Territories, further increasing Andea's popularity in the nation. Meanwhile, the navy of Osea is officially formed, with the nation constructing its first ironclad this year. The nation is also sold three ironclads from Andea. Rifles remain scarce in the Osean military. The total population of the nation stands at 7.6 million
    • Patgtonia: The Territory formerly under the British sees its first year separate from the British Empire since the War of the Grand Coalition. The Nation of Patagonia is incorporated as a territory of Osea, with the plans to draw up new Republics from the territory. Population stands at 2.4 million. The area is rebuilt by Andea and Osea efforts.
  • In Aragon, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Aragon lays claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. Aragon seeks the return of the Aragonese island of Minorca from Hamburg, who are currently wrongly in possession of native Aragonese lands. Aragon is willing to pay money for the island, but would prefer the peaceful transfer of land. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines come into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politican, gains popularity, and gains influence thorugout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election.

1882

The Great Comet of 1882 lights up the sky in the southern hemisphere. By winter, the comet is so bright it can be seen during the day, right next to the sun.

Venus transits the sun this year in December.

A typhoon in India kills 100,000 in the city of Mumbai.

Some prominent members of Emeraldie send letters to the French government, suggesting that in a time of instability and war in the New World it would be best to let Emeraldie govern itself while also pledging loyalty to the French monarch.

With the continuing war in the North and Brutal Winter after Brutal Winter, the patriotic zeal that once inspired men to die for their country fades. Draft Riots break out across all nations directly involved in the war. (War not Supported)

War's over.

  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at 175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. The rising Afghan raids on Bengals borders are taken note of, but no retaliatory measures are undertaken as the Sultanate is busy. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore were initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominancy against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • '​'Korea: '' Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • 'Andea: Military stands at 450,000 men, with a large number of them being active in Vorylayacor and Osea to facilitate the reconstruction. In total, 100,000 men remain active in Osea and 200,000 in Vorlayacor. An additional 21,000 men are placed on the Falkland Islands to restock the military bases in the region. The military is reorganized. The First level of organization is an Army (four), the second is a Legion (five per Army), then a Corps (four per Legion), then a division (five per Corps), then a company (ten per Division). This system of military heirarchy is designed to establish a clear chain of command and improve organization. Labour strikes in the city of Arequipa break out. Though the National Guard is quick to disperse the strikes, the growing call for labour reforms begins to emerge. Andea also erects the first national Library in the nation, combined with an increasing number of universities in Andea (including the territories) and Osea. Funding is also placed into primary education in order to increase literacy. Agricultural sectors of the economy also grow as well. The navy also sees expansion, with the construction of new shipyards and ironclads. Population stands at 39 million. The Marines, Navy and National Guard are reformed. Construction of the Trans-Continental Railroad continues, with the railroad now stretching from Cuzco to Buenos Aires. The Andean's reform the banking system to try to reduce the negitive effects of a possible panic. Plans to expand the railroad to Nov Xoyron continue as well. A student of English-Spanish descent named Thomas Galvin draws up plans for a rapid fire, heavy gun that fires around 500 rounds per minute. When the Andean Government discovers these plans, they hire Galvin to design the gun for the Andean Government. An Additonal 21,000 men are stationed in Mexaca, increasing the total number to 52,000.
    • Vorlayacoran Territories: Following a similar model to the aftermath of the Osean civil war, Andean leaders co-operate with local leaders in order to rebuild the nation from the war. However, unlike in Osea, the area formerly known as Vorlayacor is annexed into Andea. Several areas in Southern Vorlayacor are admitted to the Andean Union. The military presence is gradually decreased down to 180,000 throughout the year as more and more municipalites are re-incorporated.
  • Osean Confederation: Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (1.3 million), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (750,000), Cordoba (550,000), San Salvacion (350,000), Buenos Aires (320,000), East Osea (300,000), Bolivia (230,000), Granada (220,000), Santiago (200,000), Castile (110,000), and Paraguay (80,000). More universities and libraries are funded by Andea. These institutions continue to promote a national identity rather than an ethnic identity. With the end of the war for Patagonia, the people of Osea celebrate. Many Oseans see co-operation with Andea as a critical thing now. The nation is granted all of the Patagonian Territories, further increasing Andea's popularity in the nation. Meanwhile, the navy of Osea is officially formed, with the nation constructing its first ironclad this year. The nation is also sold three ironclads from Andea. Rifles remain scarce in the Osean military. The total population of the nation stands at 7.6 million
    • Patagonia: The Territory formerly under the British sees its first year separate from the British Empire since the War of the Grand Coalition. The Nation of Patagonia is incorporated as a territory of Osea, with the plans to draw up new Republics from the territory. Population stands at 2.4 million. The area is rebuilt by Andea and Osea efforts.
  • Mexaca: Begins industrializing to help with the strain of maintaining an ever growing military. Factories are built across the nation, creating jobs for many Mexaca. The factories are mainly armament and weapons factories, however, several other kinds of factories are built, such as tractor and automobile factories. This helps the farmers and agriculture of the empire, and owning an automobile swiftly becomes a luxury affordable only for the rich. The military is currently at about 200,000, with plans to gain over 300,000 more men. Aid is requested in the industrializing of Mexaca so that it may be able to be as strong as Reme, the key opponent on the continent for Mexaca. Roads are built in some of the more remote locations.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines come into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politican, gains popularity, and gains influence thorugout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Reme begins to sift the markets of its products to more Borelian based markets than Hamburgian trade. Reme also asks that of Rome if they would be interested in trading goods for Reman cotton, industial goods, or corn.
    • '​'Bengal Diplomacy: Sultana Nur Jehan of Bengal visits the Republic of Reme in order to increase co-operation between the two states. The Queen hopes to establish a special relationship with the Borealian Republic and acquire a mutually benefiting agreement.
    • Reman Diplomacy: Great respect is shown to Sultana Nur Jehan, who is given great gifts of wealth and respect from the people of Reme. Reme would be very interested in increasing ties with Bengal, and starts sending cotton to Bengal were it can be used in the textle industry. A military alliance is considered, but, deciding to be cautious, repsectfully declines the alliance for this moment in time.
  • Czech: We continue to build up our military. The building of a railroad throughout the nation starts. Factories start to make railroad tracks. Many factories hire both men and women. The farming industry is still the biggest industry of the nation. After the equality law was passed last year, for the first time women can vote in this year's elections. This years election is about if the nation should go Communist or not. The King is being pressured by Russia to become Communist due to the fact that the king wants to expand east into Silesia, Poland and Slovakia. One week later the results are in on the voting. The majority of the population declines the proposal of becoming Communist.
  • There is no king in Czechia, nor has there been one for decades.
  • United Nordic Republics
    • ​Republic of Denmark: The repair of Copenhagen continues this year. Hans Kuschek continues to lead the free people of Denmark with a 63% approval rating. Denmark continues sending troops to Iceland as the Winter War draws to a close. With the Treaty of Rekyjavik being signed, Denmark applauds Iceland's efforts in its victory against Borealia and Algonquia. It eagerly anticipates a return to peace. Roads are repaired in Jutland after the winter as docks are serviced. In the meantime, a telephone line is established between Zealand and Jutland, allowing for faster communication. A phone line across the Kattegat is planned as early as 1884. A new protected cruiser class, the Stejlt-Class, is produced. The Stejlt-Class is replacing the Jernskrog-Class cruiser, which saw heavy action during the Nordic Revolutions. There are over 200 ships in total flying Danish colors.
    • Republic of Sweden: Rebuilding efforts in Stockholm continues. Three former members of the Reiksdag of Sweden are found and beheaded in Copenhagen. The Intemerhuvudsak is invented. This device beheads people quickly and painlessly. Construction on the new Riksdag Building continues  in Stockholm. The roads to Finland and Norway are repaved. These roads, which saw extensive damage due to weathering and the Nordic Revolutions, are in dire need of repair. Currently, the Riksdag is dominated by the Social Democratic party, with a whopping 82% of popular vote going to the Social Democratic party of Sweden. Juhanni Eriksen remains in power. Sweden adopts the Stejt-Class protected cruiser. Currently, there are 93 ships in total flying Swedish colors. The military of Sweden improves.
    • Republic of Norway: Christjen Sigurson continues his term as President of the Norwegian Republic. Norway produces the Knulleskipetditt-Class protected cruiser, deciding the Stejt-Class is unfit for patrolling the North Sea and the open waters. Three are produced. In the meantime, Norway sends troops to the cause in the Winter War, congratulating Iceland on a victory. Christjen Sigurdson states the necessity of good relations with Algonquia and Borealia following this war. "Now that we've settled these differences, let's get back to making money." There are currently 193 ships flying Norwegian colors.
    • Republic of Finland:  Jonna Kekkonnen visits the Karelian cities this year. She wishes to improve the cities of Karelja, forming the Karelja Initiative. In the meantime, landlines to Sweden and Norway are proposed. Construction is mid-way by Christmas this year. She sends money and foodstuff to Helluland in the Winter War. The Anaalihävityksen-Class protected cruiser is commissioned, though Finland is more interested in buying used ships from the Nordic Revolutions where applicable. The city of Helsinki sees drastic growth this year as urbanization in Finland continues. Kekkekon continues to fight for women's rights. There are 73 ships in Finland's navy.
    • Commonwealth of Iceland: Iceland's immediate concern, the Winter War, seems to be over. The people of Iceland rejoice. Literacy programs in Iceland begin. According to the Alting, too many people 'can't figure out how to spell our damn words right.' Reykyjavik sees improvements this year. The University of Reykyjavik opens its doors in 1881. The university is noted for being the 'North Pole of Acadamia.' Speaking of the north pole, expeditions are sent to the Arctic ice cap to investigate the North Pole. The navy of Iceland improves, with the Augapóker-Class cruiser being released this year.
  • Russia: The revolution continues throughout the nation, massive casualties ensuing on both sides. However, this deters no one, and soon most of the country is under the Communists control, becoming the Russian Peoples Socialist Republic. The first chairman of the glorious revolution is elected, winning is Ivan Yenin, a one-time lieutenant in the army who led the takeover of most northern Russian towns. Land redistribution begins, and consficated items of rich nobleman are either melted down or distributed among the population, and upper class nobleman and the monarchy are publicly executed. The formation of a massive standing army occurs, and every able bodied man at age 18 is required to do five years service. Now that the revolution has been achieved, it is time to liberate the peoples of the world, and massive funding of Communist organizations in Poland and Silesia occur. Russian people also look to Tartary with hungry eyes, both for nationalistic purposes and the need of more land to move people of the cities to, and liberation of their people.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built. Industry continues improving and more factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. A few ironclads are built and added to Moroccan Navy. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capitals: Landshut (executive), Augsburg (legislative; Population: 39,000,000; Lrg. City: Vienna
    • National Developments: The grain, coal, and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. The Monarchy is abolished and Germany becomes a republic. The Diet sits in Ausgburg, while the Chancellery sits in Landshut, but many support making the legislative and executive capital be in Ausgburg alone.
    • Commonwealth of Bavaria: The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. Seeing as how there is no monarchy any longer, Gilbert Schuster convinces the Diet to dissolves the Crown-Union of Germany and declare the government a republic. The Diet does so, and forms the Federal Commonwealth of Germany, comprising the Commonwealths of Bavaria, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Austria, Venezia, Bremen, and Pearl River. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history.
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies.
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist, and many pro-Borealian and pro-Independence movements rise up.
  • Algonquia: Begins to recover from the lengthy and bloody Winter War. With its objectives mostly achieved, the war is widely viewed as a success, but nonetheless fosters much revolutionary feeling, causing support for the Social-Liberal Party, currently in opposition, to surge. Even more fringe parties like the Communists and Anarcho-Syndicalists grow in popularity. Following the draft riots, the scope of conscription is expanded and wages improved. The government also begins a massive program of railway construction to speed mobilization. Meanwhile, in other news, incorporation of Inuit and Na-Dene tribes in the north results in the spread of new cultural ideas, including Mastoravism, adopted from the Tartary by the Inuit. In Nemiscau, a merchant trying to find some way of preserving his stock of potatoes decides to try dehydrating them into pellets, inventing instant mashed potatoes. Large orders are placed by the military. Trade with the Zulu grows,a nd a substantial Algonquian merchant community exists there.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Last year's election results are as follows: The Grand Union looks to the east with despair. The Government officially refuses to recognize the Socialist Republic, and decides to advance some forces in, promising asylum to all current residents. Many flee in the coming months, the Grand Union sends agents into Russia for the smuggling of human refugees fleeing the "red terror". Oh, and All requests for trade are granted (in case I forgot to mention it in the last turn).
  • Mexaca requests an alliance with Pskov.
    • ​Yes, the GU accepts the alliance offer.
  • Britannia: Currently, there is still no monarchy re-established in Britannia yet, so Prime Minister Oswold Chaddock is still the technical leader of the Regent-Republic. Seeing no end to this regency yet, Prime Minister Oswold decides to go forward with his newfound powers in an attempt to restore Britannia to stability. He focuses this year on the Britannic military in order to increase the size of the officer pool and increase the normal soldiers combat abilities in order to prepare them for any increase in revolutionary sentiment. In order to attempt to control the inflation, Prime Minister Oswold also introduces a bill that is designed to cap how much money a Britannic citizen is allowed to take out of their bank over a given period of time in order to try to prevent the sudden withdrawal of all the banks funds and a lack of money in the Britannic economy due to hoarding. The Britannic Pound Sterling is moderately successful at becoming the new currency of Britannia, but due to the volatility of the markets and relative newness of the currency, it fails to still take hold in the smaller and more private markets. Protests and riots still continue due to the inflation not being stopped immediately, the wage decreases still in effect, as well as gradually more unsafe working conditions in many heavy industries. This leads to the ever-growing popular of Devon Goddard, a popular protestor and syndicalist, to the point that the Parliament is starting to consider him a threat. Army/Econ turn
    • Britannic Desircit: 'The colony halts expansion for a brief time as it attempts to consolidate itself and not stretch its resources too thin in these rougher times. Current Governor Kenton Alhstan requests an extra garrison of Britannic soldiers be left at Desircit to keep the peace when the inevitable protests begin in earnest. This is denied, however, due to the belief that the protests will only be tied to the main nations with heavier industry. Army/Econ turn.
    • New Guerney: With the arrival of much materiel, soldiers and weapons from the withdrawal from the Britannic Patagonia, the economy begins to look up slightly with an increased demand and market suddenly. the Governor of New Guerney, Widec Foster, invites the former Governor of Patagonia, Richard Waldwin, to be his personal advisor and prevent him from becoming jaded and protestful against the government of Britannia following the loss of his prestigous position and a lack of new position for him immediately. Army/Econ turn.
    • Britannic Afrika: Army/Econ turn.
    • Mexaca: Would like an alliance.
  • ​Having to just copy-paste this turn from yesterday, new job and a ton of reading was involved on the first day ... Too much reading ...
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. One scientist demonstrates wireless communication with radios this year. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Machine guns begin to be manufactured from the European design. Anesthesia becomes commonplace for surgeries. Automobiles are becoming increasingly common, and this supply is beginning to cause horses to be more expensive. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to Marrikuwyanga to improve their industry. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the east coast. In the south, The Curia officially supports Mexaca's claim to Belize, but does not send any support at this time. To further expand trade outside of the continent, Borealia asks for an alliance and trade agreement with Rome.
    • Roman Diplomacy: While the Empire agrees to a trade agreement, the Roman Empire is currently not interested in an alliance until relations have significantly improved and the region improves.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and provides the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment as well as integrate the Empire and its various ethnic groups in a way never before possible. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. The Empire continues to recover from the Italian Civil War, and while the war ended in a Roman victory, the war upset most of the previous assumptions that the Imperial government had. As a result, legislation and reform are passed in order to help heal the country and prevent issues that spawned the war in the first place. The bombing in Scandinavia is condemned, aid and support is offered to the Scandinavian monarchy, and security in Constantinople and other cities are stepped up in case others try such attempts in the Empire. In Egypt, after many years of toil and economic investment by the government, the Suez Canal finally opens to ship traffic. The canal offers a much shorter distance for ships traversing the world, and the Roman Empire stands to gain considerable wealth from possible tolls as well as trade. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. 
      • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The general public is quite excited by the arrival of the Great Comet, with the rich hosting Comet Parties. A prominent Oldenburger author is inspired to write a tale of a "being from the stars" who visits Europe on a comet. Naturally, hilarious hijinks ensue. In other news, more money is out into both the parochial and state-run schools. The children of the original batch of schooling reach university age, with a reasonable number of lower-class children winning positions in the University of Osnabruck.
  • Imperial Japan: The combined Borelian, Roman, Mexacan, and Andean trade agreements and various industrial advisors from these nations (and we thank all these nations) in addition to the investment in our infrastructure, industry, and economy and the rapid modernization from last year (and previous modernization of our nation) to the virtual completion of modernization of mainland Japan and an economic boom of our nation and the expansion of the middle class. Land reform also continues. The Emperor looks out of his palace window and sees that mainland Japan has become a modern nation and now he invests in furthering this by investing in science, engineering, and education to further improve the condition of Japan. The modernization of Japan spreads to other places of the Empire as well. Infrastructure/econ turn. The recent celestial events increase the interest in astronomy as well as science in general and we further invest in science. The recent celestial events also increase nationalism, as we see ourselves as the comet that follows the sun, and we see ourselves as Venus transiting the sun. This encourages the Japanese people to reach new heights and a new sense of Japanese nationalism is born with us increasing the will and drive to advance in the modern age. As part of this, we recognize the new Russian State, the new Britanic state, and the new Scandivian state and wish to trade with all of them.

Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/econ turn.

Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Infra/econ turn. ' Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia.

  • In Aragon, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Aragon lays claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. Aragon seeks the return of the Aragonese island of Minorca from Hamburg, who are currently wrongly in possession of native Aragonese lands. Aragon is willing to pay money for the island, but would prefer the peaceful transfer of land. In the name of unification of the Spanish people, Aragon declares war on Castile. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.

1883

The volcano of Krakatoa erupts, creating a colossal explosion. The eruption is heard 3,000 miles away, kills nearly 37,000 people. and reduces the average world temperature by a degree for the next five years. The explosion is the loudest in recorded history.

French officials meet with representatives of Emeraldie to discuss the ideas proposed last year regarding independent government and loyalty to the crown.

The map will be updated to represent a twisted hybrid of 1885 and 1890. If you want your changes put on the new map, you know where to post them. (The map issues part of the talk page for the noobs who don't.)

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. In light of Mexaca's new threat, Emperor Mary calls on the UGK parliament to declare a date of hostility, formally a preparatory state before an expected declaration of war. The measure passes 431-94. In equal formality, she authorizes the Chancellor to mobilize the army and navy. Reinforcements for the current expeditionary force in Belize are stationed in Kuba. Ironclads, cruisers, and new turreted battleships are placed just outside Mexacan waters. Dozens of Keudez-Uzvark guns are stationed beside cannons along the fortifications. In other news, the parliament discovers a request from Aragon to purchase Minorca. As the island has no real value to the UGK, the request is approved, and the UGK pulls out of the island. In more other news, diplomats are sent to Pskov and Russia, offering them lowered rates for traversing the expanded Kiel Canal. In light of recent negotiations with the CoB, the UGK announces that an up/down independence referendum will take place in 1885. The Crown Loyalist Party, again manages to draw huge support, and their majority in the Belizian legislature remains strong through the local elections. Meanwhile, the Belize National Party is rife with infighting, and fails to form a common message. Worst yet for them, their last member of the legislature switches parties to the governing coalition member Centrist party.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at 175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Bengal mobilizes its forces to the border with Vijaynagar and launches an attack, starting a war that was inevitable. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominancy against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • Algonquia: Requests a trade deal with Bengal.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at eight million people, while the number of military troops stands at 60,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 35 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built. Industry continues improving and more factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. A few ironclads are built and added to Moroccan Navy. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science. After building a series of obsolete wooden frigates, the Moroccan government says the wooden battleships are no longer in use due to obsolescence, the navy begins building armored iron frigates. This is what the start of earliest known destroyers in Moroccan Naval History.
  • Mexaca: Officially decides that action must be taken against the UGK, and sends a firm message: give Mexaca Belize, or it's all-out war. The military stands at about 300,000 men in case of war, and massive industrialization continues. Weapons are produced, such as machine guns, rifles, cannons, grenades, and new self-repeating weaponry. Having waited long enough, Mexaca declares war upon Germany, and invades Belize with 150,000 troops. Naval ships attempt a blockade of Belize.
  • 'Andea: Military stands at 450,000 men, with a large number of them being active in Vorylayacor and Osea to facilitate the reconstruction. In total, 100,000 men remain active in Osea and 200,000 in Vorlayacor. An additional 21,000 men are placed on the Falkland Islands to restock the military bases in the region. The military is reorganized. The First level of organization is an Army (four), the second is a Legion (five per Army), then a Corps (four per Legion), then a division (five per Corps), then a company (ten per Division). This system of military heirarchy is designed to establish a clear chain of command and improve organization. Labour strikes in the city of Arequipa break out. Though the National Guard is quick to disperse the strikes, the growing call for labour reforms begins to emerge. Andea also erects the first national Library in the nation, combined with an increasing number of universities in Andea (including the territories) and Osea. Funding is also placed into primary education in order to increase literacy. Agricultural sectors of the economy also grow as well. The navy also sees expansion, with the construction of new shipyards and ironclads. Population stands at 39 million. The Marines, Navy and National Guard are reformed. Construction of the Trans-Continental Railroad continues, with the railroad now stretching from Cuzco to Buenos Aires. The Andean's reform the banking system to try to reduce the negitive effects of a possible panic. Plans to expand the railroad to Nov Xoyron continue as well. Thomas Galvin finishes his prototype "Galvin Repeater" (OTL Maxim gun) and it's a huge hit with the Andean military. By the end of the year, the Galvin repeater has been finished and is beginning production for the Andean military. The Andean military and government keeps this discovery a secret for now. Turrerts are adopted into the Andean Navy. Andea abides by its agreement with Reme and decreases the number of men in Mexaca to 49,000. We urge our allies in Emeraldie to take the chance and invade Kuba while the German Military is disctrated.
    • Vorlayacoran Territories: Following a similar model to the aftermath of the Osean civil war, Andean leaders co-operate with local leaders in order to rebuild the nation from the war. However, unlike in Osea, the area formerly known as Vorlayacor is annexed into Andea. Several areas in Southern Vorlayacor are admitted to the Andean Union. The military presence is gradually decreased down to 180,000 throughout the year as more and more municipalites are re-incorporated.
  • Osean Confederation: Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (1.3 million), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (750,000), Cordoba (550,000), San Salvacion (350,000), Buenos Aires (320,000), East Osea (300,000), Bolivia (230,000), Granada (220,000), Santiago (200,000), Castile (110,000), and Paraguay (80,000). More universities and libraries are funded by Andea. These institutions continue to promote a national identity rather than an ethnic identity. With the end of the war for Patagonia, the people of Osea celebrate. Many Oseans see co-operation with Andea as a critical thing now. The nation is granted all of the Patagonian territories, further increasing Andea's popularity in the nation. Meanwhile, the navy of Osea is officially formed, with the nation constructing its first ironclad this year. The nation is also sold three ironclads from Andea. Rifles remain scarce in the Osean military. The total population of the nation stands at 7.6 million
    • Patagonia: The territory formerly under the British sees its first year separate from the British Empire since the War of the Grand Coalition. The Nation of Patagonia is incorporated as a territory of Osea, with the plans to draw up new Republics from the territory. Population stands at 2.4 million. The area is rebuilt by Andea and Osea efforts.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. In order to further Hashemite plans of Muslim dominance in the Middle East, Hashemite troops invade Azerbaijan again in order to secure more of the Caspian coast for the Caliphate. Following the less than expected results in India, the Caliphate also sends troops to help Bengal in their jihad. With the invasion of Azerbaijan in full steam, we also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. We propose a deal with the German Rulers of Somalia: Sell us your territories of Eastern Africa and in return, We offer an alliance and the Germans will have the Caliphate's ear during Asian conventions. 
  • UGK Dip: The deal is accepted, and a timetable is proposed for a complete UGK withdrawal from East Africa by next year.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39,000,000;
    • National Developments: The grain, coal, and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed, however, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. Gilbert Schuster declares that Landshut will be renamed to Wittelsbach to honor the previous monarchs of Bavaria. When questioned on these actions, Schuster states that it is "the least Germany could do to honor her leaders and monarchs". Later in the year, Wittelsbach loses its executive capital status as Augsburg is made the full capital of Germany. 
    • Commonwealth of Bavaria: The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history.In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party is established, advocating the eventual unification of all German states, including Bavaria, Hamburg, Oldenburg, and other states, into one nation. It is a primarily moderate group with both liberal and conservative elements. It becomes known for being led by a young patriot, Hans Truger.
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust, serving from 1880 to 1885. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism.
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist, and many pro-Borealian and pro-Independence movements rise up.
  • Algonquia: Continues to develop its military and negotiate the Treaty of Reykjavik. Much of the military is demobilized, to general relief, but shortcomings in its performance lead to major efforts to improve tactics and arms. The Nemiscau foundries begin production of new steel breechloading artillery, particularly six-pounders, and efforts to make artillery more mobile are looked at. Most of Algonquia's heavy cavalry is converted into dragoons or lancers, while new breechloading infantry rifles are introduced. This rearming process will take a further two years, but requires a raise in taxes. Mastoravic ideas spread into the Algonquian church, triggering a rise in the use of psychedelics during prayer. As a result, a growing industry focused on producing casinna and cannabis is created. With unrest on the rise in Europe, some refugees arrive, particularly from Russia, increasing popular support for Communism.
  • Labrador grows its military and expels the last few Arcadians.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. One scientist demonstrates wireless communication with radios this year. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Machine guns begin to be manufactured from the European design. Anesthesia becomes commonplace for surgeries. Automobiles are becoming increasingly common, and this supply is beginning to cause horses to be more expensive. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. The Curia continues to support Mexaca's claim to Belize. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. We offer to sell oil to Andea in exchange for armament research. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with the Bengal Sultanate. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. In the gulf, pressure is put on the government of Pearl River to consider joining the Borealian Union. Also this year, the regency council of the Kiatagmiut, being composed of an extreme branch of Borealianism, issues what is known as the Mamterilleq Declaration : "Just as in former times, the friends of New Munich have ensured the independence and stability of all native states on this continent, so to do the peoples of Australia deserve to enjoy the same benefits" The Curia, however, wishes to discuss the meaning of this declaration further.
    • ​Federal German Dip: While it is true that the Federal Bavaro-German government respects national self-determination, as well as relations with the Union of Borealia, we suggest that Borealia halt its diplomatic actions with Pearl River.
  • Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Reman navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines come into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politician, gains popularity, and gains influence throughout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Reme begins to sift the markets of its products to more Borealian based markets than Hamburgian trade. Reme also asks that of Rome if they would be interested in trading goods for Reman cotton, industrial goods, or corn.
    • ​Roman Diplomacy: The Roman Empire would like to increase trade with Reme as a way of potentially standardizing and improving relations after a long eighty year freeze. Corn and other agricultural products would be appreciated along with cash crops that can't be grown in Roman territory profitably.
  • Britannia: Currently, there is still no monarchy re-established in Britannia yet, so Prime Minister Oswold Chaddock is still the technical leader of the Regent-Republic. Seeing no end to this regency yet, Prime Minister Oswold decides to go forward with his newfound powers in an attempt to restore Britannia to stability. He focuses this year on the Britannic military in order to increase the size of the officer pool and increase the normal soldiers combat abilities in order to prepare them for any increase in revolutionary sentiment. In order to attempt to control the inflation, Prime Minister Oswold also introduces a bill that is designed to cap how much money a Britannic citizen is allowed to take out of their bank over a given period of time in order to try to prevent the sudden withdrawal of all the banks funds and a lack of money in the Britannic economy due to hoarding. The Britannic Pound Sterling is moderately successful at becoming the new currency of Britannia, but due to the volatility of the markets and relative newness of the currency, it fails to still take hold in the smaller and more private markets. Protests and riots still continue due to the inflation not being stopped immediately, the wage decreases still in effect, as well as gradually more unsafe working conditions in many heavy industries. This leads to the ever-growing popular of Devon Goddard, a popular protestor and syndicalist, to the point that the Parliament is starting to consider him a threat. In an effort to combat this growing threat to their government and rule, the Parliament invites Devon Goddard and his so-called 'Britannic Syndicalist Council' to a private meeting in order to end or at least diminish protests so that revolutionary sentiment and riotous actions die down greatly. Army/Econ turn
    • Britannic Desircit: The colony begins its inland expasion again as supplies become more regulated as stabiltiy increases. With the increase of supplies and stability, industry begins to redevelop on the largest coastal cities, mainly focused on refining goods from other Britannic colonies. Army/Econ turn.
    • New Guerney: Sugar and coffee plantations are still the most popular for this colony, and continue to be a source of revenue. Though it lacks much heavy industry, it more than makes up for it in excessive shipments of raw goods. Army/Econ turn.
    • Britannic Afrika: Army/Econ turn.
    • Imperial Japanese Dip: We wish to establish trade with Britain.
  • In Russia, the revolution completes with parades through the streets and general centralization of the new regime. It is now time to spread influence abroad, but everyone in the politburo knows that the revolution will only survive with allies. Communist organizations in Poland and France are funded. Tartary, however, is seen as the largest threat. In the ultimate move of "enemy of an enemy is my friend" two theocracies, the Caliphate and Japan, are offered military alliances Many in the polit and the public scream "Hypocracy" and "Counterrevolutionaries!" These people disappear rather quickly. Military and infrastructure improved.
  • Imperial Japan: We recognize the new Russian state and wish to establish trade with Communist Russia.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and provides the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment as well as integrate the Empire and its various ethnic groups in a way never before possible. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. The Empire continues to recover from the Italian Civil War, and while the war ended in a Roman victory, the war upset most of the previous assumptions that the Imperial government had. As a result, legislation and reform are passed in order to help heal the country and prevent issues that spawned the war in the first place. The bombing in Scandinavia is condemned, aid and support is offered to the Scandinavian monarchy, and security in Constantinople and other cities are stepped up in case others try such attempts in the Empire. In Egypt, after many years of toil and economic investment by the government, the Suez Canal finally opens to ship traffic. The canal offers a much shorter distance for ships traversing the world, and the Roman Empire stands to gain considerable wealth from possible tolls as well as trade. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. In order to breath life back into the dormant organization, the Roman Empire begins to supply and train other members of the Holy League with state of the art weapons, ships, and tactics.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: Work continues on improving the military, especially on modernising the fleet.
    • Imperial Japan: The combined Borelian, Roman, Mexacan, and Andean trade agreements and various industrial advisors from these nations (and we thank all these nations) in addition to the investment in our infrastructure, industry, and economy and the rapid modernization from last year (and previous modernization of our nation) to the virtual completion of modernization of mainland Japan and an economic boom of our nation and the expansion of the middle class. Land reform also continues. The Emperor looks out of his palace window and sees that mainland Japan has become a modern nation and now he invests in furthering this by investing in science, engineering, and education to further improve the condition of Japan. The modernization of Japan spreads to other places of the Empire as well. Infrastructure/econ turn. The recent celestial events increase the interest in astronomy as well as science in general and we further invest in science. The recent celestial events also increase nationalism, as we see ourselves as the comet that follows the sun, and we see ourselves as Venus transiting the sun. This encourages the Japanese people to reach new heights and a new sense of Japanese nationalism is born with us increasing the will and drive to advance in the modern age. As part of this, we recognize the new Russian State, the new Britanic state, and the new Scandivian state and wish to trade with all of them. We hear the giant explosion of 1883 from Krakatoa, and we send scientists to study the diaster. We also hear the explosiion of war, and thus we invest into building up our military and infrastructure. Mil/infra turn.

Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/econ turn.

Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Infra/econ turn. ' Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia.

  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.

1884

The government of the Roman Empire invites leaders or representatives of major nations to meet in Alexandria to discuss various claims over the African continent. (OTL Berlin Conference, will make the page as soon as possible) Conference of Alexandria page is up, go check it out. 

The talks between representatives of Emeraldie and France appear to go smoothly, with broad agreement on the ideas of the Emeraldie regarding independence and loyalty to the crown. No date is yet set for implementation of these ideas.

Remember, if you want your changes for the 1890 map, be sure to post them on the talk page. I won't edit the map to include yours unless you post, so get to it.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. In light of Mexaca's reckless decision to disregard the clearly stated will of the Belizian citizens, the State of Hostility declared last year is a raised to State of War. The UGK Royal Navy, better equipped and better trained than their Mexacan counterpart, easily establishes naval superiority in the gulf. On the mainland, the Mexacan army charges the well-prepared fortifications. The Keudez-Uzvark guns prove their worth, mowing down men by the score as they advance line abreast. In one lull in the battle, a general writes to the army command in Hamburg, "the advent of the Keudez-Uzvark, as well as the rumors of an even faster firing weapon in Andea, has rendered the line formation obsolete. We must adapt our tactics, or see our armies fall like grass after being cut by a scythe." Emperor Mary sends a call to arms to Hamburg's ally in the Netherlands, seeking their aid in SE Asia, warning them that Borealia would look to them after Hamburg. (Mod response, please). In light of the multiple acts of aggression against Hamburg's sovereignty, Emperor Mary calls for an emergency army of 900,000 men, to be deployed globally. By the end of the year, the first divisions are being sent to Kuba and East Asia. The colonial and princely armies of UGK East Asia, a 200,000 man army, are re-inforced by the arrival of 50,000 men from New Mecklenburg. The arrival of re-inforcements in Kuba brings the army there to 175,000.
    • Bengali Diplomacy: It is of utmost importance to Her Majesty, the Queen of Bengal that the Sultanate of Bengal and the United German Kingdoms reach an agreement in regards to conflicting interests in Burma.
    • UGK Dip: Emperor Mary will be delighted to discuss the shared interests in Burma following the current wars' conclusion.
    • HEY, YOU CAN'T SAY HOW MY TROOPS FIGHT! YOU PIECE OF CRAP YOU! YOU'RE META-GAMING.
    • Remeber that Andea didn't send any Maxim Guns to Mexaca. ~Edge
    • Mod Response, RNG. 1-5, no, 6-10, yes. Result was a 5. The Dutch decline. -MP
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at 175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little or no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]'
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominance against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Bengali Diplomacy: The trade agreements offered by the Algonquin Sachemate are accepted.
  • In Russia: It is time to spread the revolution, this time to the lands of the Kievan Rus'. Troops mass to retake their mighty homeland, and liberate the slaves of the nobleman of Ruthenia, and future paintings and stories would show it as a glorious crusade. In the homeland, centralization continues, as does land redistribution. People begin "moving" out of the cities to the vast fields of Russia. Economy and infrastructure turn.
    • There are no slaves in Ruthenia. That's just nonsense.
    • Not literally, LOL, just propaganda to my people. Communist rhetoric, ya know? Toby2: THEY CALL ME Mr. Awesome!!!
  • France: We begin military buildup and expand our economy. With our people in a state of stagnation, food shortages begin to hit the nation, along with a combination of anti-colonialist sentiment and corruption in the Parliament. With these protests hitting the nation, King Louis XIX is able to provide a meeting in front of the Parliament asking for action to be done to control the unrest, and simultaneously ensure that the people are fed, although Parliament is able to implement half of these measures due to corruption within the Parliament. As the year progresses, France begins to fall prey to intense rioting, and protests, as some are calling for a change in the government, with some advocating a Communist state and others a Representative Democracy. However, while rioting is being controlled, Parliament begins to issue orders to quell the unrest via lethal methods behind the back of Louis XIX and by December, the French Revolution begins, as angry citizens and renegade members of the French Armed Forces storm the Parliament building in Paris and the Palace in Versailles and most members of Parliament and King Louis XIX are killed, with the remaider fleeing to the Roman Empire, the Netherlands or Aragon. During the Revolution, though, the territories outside of Western Europe Europe and Northern Africa refuse to recognize the new government and declare sovereignty, as nations such as Mali and Colombia become independent states. Shortly after the French Revolution, a National Congress for the People of France is convened in Versailles, and the Congress is split between the pro-Communist and pro-Democratic members. However, as the year closes, it turns into infighting, with some bracing for Civil War.
    • Communist France Diplomacy: The People's Republic of France, under the behalf of the People's Army of France hereby requests the recognition of the new government from nations around the world, and the execution and/or arrest of any remaining lackeys belonging the capitalist French Kingdom/Empire.
      • Russian Diplomacy: Recognizes the Peoples republic of France, sends military aid, advisors, ships, and a few battalions of the Revolutionary guard.
      • Imperial Japan: We are willing to recognize and support the Communist French in return for the French Pacific colonies of the northern Philippines and Fiji.
        • Communist France Diplomacy: We hereby accept the offer of the Japanese.
    • Republican France Diplomacy: The Republic of France requests recognition from the international community as the rightful successor to the French Kingdom/Empire and the arrest of the remaining members of the French Kingdom, being charged of corruption, the abuses of the basic, natural rights of man, and crimes against the people of France to be tried under fair ruling and be brought to justice.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians heroically defend their country aggainst Russian Communist aggression.
  • 'Andea: Military stands at 450,000 men, with a large number of them being active in Vorylayacor and Osea to facilitate the reconstruction. In total, 100,000 men remain active in Osea and 200,000 in Vorlayacor. An additional 21,000 men are placed on the Falkland Islands to restock the military bases in the region. The military is reorganized. The First level of organization is an Army (four), the second is a Legion (five per Army), then a Corps (four per Legion), then a division (five per Corps), then a company (ten per Division). This system of military heirarchy is designed to establish a clear chain of command and improve organization. Labour strikes in the city of Arequipa break out. Though the National Guard is quick to disperse the strikes, the growing call for labour reforms begins to emerge. Andea also erects the first national library in the nation, combined with an increasing number of universities in Andea (including the territories) and Osea. Funding is also placed into primary education in order to increase literacy. Agricultural sectors of the economy also grow as well. The navy also sees expansion, with the construction of new shipyards and ironclads. Population stands at 39 million. The Marines, Navy and National Guard are reformed. Construction of the Trans-Continental Railroad continues, with the railroad now stretching from Cuzco to Buenos Aires. The Andean's reform the banking system to try to reduce the negitive effects of a possible panic. Plans to expand the railroad to Nov Xoyron continue as well. Thomas Galvin finishes his prototype "Galvin Repeater" (OTL Maxim gun) and it's a huge hit with the Andean military. By the end of the year, the Galvin repeater has been finished and is begining production for the Andean military. The Andean military and government keeps this discovery a secret for now. Turrerts are adopted into the Andean Navy. Andea abides by its agreement with Reme and decreases the number of men in Mexaca to 49,000. We accept Borelia's offer. We offer the Third Treaty of Chan Chan to the Emeraldie Government.
    • Vorlayacoran Territories: Following a similar model to the aftermath of the Osean civil war, Andean leaders co-operate with local leaders in order to rebuild the nation from the war. However, unlike in Osea, the area formerly known as Vorlayacor is annexed into Andea. Several areas in Southern Vorlayacor are admitted to the Andean Union. The military presence is gradually decreased down to 180,000 throughout the year as more and more municipalites are re-incorporated.
  • Osean Confederation: Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (1.3 million), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (750,000), Cordoba (550,000), San Salvacion (350,000), Buenos Aires (320,000), East Osea (300,000), Bolivia (230,000), Granada (220,000), Santiago (200,000), Castile (110,000), and Paraguay (80,000). More universities and libraries are funded by Andea. These institutions continue to promote a national identity rather than an ethnic identity. With the end of the war for Patagonia, the people of Osea celebrate. Many Oseans see co-operation with Andea as a critical thing now. The nation is granted all of the Patagonian Territories, further increasing Andea's popularity in the nation. Meanwhile, the navy of Osea is officially formed, with the nation constructing its first ironclad this year. The nation is also sold three ironclads from Andea. Rifles remain scarce in the Osean military. The total population of the nation stands at 7.6 million
    • Patagonia: The territory formerly under the British sees its first year separate from the British Empire since the War of the Grand Coalition. The Nation of Patagonia is incorporated as a territory of Osea, with the plans to draw up new Republics from the territory. Population stands at 2.4 million. The area is rebuilt by Andea and Osea efforts.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39.5 million.
    • National Developments: The grain, coal and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. However, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party earns much support and attracts the eye of Hamburgian leadership.
    • Commonwealth of Bavaria: The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history. Hans Truger makes significant gains with his German Unification party and invites Emperor Mary of Hamburg to a meeting discussing unification.
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust, serving from 1880 to 1885. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism.
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist, and many pro-Borealian and pro-Independence movements rise up. Pro-Borealian and Pro-independence movements gain strength and begin courting Borealian diplomats, despite mainland Bavarian opposition.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. One scientist demonstrates wireless communication with radios this year. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Machine guns begin to be manufactured from the European design. Anesthesia becomes commonplace for surgeries. Automobiles are becoming increasingly common, and this supply is beginning to cause horses to be more expensive. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with the Bengal Sultanate. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. The Curia approves the Mamterilleq Declaration, presented as a version of the New Munich declaration applied to Australia. Following suit with the Empire of Mexaca, Borealia declares war with Hamburg. Specifically, Borealia launches an amphibious attack against Hamburg's colonies in the Pacific. We invite our allies of Timor (mod response) and Japan to aid in the liberation of Hamburg's colonies, as well as the members of the New Munich Pact.
    • Bengali Diplomacy: Her Majesty, Sultana Nur Jehan accepts the Borealian offer of a trade agreement. However, no alliance shall exist between the Commonwealth of Borealia and the Sultanate of Bengal for that will most likely antagonize the United German Kingdoms.
    • Mod Response, RNG. 1-5 no, 6-10 yes. 6, Timor joins the war. 
  • Mexaca: Continues the invasion of Belize, with heavy casualties being inflicted upon our troops. The result is that cannons are used before an attack upon any position, followed by an infantry attack. Grenades are also used in attacks upon the enemy, and new shock-troops tactics are developed. Industrialization continues, and we request that Pskov join the war against the UGK.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at 81 million people, while the number of military troops stands at 62,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 37 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built. Industry continues improving and more factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. Two new ironclads are built and added to Moroccan Navy. Two of 14 wooden frigates are upgraded to armored iron frigates built by Moroccan harbors in Essaouira and Safi. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The military is improved. In light of the Mexacan invasion of Hamburger Belize, Duke Dietrich III offers Hamburg any support it may require.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. In order to further Hashemite plans of Muslim dominance in the Middle East, Hashemite troops invade Azerbaijan again in order to secure more of the Caspian coast for the Caliphate. Following the less than expected results in India, the Caliphate also sends troops to help Bengal in their jihad.With the invasion of Azerbaijan in full steam, we also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. We request Bengal, Russia, and Hamburg to send us minor aid if they wish, or can. We participate and aggressively claim in the Conference of Alexandria. We demand that France cedes its territories in Eastern Africa to the Caliphate unconditionally or face opposition in all matters, war or politically. 
    • Communist France Diplomacy: The People's Republic of France accepts the offer of the Caliphate.
    • Republican France Diplomacy: The Republic of France will not tolerate aggression against its territories, neither here in Europe nor anywhere else in the world, hence we shall decline.
    • Russian Diplomacy: Sends two battalions of the revolutionary guard to aid as a gesture of peaceful relations between our two vastly different realms
    • Bengali Diplomacy: A force of 80,000 troops has been directed from Surat to reach Kuwait and henceforth, aid the Caliphate against Azerbaijan.
  • Algonquia: Algonquia offers diplomatic (nothing tangible) support to the French Communists. The substantial Algonquian French community is almost exclusively far-left, the region having become something of a haven for French dissidents before the revolt, and, with the country shifting left day by day, support for the Communists is generally popular. The Anarcho-Syndicalists, seeking to increase their political power, sign an agreement with the Tribal Socialists, merging the two parties. This new party is the third-largest, behind the Social Liberals and Modernists. With the Treaty of Reyjkavik signed, the land exchange occurs, and most of Labrador is ceded to the UNR, while Algonquia occupies part of Helluland. This finally removes the last Arcadian population. The vassal is annexed, but the land gained front he land exchange with Scandinavia becomes a new vassal, Sahtudene, under an autonomous Inuit/Na-Dene administration. With war occurring between the New Munich Pact and Hamburg, Algonquia is conflicted, not wanting to betray its allies or invade a nation it respects. The conflict is resolved when Oldenburg enters the war, enabling Algonquia to attack Neu Juist and Neu Norderney. Algonquian troops move through Labrador before the land exchange is complete, invading the colonies. Algonquia mobilizes fully using its newly developed concscriptions system, while the military is eager to test new tactics and weapons.
    • Sahtudene: The new vassal expands aggressively to the north, growing by 5000 km this year. Many Algonquians, particularly Na-Dene and Inuit exiles returning to their homelands, immigrate, spiking the population. Aid is sent to the war.
  • Bahamas issues resolved'
  • Imperial Japan: The Empire of Japan honors the nation of Borelia, the nation who helped us modernize, by respecting their call to war for us against the nation of Hamburg. and declare war on Hamburg As a result, we fully mobilize our military and industry, dedicating our industry to the war. As a result, production of wartime materiel speeds up and industry expands. We also copy the design of the Roman rifles We have also acquired the Northern Philippines from France through peace, now we seek to acquire southern Philippines from Hamburg through war by joining on Borelia's side, and unite the Philippines under Japanese war. Nationalism also increases, as this is our first major international war. We send 10,000 troops to the Northern Philippines in order to fight for the Southern Philippines and supplies. The Emperor makes a speech to them 'Brave men, we thank you for your service in for our country, and for risking your lives to make the homeland stronger, to make Japan the strongest nation in the world. For to die for one's country is the greatest honor, and your service shall be remembered forever in Japan." With that, the troops are dispatched, as well as the Imperial Navy. We also send diplomats and officials to the Northern Philippines and send supplies to the Communist French. Military/Infra turn
  • Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/mil turn turn. Industrialization is sped up as a result of the wartime economy.
    • Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Industry also speeds up as a result of the wartime economy. Infra/mil turn.  
    • Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia. We rapidly increase ship building for the war. 
    • Japanese Philippines: We welcome the former French Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand the industry as a result of the war which has embroiled many nations. In addition, we use the Japanese Philippines as a landing point to invade the Hamburgian Philippines with.
  • Emeraldie: With the success of negotiations with France we begin to replace the French military based in our nation with local militia, loyal to the crown. New construction starts on the nation's ports, farms and mines to increase the nation's exports and economic strength. Efforts are made to support French nobility and aristocratic immigration to the kingdom, as part of this a new palace is designed in Barranquilla, which will serve as the King's residence once completed. We declare war on the UGK and mobilize our armies, sending our troops to invade Cuba.
    • ​Andea joins her allies and declares war.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines come into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politican, gains popularity, and gains influence thorugout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Reme, under tremendous pressure from her allies, declares war on Hamburg, and sends troops to into New Brunswick, and sends troops to New Hamburg, to bring the city down. Reme also condemns the Communist takeover of France, with Rouenelle not sending its taxes to the French government this year.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Last year's election results are as follows: The Grand Union looks to the east with despair. The Government officially refuses to recognize the Socialist Republic, and decides to advance some forces in, promising asylum to all current residents. Many flee in the coming months, the Grand Union sends agents into Russia for the smuggling of human refugees fleeing the "red terror". At least 1.5 million people have already fled Russia towards the Grand Union thanks to human smugglers. The Government has to redistribute the population, and begins to think about how to best do it, and many end up living in the Baltic States and Belarus, who are, compared to Pskov, have a much lesser population density. Belarus has more agricultural land than all the other states, so the predominantly farmer migrants go to work in its fields. With news of Hamburg going to war with new ally Mexaca, the Grand Senate holds an emergency session after the requests of the Supreme Prince. Two years before an election, the issue will come up, and so the government decides to act. the military was already mobilized on the Prussian border just a few months prior by the Supreme Prince in his position as commander-in-chief, and now the Senate has granted him premission to declare war to defend allies, and retake Prussia. He does so promptly, and the nations of the Grand Union, with 300,000 troops initially, invade the Prussian territories of the United German Kingdoms In a surprise attack. Deciding to adopt new tactics for training in the advent of the Keudez-Uzvards gun, the advancing armies decide to form defensive trenches in order to give them the advantage, and advance in deeper columns. The navies of our nations are evenly matched, perhaps the navies of the GU are even slightly superior due to the large amount of German naval ships fighting overseas. The declaration of war, however, does come at a cost, the Agrarian Party, which is against the war, splits with the government, leaving them in a position of "unsafe minority". The government also condemns Communist takeovers, saying that it is against the principles of democracy to violently sieze power. 
    • Russia Dip: After stealing our people, refusing to recognize us. You have broken the camel's back with your invasion of the Germans, and thus we join the war to defend our ally.
    • Also - stop making up numbers of people leaving. -Toby
    • In response the Grand Senate of the Grand Union approves of the institution of conscription of any man aged 18-40 after Supreme Prince Semashko's request. Under the Direction of General Evgeni Kondratiev, the conscripts begin to build defensive trenches, and train to use weapons. Full wartime economy mode is instituted. Many of the men saved from Communist Russia through human smuggling volunteer for the army, and GU agents begin to sow dissent  and form "patriot batallions" new Novgorod and Tver.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and provides the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment as well as integrate the Empire and its various ethnic groups in a way never before possible. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. The Empire continues to recover from the Italian Civil War, and while the war ended in a Roman victory, the war upset most of the previous assumptions that the Imperial government had. As a result, legislation and reform are passed in order to help heal the country and prevent issues that spawned the war in the first place. The bombing in Scandinavia is condemned, aid and support is offered to the Scandinavian monarchy, and security in Constantinople and other cities are stepped up in case others try such attempts in the Empire. In Egypt, after many years of toil and economic investment by the government, the Suez Canal finally opens to ship traffic. The canal offers a much shorter distance for ships traversing the world, and the Roman Empire stands to gain considerable wealth from possible tolls as well as trade. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. In order to breath life back into the dormant organization, the Roman Empire begins to supply and train other members of the Holy League with state of the art weapons, ships, and tactics. The revolution in France catches the Empire off guard, and the Empire steps up its naval patrols of the Mediterranean as a result. Weapons and support is given to the Democrats and whatever monarchists remain to help contain the Communist menace while support is also sent to the new Grand Duchy of Emeraldie. The Roman government issues a strong proclamation declaring that if more members of the Valois-Arc dynasty, relatives of the Imperial family are harmed, Roman forces will take military action.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.

1885

The fall of the French government has major repercussions. Many ministers and nobility of the former government flee to Emeraldie, where they form the Grand Duchy of Emeraldie. The French mainland and French North Africa remain in heavy fighting.

The outbreak of major war in Europe and Borealia is not good for many economies, and many trade routes are shut down as currencies and stock markets crash.

Following the outbreak of such major war, the Roman government postpones the Conference of Alexandria pending a resolution to the current situation.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The offer of Andea is accepted, with a statement that all the UGK wanted was normal relations with it. The apology of Reme is also accepted.
    • Bengali Diplomacy: Bengali Diplomats visit Hamburg in February to show solidarity with the United German Kingdoms in face of Borealian Aggression.
    • After Grand Union troops seize Memel and Russia invades, it seems we now have bigger things to deal with. The Supreme Prince goes to Hamburg to discuss a treaty, whereby Klapedia (Memel) is transfered back to Lithuania, and a free trade is instituted (along with partial payment from the GU to the UGK for damages). The war with Russia will continue, however. I hope Hamburg will see the threat posed by this expansionist Communist nation, that they will not leave "capitalist" or "bourgeois" nations alone until they are gone from this world.
      • You do realize I'm winning the front with you?
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at 175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little or no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. With a major war going on in Europe, Bengal happily watches and celebrates as the whitemen tear each other apart. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominancy against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians offer to send 70,000 soldiers to fight for Russia against Pskov in exchange for Russia recognizing the pre-war borders of Ruthenia and Russia. They also offer to lease the port city of Berdyansk to Russia for 100 years.
  • In Aragon, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Aragon lays claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. Aragon also seeks the return of northern Aragonese land from the French thieves. Aragon is willing to pay money, but would prefer the peaceful transfer of land. In the name of unification of the Spanish people, Aragon declares war on Castile. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • France: As the National Congress for the People of France breaks down, and the opening shots of the French Civil War are finally fired, both sides begin to attack each other with the support of other nations, with Republican France controlling a small portion of Southern France and French Northern Africa, while the Communists control most of mainland France, with Versailles being a heavy area of fighting for the initial two months, until the Democrats finally take the city. As the Republicans begin pushing North to Paris, the situation begins to look grim for the Communists. However, as September approaches, the Communists are able to win a final, costly victory against the Republicans in the Battle of La Rochelle, and on Orleans, which effectively turn the tide of the war to the Communist favor. Eventually, the Republicans are able to fight the Communists to a bloody stalemate in Versailles, as the Communists, by year's end begin the Second Battle of Versailles. Meanwhile, in Northern Africa, the Republicans are able to secure the region from the Communists, but with major victories early in the year, only to be preceeded by heavy, mounting defeats later on, the Communists are able to hold some ground on Northern Africa, awaiting re-inforcements from the mainland, and relying on local supplies to survive. Meanwhile, the portions of the Navy loyal to the Communist side is sent to fight against Pskov in the Baltic Sea, and a few dozen, highly trained batallions are deployed to the Baltics to take land on behalf of their Russian friends.
    • Mexaca: Will support the Communists in exchange for aid against the UGK.
    • Communist French Diplomacy: Due to our current friendly relations with Russia, we refuse the Mexacan offer.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • The Caliphate: Drastically tries to develop military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. In order to further Hashemite plans of Muslim dominance in the Middle East, Hashemite troops invade Azerbaijan again in order to secure more of the Caspian coast for the Caliphate. Following the less than expected results in India, the Caliphate also sends troops to help Bengal in their jihad. With the invasion of Azerbaijan in full steam, we also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. The Caliphate: with the war, we try to maintain our economy at a minimum. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. We also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. With the massive war to the west and us being forced to join it, we begin to ease off the tensions and hesitate to send aid to Hamburg. 
    • ​Bengali Diplomacy: Bengal offers full support to the Caliphate should it engage in war against any state.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39.5 million.
    • National Developments: The grain, coal and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. However, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party earns much support and attracts the eye of Hamburgian leadership. Bavaro-Germany, in honoring the Hamburgian alliances, joins the War. Troops are sent to Kuba and Prussia. The Diet ponders declaring war on Reme, and sends 82,000 troops to the Pearl River, ready to invade Reme if the time comes.
    • Commonwealth of Bavaria: The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history. Gilbert Schuster is assassinated by Conservative radicals this year, and hardliner patriot Markus Helenkamp succeeds him. A year long period of doleful mourning is declared. Helenkamp remains a committed Liberalist, but from his time in Stuttgart, becomes a heavy proponent of German unification and the maintaince of Bavaro-Hamburgian alliance. In  response to the several wars being declared on Hamburg, Helenkamp vows a full response. On June 7, he convinces the Diet to act, and the Diet votes to declare war on Pskov in defence of Hamburgian Prussia, fully mobilizing, sending modern artillery and weaponry, and a force of 200,000. After more developments, the Diet once more convenes for a war vote, and votes to expand the war into Kuba, fully mobilizing and sending a further 125,000 troops to fight alongside Hamburgian troops. 
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust, serving from 1880 to 1885. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist, and many pro-Borealian and pro-Independence movements rise up. Pro-Borealian and Pro-independence movements gain strength and begin courting Borealian diplomats, despite mainland Bavarian opposition. However, in seeing Borealia declare war on Bavarian ally Hamburg, pro-Borealism is dealt a heavy blow, while pro-independence movements are heavily derided by those living in Pearl River. In response to Reman aggression towards Hamburg, a force of 82,000 are sent to Pearl River, ready to invade Reme when war is declared.
  • 'Andea: We propose a solution to the war: Emeradlie and Andea and Osea withdraw from Kuba and normalize relations with the German Empire. Should the UGK reject, however, the nation of Andea begins conscription, raising their military to 550,000 men and preparing another 100,000 men for war in Kuba should Germany reject. The Military is set to number 675,000 come next year. With elections being held mid-war, the Nationals lose the presidential election but win in the Senate. Of the 435 seats in the lower house, the Nationals win 290, with the second largest party being the Unionist Party, followed by the Republican Party and the Conservitive Party. The President, however, is a memeber of the Unionist Party, who supports the re-admitance of Vorlayacor. This year sees the rise of a new party, the Hesperia First Party. This party calls for isolationism outside of the Hesperian Contentent. While they manage to get 6% of the popular vote, they fail to get a seat in the Lower or Upper House. The military draft is met with mixed reactions, with many seeing it as a positive though many also comment that it increases the power and influence of the military. The nation's industry sees a massive expansion as the industrial capacity needs to keep up with the demand for war. The work on the Trans-Continental Railroad is halted as funds are directed towards the war. The number of shipyards is nearly doubled in the nation. Population hits 40 million this year, with most of them being Quechua-Spanish Meztizos. Quechua remains the first language for most of the nation's residents. The government passes the Torrez-Sanchez Act, dictating election reforms, laws of succession for the president, and laws regarding running mates. Starting in the 1888 election, all presidents will pick their own vice president. Despite the ongoing war, the National Party remains popular in the countrysides of both Peru and the Amazon, though many major cities see the rise of the Hesperia First Reactionary Party. With the ongoing turmoil in Europe, both in the German wars and the Spanish wars, Andea increases the number of visas the government is able to administer. Average yearly wage sees a slight increase from 480 Reals to 486 Reals, while the number of days a worker works a year increases from 350 to 355. The tariff is raised to sponsor the rise of domestic industry, though this is unpopular in the rural areas of Apeac and the Amazon. The income tax is increased to 10% on those making more than 500 Reals and increased to 5% for those making more than 300 reals. The average price of land remains 50 cents per acre, a 5% increase from 1850. After six months of deliberation on the topic, the decision is made to re-admit the Vorlayacoran territories in 1887 and end federal occupation this year.
    • Vorlayacoran Territories: Following a similar model to the aftermath of the Osean civil war, Andean leaders co-operate with local leaders in order to rebuild the nation from the war. However, unlike in Osea, the area formerly known as Vorlayacor is annexed into Andea. Several areas in Southern Vorlayacor are admitted to the Andean Union.
    • Bavaro-German Dip: Seeing as how Bavaria is involved in Kuba, We think it appropriate to have a say in the peace proposal. Bavaria agrees to the terms proposed.
  • Osean Confederation: With the outbreak of war, the nation rapidly develops its industry and military to fit the need for war. Railroads are bulit up to allow the quick transfer of natural resources and industrial goods. The nation offically adopts conscription, raising a military of 150,000 men. Population stands at eight million, with the largest republic in the confederation being North Osea, with a popualtion of 1.3 Million people. Average yearly wage falls this year, from 350 Reals to 349 reals.
    • Patagonia: TBA
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be giving basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines comes to mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politican, gains popularity, and gains influence thorugout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Reme, seeing the threat from Baravia, withdraws from the already unpopular war with Neu Hamburg and Neu Brunswick. Reme writes a 50-page formal apology to the Duke of Hamburg, and was only called in because of the call to arms from her allies, who withdrew. Reme would like to normalize relations, and pay off the damage done to Neu Hamburg and Neu Brunswick.
    • ​Can you update your turn please? You have been a sovereign state long enough to not have the same president as when you where founded. ~Edge
  • Empire of Lanka: The Lankan government focuses on industrialization, infrastructural expansion, economic expansion, and military expansion. Dutch architecture and infrastructure such as canal design continue to influence Lankan culture. The army continues to be one of the most modern in Asia due to Dutch support. The Lankan army stays supplied with up-to-date with the newest rifles, side arms, and cannons. The army maintains Dutch military structure with infantry, cavalry, and artillery. They continue to train in Dutch tactics and warfare. As the populations move to the cities, more and more men are recruited in the Lankan army. The most recent census taken in 1860, accounts for 2,992,224 citizens. Although the expansion of Dutch trade ports in Lanka have stopped, they continue to be in heavy use with expansion of trade in Asia. Significant urbanization causes the cities of Waardige, Sri Jaywardenepura Kotte, Kandy, Kalmunai, and Galle, to be flooded with people. Waardige continues to be a trade, technological, and industrial center in Asia. The complex Waardige canal system continues to be used for trade. The Kust Weg continues to be used, mostly for military reasons. The Island Spoorwegmaatschappij (ISW: Island Rail Company) is formed by the government, which begins to use experimental railroads. The first railroad by the company is built in the same path as Kust Weg and is named Kust Spoorweg. Religion in the empire continues to be mixed with the three main religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Dutch Reformist being worshipped on the main island while there are a few animist natives on Nava Kotte. The previous education reform instituted by Ranjit I continues to be working successfully. The Lankan navy continues to be up-to-date with Dutch-supplied warships and the shared ownership of an ironclad. The provincie system instituted in 1773 is changed to be less feudal and more beaucratic, which basically turns them into an administrative division. The the title of the head of the provincie is changed from Count to Emperor's Commissioner. The King's Commissioner is also the head of the parliament (provinciale staten) in the provincie. Along with there being provinciale statens, a main parliament is also created. This main parliament will be assembled on the Emperor's command, and is used to decide issues, create public projects, and pass laws for the whole empire.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut Province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. One scientist demonstrates wireless communication with radios this year. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Machine guns begin to be manufactured from the European design. Anesthesia becomes common place for surgeries. Automobiles are becoming increasingly common, and this supply is beginning to cause horses to be more expensive. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. The Curia approves the Mamterilleq Declaration, presented as a version of the New Munich declaration applied to Australia. As the war continues with Hamburg, only a quarter of the lands in the Pacific are successfully occupied, while the combined military of Timor, Borealia and Japan seem miraculously thwarted by the colonial forces. The general public had been enthusiastic for the war, but begin to be disheartened by the appearance of Bavaria the mother country on the side of Hamburg. Hoping not to have to engage the mother land, Borealia offers peace with Hamburg if it can keep the parts of New Mecklenburg occupied in the war. Borealia also wishes to normalize relations after war with both halves of Germany. Many local relief efforts on behalf of New Munich are sent to Pearl River to aid refugees from the conflict.
    • Bengali Diplomacy: Bengali Diplomats visit the Curia in February to show solidarity with the Commonwealth of Borealia in face of Hamburger Imperialism.
  • Mexaca: Begins to feel that with its allies leaving the war, it will have to as well. Thus, Mexaca requests that it be given control of Belize, and in return, it will withdraw from the war. Troops are still in Belize until such time as peace is declared. Mexaca also demands that Hamburg agree to respect Mexacan claims in Belize.
  • Emeraldie: With the success of negotiations with France we begin to replace the French military based in our nation with local militia, loyal to the crown. New construction starts on the nation's ports, farms and mines to increase the nation's exports and economic strength. Efforts are made to support French nobility and aristocratic immigration to the kingdom, as part of this a new palace is designed in Barranquilla, which will serve as the King's residence once completed. Following the war with the UGK we re-organize our military into a modern entity rather than simply a collection of militias.
    • ​Emeraldie Dip: We offer a white peace to the UGK.
    • UGK Dip: The white peace offer is accepted, and Emeraldie is offered a trade agreement to normalize relations.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at 8,2 million people, while the number of military troops stands at 64,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 40 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built. Industry continues improving and more factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. The Moroccan Navy stops building ironclads, because number of ironclads now risen to 40. Three of 14 wooden frigates are upgraded to armored iron frigates built by Moroccan harbors in Essaouira and Safi. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
    • Just saying, you should probably slow down on the industrialization and population growth, it seems to still be going a bit too fast. -MP
  • In Russia, the war in Pskov goes with many casualties on both sides. Peace with Ruthenia is frowned upon by some, as the lands of the Kievan Rus' were not reclaimed, but the gain of the port city and help against the white menace is accepted. We invite Croatia to join the war.
  • Croatia: Decides to join the war.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Last year's election results are as follows: The Grand Union looks to the east with despair. The Government officially refuses to recognize the Socialist Republic, and decides to advance some forces in, promising asylum to all current residents. Many flee in the coming months, the Grand Union sends agents into Russia for the smuggling of human refugees fleeing the "red terror". At least 0.5 million people have already fled Russia towards the Grand Union thanks to human smugglers. The Government has to redistribute the populaiton, and begins to think about how to best do it, and many end up living in the Baltic States and Belarus, who have, compared to Pskov, a much lesser population density. Belarus has more agricultural land than all the other states, so the predominantly farmer migrants go to work in its fields. With news of Hamburg going to war with new ally Mexaca, the Grand Senate holds an emmergency session after the requests of the Supreme Prince. The War in Prussia shows some progress. the Civy of klapedia is captured, and some advances are made into Prussian territory. On the Home fromt, with Russia's invasion, casualties mount. The first wave of Russian troops rushed the lines formed by the defensive trenches, only to be mowed down by Keudez-Uzvards guns. Cavalry charges proved no match. Soldiers are horrified, as they often had to move piles of corpses out of the way in order to charge or clear a path for their repeating rifles. This does not come at no cost, however, as ammunition is not infinite, and after tens of thousands of dead Russian soldiers, they finally break through the first line of denfense, and cause carnage. they are stopped at the second line, which continues to hold. An offensive is launched on St Partriksburg, to cut of the Russian navy, which proves mildly succesful, with the city now under siege and blockaded. Some land is gained, and it is defended. The Patriot batallions continue to reign havoc, with one ringing all the bells of Novgorod in defiance of the Communist government (the bell being an ancient symbol of Novgorodian democracy, with the Veche Bell being rung to commence the Veche). Some even secretly string up a bell near the Yaroslavo court, and imitate the ringing of the Veche Bell in order to gather more followers in the city. In any case, at this point, Pskov believes the war with russia being important, and is willing to status quo ante bellum with an additional free trade agreement with it and Hamburg. Almost all resources going there.
  • Algonquia continues the war against Oldenburg, although the government is uncertain what purpose it serves with the larger conflict winding down. That said, Algonquia is pleased that Hamburg and the New Munich Pact appear to be reconciling, having never wanted conflict between them in the first place. The new steel breech-loaders and needle guns prove highly effective, giving Algonquian troops artillery superiority over Oldenburger ones. The reserves are mobilized, but not yet deployed, being kept in defensive posture. New minefields are laid in the St Lawrence estuary to protect against amphibious attack. Algonquian diplomats begin to consider what could be gained from the war.
  • Imperial Japan: The Empire of Japan honors the nation of Borelia, the nation who helped us modernize, by respecting their call to war for us against the nation of Hamburg. and declare war on Hamburg As a result, we fully mobilize our military and industry, dedicating our industry to the war. As a result, production of wartime materiel speeds up and industry expands. We also copy the design of the Roman rifles We have also acquired the Northern Philippines from France through peace, now we seek to acquire southern Philippines from Hamburg through war by joining on Borelia's side, and unite the Philippines under Japanese war. Nationalism also increases, as this is our first major international war. We send 10,000 troops to the Northern Philippines in order to fight for the Southern Philippines and supplies. The Emperor makes a speech to them 'Brave men, we thank you for your service in for our country, and for risking your lives to make the homeland stronger, to make Japan the strongest nation in the world. For to die for one's country is the greatest honor, and your service shall be remembered forever in Japan." With that, the troops are dispatched, as well as the Imperial Navy. We also send diplomats and officials to the Northern Philippines and send supplies to the Communist French. Military/Infra turn. We continue the war with Hamburg until a peaceful conclusion to the war is reached.
    • Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/mil turn turn. Industrialization is sped up as a result of the wartime economy.
      • Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Industry also speeds up as a result of the wartime economy. Infra/mil turn . ' 
      • Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia. We rapidly increase ship building for the war.
      • Japanese Philippines: We welcome the former French Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand the industry as a result of the war which has embroiled many nations. In addition, we use the Japanese Philippines as a landing point to invade the Hamburgian Philippines with.

1886

A hurricane strikes Texas, damaging a few towns.

Many cattle and a few people are killed in a devastating winter across the Great Plains in central Borealia.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg expands by 750 px. A deal is reached with Borealia, that they would exit the anti-German coalition, and a largely unpopulated section of New Mecklenburg is granted to them on a 60 year lease with the New Mecklenburgian government. Japan is also offered a deal: drop out of the war, and the UGK will grant them the southern Philippines and offer an alliance to them. 200,000 men from the relieved Kuban and Reman fronts arrive as re-inforcements to the besieged city of Belizestadt, continuing the war against Mexaca.
    • Imperial Japanese Dip: We accept the German terms and conditions.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at 175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little or no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. In one final offense, Bengali forces attack Vijaynagar and defeat the Hindu nation once and for all! [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominancy against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • '​'The Caliphate: Drastically tries to develop military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. In order to further Hashemite plans of Muslim dominance in the Middle East, Hashemite troops invade Azerbaijan again in order to secure more of the Caspian coast for the Caliphate. Following the less than expected results in India, the Caliphate also sends troops to help Bengal in their jihad. With the invasion of Azerbaijan in full steam, we also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. The Caliphate: with the war, we try to maintain our economy at a minimum. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. We also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. As we fade from the war with Hamburg, we prepare for actions against the Tartary. 
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians begin recovering from the damage caused by the brief conflict with Communist Russia. Roads are constructed specifically as an avenue of trade between Russia and their enclave at the port city of Berdanysk The profits from the lease of Berdyansk have gone into the repairing of Ruthenian infrastructure caused by the war.
  • In Aragon, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Aragon lays claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. Aragon also seeks the return of northern Aragonese land from the French thieves. Aragon is willing to pay money, but would prefer the peaceful transfer of land. The war against Castile continues. Aragonese forces with Roman help begin to close in on Madrid. Prince Peter, declares himself to be the rightful king of the Kingdom of Africa (obviously does not control the whole Africa), as his mother was the closest niece of the last king and he is her eldest child. As such he declares himself to be the King of Africa and begins rallying supporters to his side. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • France: As the French Communists take Versailles, and the Republicans flee to French North Africa, the Communists take complete control of the mainland and declare victory over the Republicans. However, French North Africa declares itself the Republic of Africa, and becomes a sovereign state. However, with the French Communists in control of France, the People's Republic of France is officially born as the French Civil War becomes effectively over. As a result, reconstruction of France begins, and the territories that were vassalized under the French Kingdom/Empire are annexed into France's main territory. Military buildup begins on Brittany's border while our Navy begins fighting Pskovite forces in the Baltic Sea.
  • Empire of Lanka: The Lankan government focuses on industrialization, infrastructural expansion, economic expansion, and military expansion. Dutch architecture and infrastructure such as canal design continue to influence Lankan culture. The army continues to be one of the most modern in Asia due to Dutch support. The Lankan army stays supplied with up-to-date with the newest rifles, side arms, and artillery. The army maintains Dutch military structure with infantry, cavalry, and artillery. They continue to train in Dutch tactics and warfare. As the populations move to the cities, more and more men are recruited in the Lankan army. The most recent census taken in 1860, accounts for 2,992,224 citizens. Although the expansion of Dutch trade ports in Lanka have stopped, they continue to be in heavy use with expansion of trade in Asia. Significant urbanization causes the cities of Waardige, Sri Jaywardenepura Kotte, Kandy, Kalmunai, and Galle, to be flooded with people. Waardige continues to be a trade, technological and industrial center in Asia. The complex Waardige canal system continues to be used for trade. The Kust Weg continues to be used, mostly for military reasons. The Island Spoorwegmaatschappij (ISW: Island Rail Company) is formed by the government, which begins to use experimental railroads. The first railroad by the company is built in the same path as Kust Weg and is named Kust Spoorweg. Religion in the empire continues to be mixed with the three main religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Dutch Reformist being worshipped on the main island while there are a few animist natives on Nava Kotte. The previous education reform instituted by Ranjit I continues to be working successfully. The Lankan navy continues to be up-to-date with Dutch-supplied warships and the shared ownership of an ironclad. The provincie system instituted in 1773 is changed to be less feudal and more bureaucratic, which basically turns them into an administrative division. The the title of the head of the provincie is changed from Count to Emperor's Commissioner. The King's Commissioner is also the head of the parliament (provinciale staten) in the provincie. Along with there being provinciale statens, a main parliament is also created. This main parliament will be assembled on the Emperor's command, and is used to decide issues, create public projects, and pass laws for the whole empire. This year the emperor called the main parliament to discuss the issue of public education and the idea of the creating a constitution. The Emperor and the parliament passed the Compulsory Education Act of 1886, which states that education in Lanka for the ages of five to ten is compulsory. In elementary school the children learn Sinhala and Dutch (Reading and Writing) and basic Mathematics. Also incorporated in this act is an edict against children working over thirteen hours a day. The emperor and parliament also created a constitution that officially set up the bureaucratic system.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. One scientist demonstrates wireless communication with radios this year. The streets are lit by lamps powered by kerosene. Scientists continue to improve particle physics, and work on developing mechanisms at smaller and smaller levels. Machine guns begin to be manufactured from the European design. Anesthesia becomes common place for surgeries. Automobiles are becoming increasingly common, and this supply is beginning to cause horses to be more expensive. More settlers continue to pour into the northern territories. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. Meat prices rise dramatically as a devastating winter loses many cattle in Flaschland. Many volunteer organizations rush to relieve the victims of this tragedy. As the war continues with Hamburg, only a quarter of the lands in the Pacific are successfully occupied, while the combined military of Timor, Borealia, and Japan seem miraculously thwarted by the colonial forces. The general public had been enthusiastic for the war, but begin to be disheartened by the appearance of Bavaria the mother country on the side of Hamburg. Hoping not to have to engage the motherland, Borealia offers peace with Hamburg if it can keep the colony of New Mecklenburg on a 99-year lease. Borealia also wishes to normalize relations after war with both halves of Germany. Many local relief efforts on behalf of New Munich are sent to Pearl River to aid refugees from the conflict.
  • Poland: In recent months of crackdowns against Communists and their sympathizers by the nobles and bourgeois, anger begins to swell among the proletariat and others that support Communism or otherwise sympathize with the poor treatment recently being given to the proletariat. A disgruntled, charismatic factory worker, named Rajmund Sokoloff, leads a protest in the capital city of Warsaw after a public shooting of some Communist sympathizers. The government cracks down on the protest and injures many protestors and even kills some. Rajmund Sokoloff escapes from the protest and on top of the public outrage against the government's reaction, rises to renown across the nation. He rises quickly through the ranks of the Communist rebels in Warsaw, and starts to organize the rebels with others throughout the country. In several months with rising numbers of people joining the Communist rebels, Rajmund and a group of ex-soldiers supported by a large group of protesters armed with tools and weapons, attack the Warsaw Citadel, which houses the royal family and the General Sejm. The coup d'état is successful and the Communist rebels establish control over Warsaw. The Communist Revolution quickly spreads throughout the rest of nation, seizing the country. A new Communist government is established as the People's Republic of Poland. Rajmund Sokoloff, now self-declared Chairman of the Communist Party and General Secretary of Poland, starts reforming the government and economy to the beliefs of Jakkopism-Ayernovism.
  • Mexaca decides to make peace with Hamburg, and sends diplomats, proposing that Hamburg agree that Belize is now a part of Mexaca in return for peace. Our forces begin an occupation of Belize. The economy begins to recover from the war.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The army and navy continue the valiant fight against Algonquia. Meanwhile, Duke Dietrich III Condemns Algonquia's actions in the strongest possible terms, considering he thought we had some sort of agreement. Anyway, the nation does its best to defend the colonies, because we don't have very many. Behind closed doors, however, diplomats offer Algonquia the bit of that island in the Adelheid Sea that Oldenburg still owns, as well as reparations, in order to avoid the loss of Neu Norderney, Neu Juist, or parts thereof. (Also, as a side note, I think it should be noted that I never actually declared war on anybody. I offered my support to Hamburg, but from what I've read, that support was never actually requested or accepted. Due to this, Algonquia never had a casus belli, and Oldenburg shouldn't have been included in the algorithm. However, since it's already happened, I will accept the consequences as the result of poor/ambiguous phrasing on my part. It's just a game, after all :), and it'd be a bit of a poor show to retroactively remove my support of an ally.)
  • Algonquia: Will accept the Oldenburger offer if Oldenburg will agree to share all naval technology with Algonquia and to provide a twenty-year lease on a small portion of Neu Juist on the Dutch border, plus transfer eight ironclads to Algonquia. Algonquia points out that the agreement was voided by Oldenburg's decision to war against Algonquia's allies. Algonquia offers a fifty-year NAP that wouldn't be limited in this way.
    • Oldenburger Diplomacy: Oldenburg agrees to the terms on the condition the peace begin immediately.
  • Andea: Military is enlarged to 675,000, though plans are to downsize the Military come next year. The Hesperia First party continues to grow. The military draft is met with mixed reactions, with many seeing it as a positive though many also comment that it increases the power and influence of the military. The industrial expansion slows, creating a minor panic in Andea. The normalization of Relations with Germany leads to increased trade, and an increased desire with bi-lateral relations with the UGK, seeing them as a good counter for Communist France. Population hits 41 million this year, with most of them being Quechua-Spanish Meztizos. Quechua remains the first language for most of the nation's residents. The government passes the Torrez-Sanchez Act, dictating election reforms, laws of succession for the president, and laws regarding running mates. Starting in the 1888 election, all presidents will pick their own vice president. Despite the ongoing war, the National Party remains popular in the countrysides of both Peru and the Amazon, though many major cities see the rise of the Hesperia First Reactionary Party. With the ongoing turmoil in Europe, both in the German wars and the Spanish wars, Andea increases the number of visas the government is able to administer. Average yearly wage sees a slight decrease from 486 Reals to 484 Reals, while the number of days a worker works a year increases from 355 to 356. Average work day remains at 11 hours. The tariff is raised to sponsor the rise of domestic industry, though this is unpopular in the rural areas of Apeac and the Amazon. The income tax remains set at 10% on those making more than 500 Reals and 5% for those making more than 300 reals. The average price of land remains 50 cents per acre, a 5% increase from 1850. With the Re-Admittance of Vorylaycor coming next year, the federal government ends the occupation. The federal government issues a formal apology for the burning of North Eastern Nov Xoyron, and spends considerable funds to reconstruct the city.
  • Osean Confederation: With the outbreak of war, the nation rapidly develops its industry and military to fit the need for war. Railroads are bulit up to allow the quick transfer of natural resources and industrial goods. The nation offically adopts conscription, raising a military of 150,000 men. Population stands at eight million, with the largest republic in the confederation being North Osea, with a popualtion of 1.3 Million people. Average yearly wage increases to 360 reals. Average work day remains at ten hours. The nation remains mostly Spanish in culture, though Quechua remains the most spoken language (though not the widest used or largest first language) with 66% of the population being able to speak Quechua, as opposed to 59% being able to speak Spanish. As stated, Spanish is still the most used langue and 48% of Oseans listing Spanish as their first language (as opposed to 36% listing Quechua as their first language). One thing of note regarding the lingustics of Osea is the dialect or diction of Spanish and Quechua. While Quechua in Andea and Osea is the same language, Quechua has Latin style pronunciation as opposed to traditional Quechua, while the areas once held by the British have a Germanic Influence on them. Spanish sees a similar development, with the larger, more traditionally Spanish republics using a high, traditonal diction as opposed to areas such as Paraguay, Santiago and Cordoba which have lower diction, noticeably different from that of Europeans.
    • Patagonia: Patagonia continues to recover from its occupation by the once stagnant British Empire. The nation Patagonia has three republics that will be admitted to Osea over the course of the next ten years. The first is the Republic of South Argentina, with one million people, to be admitted next year. The second is the Republic of Patagonia, with a population of 600,000. The third is the Republic of New Spain, with a population of 240,000.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at 8,3 million people, while the number of military troops stands at 66,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 40 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. Fewer schools, colleges and more houses are built. The earliest university in Morocco, named Royal Fez University, is founded in Fes by a group of education experts. The spread of university is high, resulting a new university will be founded in 1889 and placed in Rabat. Industry continues improving and few factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. A few docks and mosques are built. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service. Four of 14 wooden frigates are upgraded to armored iron frigates built by Moroccan harbors in Essaouira and Safi. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. Reme elects a new president and starts to build up its navy. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. There is also the creation ofNew navy ships, to help modernize the Reman navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the native dark-grey clusterfuck, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Coal mines are built, and starts churning out coal at a consistent rate. Coal mining plants are also started to be upgraded. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Industrialization of river areas continue, as well as the production of textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Reme sees the former French colonies of Wolof and the Kongo suffering, and offers to them a Reman protectorate status. (Moderator Response) Meanwhile, Reme refuses to recognize the Communist French government, and offers to take various refugees from Africa and former colonies to give the a home in Rouenelle (OTL Texas) (Moderator Response). Reme also asks the Roman Empire if they could create an alliance to counter any foreign threat, and asks for membership in Imperial League (That alliance thingy).
    • Mod Responses by RNG: Congo declines, Wolof accepts, the refugees accept.
    • Roman Diplomacy: The Roman Empire suggests that the Holy League is not suited for an alliance involving Reme or other trans-Atlantic nations, but is interested in an alliance to combat the Communist French and suggests drafting a new treaty for that purpose.
  • Russia: Continues to fight the imperialistic reactionary forces of the Grand Union.
  • Ethiopia: Crowns Eskander Menelik Kaffa Solomon as Emperor of Ethiopia. He praises the Treaty of Berenice and claims to have a line through his mother back to the Girguis dynasty. Ethiopia continues training in defense as rumors persist from the meetings in Alexandria. Meanwhile, Eskander is pressured by advisors to make reforms to the government, possibly using Rome as a model.
  • Indochina: Cambodia is rename Indochina by Cyril Van who is now the Communist leader of Indochina, as leader he is strongly anti-euro. Indochina boycotts all euro-made goods and ban all Euro travel to Indochina and we improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy and we also began kill Hamburg civilians living in Indochina
    • The Union of Borealia: Would like to offer a trade agreement with Indochina.
    • Indochina Dip: We agree and we ask Borealia to help use fight for Independence.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39.5 million.
    • National Developments: The grain, coal and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. However, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party earns much support and attracts the eye of Hamburgian leadership. Bavaro-Germany, in honoring the Hamburgian alliances, joins the War. Troops are sent to Kuba and Prussia. Germany celebrates Reman withdrawal, and continues working towards Andean and Borealian withdrawal.
    • 'Commonwealth of Bavaria: The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history. Markus Helenkamp continues serving as Chancellor, with elections coming up in 1890. The war continues tenatively in Borealia, with Reme withdrawing and Andea and Borealia considering withdrawal.' 
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust, serving from 1880 to 1885. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist. Pro-Borealian and Pro-independence movements collapse by 1886 in face of the war, and pro-Bavarian movements rise in their place. Despite the collapse of radical movements, the government of Pearl River graciously accepts Borealian aid and agrees to cover the logistical cost.
  • Emeraldie: With the success of negotiations with France we begin to replace the French military based in our nation with local militia, loyal to the crown. New construction starts on the nation's ports, farms and mines to increase the nation's exports and economic strength. Efforts are made to support French nobility and aristocratic immigration to the kingdom, as part of this a new palace is built in Barranquilla, which will serve as the King's residence once (estimates show it will completed by completed 1889). With the influx of skilled French ministers the government launches several administrative and bureaucratic reforms, as well as announcing the first democratic election in the nation scheduled for 1888.
    • ​Emeraldie Dip: We accept the UGK's trade offer and hope we can put the recent conflict behind us.
  • Algonquia: Brings the war with Oldenburg to an end this year. With the war having largely occurred as a result of obligations to allies on both sides, there is no particular malice in the war, and the government encourages the Oldenburger government to accept its offer for peace. The Algonquian army withdraws from Neu Juist and Neu Norderney. The Tribal Socialists and other leftist parties combine to force a constitutional amendment this year requiring all political parties to "support the empowerment and economic protection of all classes", disenfranchising their political enemies and forcing all parties to shift leftwards. Public opinion is fairly supportive, with the right-wing parties virtually unsupported. Widespread land reform begins this year, but the government is stymied by a lack of tax revenue to fund new welfare policies. Military strategists and accountants both look to the Caribbean, where vulnerable colonial powers hold land offering a great deal of revenue, plus a captive market for sugar and other vital goods, that would hugely advantage Algonquia financially. With Pskov heavily engaged in the Baltic, it is selected as the target, and the still-mobilized forces are shifted into a naval expeditionary force to invade the Pskovian Bahamas, with all of Algonquia's ironclads being launched into a crushing force, including 60,000 troops. Ostensibly, the government offers the motive of liberating the native Bahamians from imperialist oppression.
    • French Diplomacy: France offers to the people of Algonquia naval support during your offensive.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and provides the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment as well as integrate the Empire and its various ethnic groups in a way never before possible. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. The Empire continues to recover from the Italian Civil War, and while the war ended in a Roman victory, the war upset most of the previous assumptions that the Imperial government had. As a result, legislation and reform are passed in order to help heal the country and prevent issues that spawned the war in the first place. The bombing in Scandinavia is condemned, aid and support is offered to the Scandinavian monarchy, and security in Constantinople and other cities are stepped up in case others try such attempts in the Empire. In Egypt, after many years of toil and economic investment by the government, the Suez Canal finally opens to ship traffic. The canal offers a much shorter distance for ships traversing the world, and the Roman Empire stands to gain considerable wealth from possible tolls as well as trade. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. In order to breath life back into the dormant organization, the Roman Empire begins to supply and train other members of the Holy League with state of the art weapons, ships, and tactics. The revolution in France catches the Empire off guard, and the Empire steps up its naval patrols of the Mediterranean as a result. Weapons and support is given to the Democrats and whatever monarchists remain to help contain the Communist menace while support is also sent to the new Grand Duchy of Emeraldie. The Roman government issues a strong proclamation declaring that if more members of the Valois-Arc dynasty, relatives of the Imperial family are harmed, Roman forces will take military action.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.

Imperial Japan: The Empire of Japan honors the nation of Borelia, the nation who helped us modernize, by respecting their call to war for us against the nation of Hamburg. and declare war on Hamburg. As a result, we fully mobilize our military and industry, dedicating our industry to the war. As a result, production of wartime materiel speeds up and industry expands. We also copy the design of the Roman rifles We have also acquired the Northern Philippines from France through peace, now we seek to acquire southern Philippines from Hamburg through war by joining on Borelia's side, and unite the Philippines under Japanese war. Nationalism also increases, as this is our first major international war. We send 10,000 troops to the Northern Philippines in order to fight for the Southern Philippines and supplies. The Emperor makes a speech to them 'Brave men, we thank you for your service in for our country, and for risking your lives to make the homeland stronger, to make Japan the strongest nation in the world. For to die for one's country is the greatest honor, and your service shall be remembered forever in Japan." With that, the troops are dispatched, as well as the Imperial Navy. We also send diplomats and officials to the Northern Philippines and send supplies to the Communist French. Military/Infra turn. We continue the war with Hamburg until a peaceful conclusion to the war is reached. Since a peaceful solution has now been reached with Hamburg, we withdraw out of the war and acquire the Southern Philippines next year, as power is being transferred. We also start withdrawing our troops and they should be home next year. We also transition toward a peace time economy.

    • Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Infra/mil turn turn. Industrialization is sped up as a result of the wartime economy.
      • Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Industry also speeds up as a result of the wartime economy. Infra/mil turn . ' 
      • Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia. We rapidly increase ship building for the war. 
      • Northern Philippines: We welcome the former French Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand the industry as a result of the war which has embroiled many nations. In addition, we use the Japanese Philippines as a landing point to invade the Hamburgian Philippines with.
  • United Nordic Republics
    • ​Republic of Denmark: The repair of Copenhagen continues this year. Hans Kuschek continues to lead the free people of Denmark with a 63% approval rating. Denmark continues sending troops to Iceland as the Winter War draws to a close. With the Treaty of Rekyjavik being signed, Denmark applauds Iceland's efforts in its victory against Borealia and Algonquia. It eagerly anticipates a return to peace. Roads are repaired in Jutland after the winter as docks are serviced. In the meantime, a telephone line is established between Zealand and Jutland, allowing for faster communication. A phone line across the Kattegat is planned as early as 1884. A new protected cruiser class, the Stejlt-Class, is produced. The Stejlt-Class is replacing the Jernskrog-Class cruiser, which saw heavy action during the Nordic Revolutions. There are over 200 ships in total flying Danish colors.
    • Republic of Sweden: Rebuilding efforts in Stockholm continues. Three former members of the Reiksdag of Sweden are found and beheaded in Copenhagen. The Intemerhuvudsak is invented. This device beheads people quickly and painlessly. Construction on the new Riksdag Building continues  in Stockholm. The roads to Finland and Norway are repaved. These roads, which saw extensive damage due to weathering and the Nordic Revolutions, are in dire need of repair. Currently, the Riksdag is dominated by the Social Democratic party, with a whopping 82% of popular vote going to the Social Democratic party of Sweden. Juhanni Eriksen remains in power. Sweden adopts the Stejt-Class protected cruiser. Currently, there are 93 ships in total flying Swedish colors. The military of Sweden improves.
    • Republic of Norway: Christjen Sigurson continues his term as President of the Norwegian Republic. Norway produces the Knulleskipetditt-Class protected cruiser, deciding the Stejt-Class is unfit for patrolling the North Sea and the open waters. Three are produced. In the meantime, Norway sends troops to the cause in the Winter War, congratulating Iceland on a victory. Christjen Sigurdson states the necessity of good relations with Algonquia and Borealia following this war. "Now that we've settled these differences, let's get back to making money." There are currently 193 ships flying Norwegian colors.
    • Republic of Finland: Jonna Kekkonnen visits the Karelian cities this year. She wishes to improve the cities of Karelja, forming the Karelja Initiative. In the meantime, landlines to Sweden and Norway are proposed. Construction is mid-way by Christmas this year. She sends money and foodstuff to Helluland in the Winter War. The Anaalihävityksen-Class protected cruiser is commissioned, though Finland is more interested in buying used ships from the Nordic Revolutions where applicable. The city of Helsinki sees drastic growth this year as urbanization in Finland continues. Kekkekon continues to fight for women's rights. There are 73 ships in Finland's navy.
    • Commonwealth of Iceland: Iceland's immediate concern, the Winter War, seems to be over. The people of Iceland rejoice. Literacy programs in Iceland begin. According to the Alting, too many people 'can't figure out how to spell our damn words right.' Reykyjavik sees improvements this year. The University of Reykyjavik opens its doors in 1881. The university is noted for being the 'North Pole of Acadamia.' Speaking of the North Pole, expeditions are sent to the Arctic ice cap to investigate the North Pole. The navy of Iceland improves, with the Augapóker-Class cruiser being released this year.

1887

Thank you to whoever started the new turn in light of my internet problems. -MP

The rapid rise of Communist revolutions, first in Russia, then France, and now Poland strikes fear into the hearts of many in the western world. Some less than liberal governments begin to persecute or even purge Communists or Communist sympathizers.

Southern France is hit by an earthquake, killing 2000. Another earthquake strikes Sonora, Mexico with no accurate count of damage.

Floods in China kill an estimated 700,000 to a million people, raising some fears of the status of the Shun's divine mandate.

Cambodia player, I'm going to have to render your previous activity as Cambodia as both implausible and out of order. If you ask nicely and stick to a more plausible progression of events, I'm sure Hamburg's player will reconsider. 

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The process of normalizing relations with Borealia, Japan, Reme, and Andea progresses though, too, UGK continues to fight Mexaca and Pskov. By now, German troops have pushed the Pskovians out of Memel, and secured the pre-war border. Fighting continues, dragging Pskovian resources away from their war with Russia. In domestic matters, the UGK finds no need to crack down on Communists, as public opinion is massively against that ideology.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultana Nur Jehan Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultana of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1880, and she initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals whilst the population of the entire Sultanate stood at 175 million. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower towards the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali. However, it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace towards industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]'
    • Khedivate of Punjab: Sardar Salahuddin Khan ruled over the state of Punjab, appointed as an Amir. The population of Punjab stood at 45 million. Under his rule, improvements of the infrastructure of Lahore was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Punjab as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal, Gujarat and Bahamani was extended into Punjab. The Punjabi military was modernized, standing at roughly 120,000 and a military base was established at Taxila, the latter which would act to secure Punjabi dominancy against Afghan raids. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango, rice and tobacco maintained a major presence in Punjabs exports as well. Along the same time, the Punjabi textile industry reached new heights. Fighting continues in Vijaynagar [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • People's Republic of Poland: General Secretary Rajmund Sokoloff continues reorganization of the Polish army and government according to the principles and ideas of, and the process is completely finished by the middle of February. Dawid Dubanowski, a friend of Rajmund's and another higher up in the Polish Communist Party, is appointed Foreign Minister. Konstantyn Starek, another higher up in the PCC and an ex-general, is appointed Head of Military. Foreign Minister Dubanowski supports a policy of forming relations with other Communist nations and spreading the revolution throughout other countries in diplomatic ways. He sends offers of alliances to all other Communist nations in the world. Meanwhile, HM Starek passes some minor reforms into the military then declares war upon Pskov, fielding 100,000 troops are fielded into the nation. The Polish Army tries to co-ordinate its attacks into Pskov with Russia, Croatia, France, and Ruthenia. The Polish Navy is also sent into the Baltic Sea to help the French and Russian Navies against the Pskovian Navy.
    • Ruthenia Diplomacy: The Ruthenians politely remind the Polish that they only sent military support as part of the peace deal ending the brief Russian-Ruthenian War. Ruthenia is not directly involved in the current war against Pskov.
    • Polish Diplomacy: Foreign Minister Dubanowski offers an official state apology to the state of Ruthenia for the political miscommunication caused by the Poland.
  • In Aragon, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Aragon lays claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. A result of the war in Castile is increased interest in automatic weapons. As Aragonese forces take Madrid, a United Kingdom of Spain is declared. The last remaining vestiges of Castilian opposition are defeated once news of the surrender reaches them. Nationwide elections are planned for next year. Also, through the Aragonese Dominion of Antarctica, Aragon lays claim to French Kerguelen. The chaos in France allows for a relatively peaceful transition of power and Kerguelen becomes a crown possession of Spain. Meanwhile, Prince Peter continues to claim the Kingdom of Africa and gains more support. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. Trade also expands with Hawaii, which becomes an impressive conduit of trade for Roman merchants and businesses. As such, the Empire takes an interest in Hawaii, but rather than try to annex it, as it is too far from Roman authority to do so, Roman officials instead would like to see a strong and friendly Hawaii. Weapons and officers are sent to Hawaii to help train their soldiers and protect their independence. A Roman inventer manages to produce a revolutionary machine, a contraption that actually propels itself through means of an internal combustion engine. While remarkable in its innovation, it currently serves little purpose as an alternative means of transport for those willing to go slower than a horse. Troops are stationed and readied in Italy and Roman Africa in case any potential war with France or French remnants in Africa or the French Isles. Roman support for the new United Kingdom of Spain is high, and Roman officials are pleased with the kingdom's progress thus far. Some even hope the kingdom could unify all of Iberia and present a united southern front to the French Communists. The Roman government also sees potential in a possible alliance with the Reman Empire against the French, despite a conflicted and mostly cold history and lingering suspicion.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. Radios become commonplace for media communication. One engineer claims that electricity can be more efficient than oil. As scientist explore mechanisms at smaller levels, it is theorized that all matter behaves like a particle and wave. Machine guns continue to improve with Andean supplies. Fatalities in surgeries are drastically reduced with modern medicine. Automobiles completely replace travel by horse. Monitor-class submarines are built on the Roman design. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. The Great Hamburger War ends this year with the succession of the Australian Territory from Hamburg. Although many people see this as a triumph over Germany in the Pacific, the vast majority are ecstatic to see the war reach a conclusion. The veterans enter triumphantly in the streets of New Vienna and San Francisco. Politically, however, a dramatic shift unfolds as the rising adult generation withdraws support from Mexaca, seeking instead a better compromise with Bavaria in the future. In the Pacific, in order to protect Australian peoples from imperialism, Borealia offers to support the Timor Sultanate as a protectorate (Mod response, please).
    • The Territory of Australia: Was ceded to Borealia after Hamburg's tactical defeat in the Pacific. The ports there are expanded and enforced to establish a central base of operations to further control trade in the Pacific. Complete economic and religious freedom is given to the native peoples, who are mostly Muslim at this time due to influence from Timor. They are also given rights similar to citizens of Borealia, but the territorial government remains separate from the Curia. Schools and media centers are established, that teach Borealianist philosophy along with essential education. An irrigation program begins aid expansion in the outback.
      • I'd assumed that the majority of the population of that region would be some form of Christian due to the Hamburger (and prior to that, Hispanic) influence, but then again, I may well have underestimated the Marrikuwuyanga influence. As far as the outback irrigation schemes goes, I would personally advise caution (remember the outback is still extremely arid even today), but I would also suggest taking a look at this (almost) contemporaneous OTL scheme to bring water to the dry South-East of Western Australia for inspiration, if you haven't already. Callumthered (talk) 12:38, June 3, 2015 (UTC)
    • Timor Response: The Sultanate or whatever its technically called declines protectorate status, but would agree to an alliance.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. Reme elects a new president and starts to build up its navy. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. There is also the creation ofNew navy ships, to help modernize the Reman navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the native dark-grey clusterfuck, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Coal mines are built, and starts churning out coal at a consistent rate. Coal mining plants are also started to be upgraded. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Industrialization of river areas continue, as well as the production of textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton. Meanwhile, a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. Wolof is introduced as a protectorate of Reme this year, as well as a number of refugees coming in from former French Africa (Est. 50,000). People are getting anxious over the threat of Communism to Reme, and vote on the crackdown of Communist sympathizers and their families.
    • Protectorate of Wolof: Wolof begins to build up its military and economy. Reman food and supplies come in to help the formerly starving nation, as well as the Reman military to help sustain order. Some representation is given in the Reman Parliament, to give Wolof a minimal say in how Reme should be run. Meanwhile, plans to industrialize the coastal areas as well as plans for fortifications are presented, and should be executed by 1890.
    • Bengali Diplomat: Bengal is shocked to see Reme establish Wolof as a protectorate, and condemns the action, demanding Reme to refrain from such acts until the Conference of Alexandria reaches a decision.
  • Mexaca: Begins pushing for peace with Hamburg, and still holds down Belize. Industralization continues, and rebuilding begins in Sonora following the earthquake. In response to the idea of Communism rising in Mexaca, the Emperor decides to stamp out such dangerous ideas, and instead maintains Parliament as non-Communist.  As more industrial goals are introduced, more and more factories are built, creating machinery for Mexaca.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at 8.4 million people, while the number of military troops stands at 68,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 40 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. Fewer schools, colleges and more houses and mining planets are built. The mining plants produces materials coal and iron, which later used for products in industries. The first known Moroccan museum, the Royal Moroccan Historical Museum, is opened in Rabat. However in later years, two new museums shall be built in 1890. Industry continues improving and few factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. A few docks and mosques are built. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, few new trains are produced and two new railway lines are opened in service. Six of 14 wooden frigates are upgraded to armored iron frigates built by Moroccan harbors in Essaouira and Safi. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • Indochina: Indichina votes to legalize weed and we ask for Freedom (mod response) we ask France to help us. We also raid Japanese ships for cargo.
    • What the actual fuck?
    • Removed because failure to follow orders. -MP
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: With peace concluded with Algonquia, the government sets to work fulfilling its side of the bargain. The Adelheid Sea Territory is ceded to Algonquia without much hassle, and the first batch of ironclads is delivered. The lease-territory is slightly more difficult, what with having to deal with vocal residents with parliamentary representation and all, but what can be done? The territory is ready for (temporary) handover by the middle of the year.
  • Russia: We support the revolution in Poland. Continue to fight Pskov. Ivan Ayernov's son dies of a disease. Sponsors Communist organizations globally with financial aid. military and industry
  • Emeraldie: New construction starts on the nation's ports, farms and mines to increase the nation's exports and economic strength. Efforts are made to support French nobility and aristocratic immigration to the kingdom, as part of this a new palace is built in Barranquilla, which will serve as the King's residence once (estimates show it will completed by completed 1889). With the influx of skilled French ministers the government launches several administrative and bureaucratic reforms, as well as announcing the first democratic election in the nation scheduled for 1888. Naval bases are built along our northern and eastern coast, as well as in the Galapagos islands.
    • ​​Emeraldie exploration: Emeraldian sailors land on an island in the central Pacific (OTL Clipperton Island). The island is claimed in the name of the crown and named Louis island, in honour of the King.
    • Borealia would like to invite Emeraldie to join the Trans Pacific Trade Alliance.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39.7 million.
    • National Developments: The grain, coal and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. However, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party earns much support and attracts the eye of Hamburgian leadership. Bavaro-Germany, in honoring the Hamburgian alliances, joins the War. Troops are sent to Kuba and Prussia. Germany celebrates the dwindling war, and many citizens are glad it is over.
    • 'Commonwealth of Bavaria: The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history. Markus Helenkamp continues serving as Chancellor, with elections coming up in 1890.' The war winds down. As the war winds down, Markus Helenkamp declares that a united German nation, where Bavaria, Hamburg and Oldenburg form one nation, can be formed.
    • 'C'ommonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust, serving from 1880 to 1885. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism.
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist. Pro-Borealian and Pro-independence movements collapse by 1886 in face of the war, and pro-Bavarian movements rise in their place. Despite the collapse of radical movements, the government of Pearl River graciously accepts Borealian aid and agrees to cover the logistical cost.
  • Algonquia: Sends new supply and re-inforcement convoys to the Imperial Sea, continuing its campaign against the Pskovian territories there. Algonquia focuses its efforts on winning over the German and native portions of the population ignoring the ethnically Russian portion. These groups are allowed to settle old ethnic scores going back to the original colonization, while basic local self-government is instituted, although made up solely of collaborators. To encourage this, Algonquia revives the old Prussian name for the area, the Zollern Insels, while emphasizing its substantial Algonquian German minority, garrison troops from whom are sent to the islands. In the southern, mainly Russian areas, natives are empowered instead. The capital of Hechingen is heavily garrisoned and refortified. Back in Algonquia, the area leased from Oldenburg is re-inforced with major supply networks, including a series of fortified blockhouses, batteries, and major harbour facilities, are constructed to allow it to serve as a base for mobilization. The navy is also built up substantially, while the economy recovers from many decades of war. Trade grows with Bengal, the Zulu and Madagascar following new trade deals, while large-scale tea and coffee cultivation in the Zollern Insels begins. With flooding in China, Algonquian merchants carry back some numbers of refugees. Deals are signed with Chinese village leaders in the area for emigration, resulting in some 15,000 Chinese fleeing to Algonquia. Most embark in the Zollern Insels or in Labrador, where they are resettled.
    • Sahtudene expands 5000 km north, reaching the Arctic Sea at Tuktoyaktuk. Limited immigration continues to occur, and the local economy develops substantially.
  • Ethiopia continues training in defense as rumors persist from the meetings in Alexandria. Meanwhile, Eskander is pressured by advisors to make reforms to the government, possibly using Rome as a model. We investigate the costs of upgrading naval vessels, especially those for trade.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Last year's election results are as follows: The Grand Union looks to the east with despair. The Government officially refuses to recognize the Socialist Republic, and decides to advance some forces in, promising asylum to all current residents. Many flee in the coming months, the Grand Union sends agents into Russia for the smuggling of human refugees fleeing the "red terror". At least 0.5 million people have already fled Russia towards the Grand Union thanks to human smugglers. The Grand union forces fight Russia with Ferrocity. with heavy casualties. while they have been repulsed from their siege of St Patriksburg, the defensive positions are holding as mountains of corpses pile up. The Patriarch of Pskov denounces this as a fratricidal conflict and excommunicates the leaders of Russia and Poland. The City of Klapedia exchanges hands a few times this year, as well as the position, with the territory ending the year in Grand Union hands, as they build defensive positions around the city. More trenches are built to hault Polish and Russian advances, with many troops being diverted from the Prussian front to fight poland(being very close). The War with Russia is ending up as one of the most violent and brutal, and bloody conflicts in history. The Cirrent government stays in power, because the entire parliament decided to postpone elections until war's end almost unanimously. 
  • Imperial Japan: The 10,000 soldiers from the Hamburgian War return home in victory and are hailed as national Japanese heroes and there is a massive parade as a result of the victory and those who lived and died hold the highest honors in Japan, and shall forever go down in Japanese history as heroes. As a result of this victory, there is a surge of Japanese nationalism across the empire, for the tradition of both Japanese honor to our allies and Japanese militarism has resulted in the unification of the Philippines under Japanese rule, the fuffilliment of our debt to Borelia, and a new friend, our former enemy Hamburg. These positive results ensure that the Japanese way is the best way, and we continue our militarism. While the war increased the build up of our industry, it also negatively effected the economy. As such, we continue to fund our military and work on our economy. In order to build up our economy, we propose a trade pact with all the participants of the Great Hamburgian War. We also send emergency aid to those afflicted by the tsunami in China by giving them food, water, and shelter.
      • Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Econ/mil turn./
        • Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Industry also speeds up as a result of the wartime economy. Econ/mil turn. ' 
        • Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia. We rapidly increase port building to make this city a hub for trade.
        • Northern Philippines: We welcome the former French Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand our economy.
        • Southern Philippines: We welcome the former Hamburgian Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand our economy. 
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to repair the damage caused by the brief war with Russia.
    • Roman Diplomacy: The Roman government asks if Roman troops and supplies could be sent to Ruthenia during the post-Eastern War treaty process to ensure the treaty process does not establish a hostile Communist state on the Roman border.
    • Ruthenian Dipomacy: The Ruthenians accept, on the condition that the Romans aid in the pursuit of potential Communist sypathizers among the returning soldiers.

1888

The Great Blizzard of 1888 occurs, killing over 400 along the east coast of the Reman Empire.

August 28 of this year is the longest date in Roman numerals so far (VIII-XXVIII-MDCCCLXXXVIII)

Obligatory ATL Jack the Ripper event.

Oh no, all of the scares.
  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. With Borealia and Andea out of the war, and reinforcements arriving, UGK troops begin pushing back Mexacan troops in Belize, and the UGKs stronger economy catches up. Pskov is also offered a peace: 15 year NAP, war reparations, and a white peace in regards to territory. Emperor Mary sends a letter of apology to Duke Dietrich of Oldenburg, apologizing for the lack of support the UGK sent to Oldenburg when its Borealian territories were invaded. With the war winding down, Emperor Mary agrees to meet with Bavarian diplomats for a serious discussion on German unification.
  • Bavaro-German Dip: We support Emperor Mary's offer of peace with the Pskovians. We also thank her greatly for agreeing to meet with Bavarian leadership concerning unification. Markus Helenkamp, Bavarian chancellor, is willing to discuss the future of the HRE, monarchy, national currency, and national government. He also optimistically sets a unification date for sometime in 1895.
  • Grand Union Dip: The Supreme Prince agrees to peace, and asks if a free trade agreement between the nations would be beneficial (especially since the Germans have seen the light of the Communist threat). The front has been less than bloody, with almost no casualties.
  • Mexaca is stunned that the UGK will not agree to peace, as it has been requesting it for a long time now. Mexaca demands that the UGK allow Belize to become part of Mexaca or be free, as it was driven out years ago.
    • UGK troops were never driven out of Belize, and now that Borealia and Andea have signed treaties of peace, Mexaca is called upon to withdraw in its entirety from Belize, and agree to a white peace.
    • Mexaca accepts.
  • Oldenburger Diplomacy: Duke Dietrich responds to Emperor Mary's letter, saying that Oldenburg bears no grudge whatsoever for Hamburg's lack of support, as naturally the protection of one's own territory must come first. Besides, the negotiated peace with Algonquia is not too unpopular. His Grace also touches on the subject of German Unification, saying that whilst Oldenburg supports a unified federal government in principal, it would have to insist on maintaining its own military, diplomatic corps, and control of its colonies (much like Bavaria in the OTL German Empire).
  • Indian Empire: Sultana Nur Jehan took on the title of Farah Shah and was proclaimed the Empress of India on 1888, starting a new era. The Indian population rose to about 318,772,000, and the flocking of the people to coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Kolkata, Mahmudpur, Karachi, Mumbai, Surat and various other minor cities and townships throughout the state. The Indian army, equipped with semi-modern armaments stood at 720,000 troops with an additional 250,000 reserves whilst the Imperial Guard was composed of 20,000 troops and the armament industry thrived on local and national level, with armaments rarely imported from foreign nations. The Indian navy experimented on ironclads and had started production of larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate ironclads for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets with 40% of the national navy harboured at the Andaman and Kolkata ports. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, exporting various crops to foreign nations with the international jute and cotton textile production largely under Indian control. Along the same time, the Indian Renaissance were in full swing, with movements such as the Young India movement having aided in national modernisation and a massive rise in literacy and education. Moreover, promotion of industrialisation and capitalism allowed the Imperial authorities to construct a Trans-National Railway, connecting the entire Empire as well as introduction of many other commodities such as telephones. [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • Khedivate of Bahamani: The Capital of Bahamani was Hyderabad and the population was 60.2 million. The Bahamani military was modernised, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, with 25% of the national navy harboured at Bahamani ports. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile and fishery industries reached new heights.
  • Khedivate of Punjab: The Capital of Punjab was Lahore and the population was 45.8 million. The Punjabi military was modernised, standing at roughly 160,000. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as rice, cotton, cotton and fruits maintained a major presence in Punjab's exports as well. About the same time, the Punjabi rock-salt, sugar and leather industries were of significant importance as well.
  • Khedivate of Vijaynagar: The Capital of Vijaynagar was Coimbatore and the population was 36.4 million. The Vijaynagari military was modernised, standing at roughly 120,000 with 15% of the national navy harboured at Vijaynagari ports. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as tea, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Vijaynagars exports as well. About the same time, the Vijaynagari fishery and leather industries were of significant importance as well. Vijaynagar requests Lanka to return the city of Chennai to its rightful owners, Vijaynagar.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • France: Military buildup on Brittany's border and reconstruction of the nation continues. The nation officially declares the First General Secretary of the People's Republic of France to be Jacques Deschalms, as he takes the lead of the nation, and officially decides to withdraw the fleets from the Baltic Sea, noting Russia's recent victories, and feeling we have done what we could in order to help Russia against the capitalist pigs of Pskov. Noting recent Roman military buildup, we begin mobilizing our forces in the Mediterranean Sea in order to prepare for potential conflict, and we officially ask the nations of Russia and Poland for the formation of a new alliance to help spread Communism's values across the world. And hence, we propose a conference in Orleans, to prepare for this historic day. Should this occur, the People's Entente shall be born.
  • Polish Diplomacy: General Secretary Sokoloff thinks hosting a conference in Orleans a good idea and promising for the future of Communism. 
  • People's Republic of Poland: General Secretary Sokoloff goes to Minsk to meet with the leaders of the other nations involved in the Russian Invasion of Pskov to decide the clauses of the peace treaty. After he returns from the peace treaty, he decides to put into place his Ten Year Plan to reform the country according to the principles and ideals of Jakkopism-Ayernovism. The reforms plan to increase the industrial capacity of Poland significantly and launch the nation on to the world playing field by starting with partial collectivization of farms based locally with quotas generalized to the area. After five years implementing the partial collectivization policies, the boost in farming products will be used to sustain a larger industrial worker population, and in turn the farming equipment and fertilizer produced in some factories will be used to even further increase farming capacity. The ability to make weapons and other military products within the nation instead of importing them will also be of much use to the state. While the General Secretary puts his plans into place, HM Starek orders a purge of the military now that the immediate Pskovian threat is dealt with, as he wants to make sure all soldiers are loyal to the state. New training programs are implemented within the army to improve its quality. The navy is also given some reforms to its training policies, though less focus is put into it as Poland's naval capacity is fairly small. Foreign Minister Dubanowski, meanwhile, funds peaceful Communist organizations in Croatia, Czechia, Silesia, Slovakia, Romania, and Transylvania.
  • In Spain, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Spanish merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Spanish in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Spanish also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the burgeoning growth of the economy, new jobs created in the five major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza, Valencia, and obviously Madrid. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Spain continues to lay claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Spain commissions a more ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff. A result of the war in Castile is increased interest in automatic weapons. The federal government moves to Madrid. Nationwide elections are held. Kerguelen becomes a crown possession of Spain. Meanwhile, Prince Peter continues to claim the Kingdom of Africa and gains more support. The new Spanish government condemns the Communists. Spain begins to seek out dissenters in Communist France to weaken the French government's strength. Aragon proposes the formation of an anti-Communist league. Businessman and war hero Juan Pedro Maria Roberto de Trista y Scrawlando becomes the new Prime Minister of Spain. Spain extends a hand of friendship and protection toward Britanny. Spain also proposes the formation of a diarchic personal union with Navarre, as the King of Spain and the King of Navarre are descendants of the House of Trastamara and share descent from King Charles IV of Aragon. This is especially important with the Communist threat to the North. #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • The house of Trastamara in Navarre accepts the diarchich dynastic and real union of Navarre and Spain. (Succession law changed to agnatic seniority)
  • Reme: Would be interested in keeping the French Communist threat in check.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. Radios become commonplace for media communication. One engineer claims that electricity can be more efficient than oil. As scientist explore mechanisms at smaller levels, it is theorized that all matter behaves like a particle and wave. Machine guns continue to improve with Andean supplies. Fatalities in surgeries are drastically reduced with modern medicine. Automobiles completely replace travel by horse. Monitor-class submarines are built on the Roman design. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. An expedition was sent north this spring to investigate a possible Northwest Passage, but quickly lost contact. A second team was sent that discovered the camp filled with carefully dismembered corpses, with the name "Jack" written in blood on a tree. It is conjectured that someone on the expedition had an undiagnosed psychopathy, but the bodies were so mutilated it was impossible to tell who it was. In the following months, a series mysterious murders of young women began appearing in the Gothic, gas-lit streets of New Vienna. Although they are similar in nature to the Jack incident, the investigation still continues.
  • The Territory of Australia: The ports continue to be expanded and a new city is planned to be the center of trade in the Pacific. As more businesses are taken up by Muslim natives, the German colonists begin migrating to the new communities farther inland. Schools and media centers are established, that teach Borealianist philosophy along with essential education. An irrigation program continues to be designed, with the hopes of aiding settlements in the outback.
  • Mexaca would like Borealia to honour the New Munich Pact one last time and help us secure Belize.
  • Mexaca: Deploys another 100,000 men to Belize to drive back the Germans, and begins putting pressure on Borealia and Reme to do something to aid us in securing the freedom of Belize. Railway links are secured across the nation, and troops are transported to the front lines. However, many are growing tried of such a long war for so small a piece of the Earth, and thus, demonstrations begin in Mexaca City and several other cities, demanding peace. The Emperor is also considering that peace may be the best course of action for Mexaca, and thus sends diplomats to the UGK, requesting that peace be made, with one condition: That Hamburg agree to withdraw its claims on Belize, and agree that it is Mexacan. As more people begin pushing for peace, a notable drop occurs in the economy, and many feel this may affect Mexaca more deeply if left unchecked.   
  • Emeraldie: New construction starts on the nation's ports, farms and mines to increase the nation's exports and economic strength. Efforts are made to support French nobility and aristocratic immigration to the kingdom, as part of this a new palace is built in Barranquilla, which will serve as the King's residence once (estimates show it will completed by completed 1889). Following recent elections, the royalist are victorious and form a coalition government with the industrialist party. Naval bases are built along our northern and eastern coast, as well as in the Galapagos islands. Following the discovery of Louis island, the government announces an expedition fleet will be sent from the Galapagos islands to Australia, with the hopes of claiming any uncontrolled islands for the crown.
  • ​​Emeraldie Dip: We accept Borealia's offer and join the Trans Pacific Trade Alliance.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. Reme elects a new president and starts to build up its navy. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. There is also the creation of New navy ships, to help modernize the Reman navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the native dark-grey clusterfuck, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Coal mines are built, and starts churning out coal at a consistent rate. Coal mining plants are also started to be upgraded. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nationwide railroad being considered to be built. Industrialization of river areas continue, as well as the production of textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton. Meanwhile a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. The party slowly gains more popularity, getting more seats in Parliament by each election. People are getting anxious over the threat of Communism to Reme, and vote on the crackdown of Communist sympathizers and their families. Reme proposes that, The Ancient Greek Olympics be revived, with all of the nations sending teams of chosen sports to Rome.
  • Protectorate of Wolof: Wolof begins to build up its military and economy. Reman food and supplies come in to help the formerly starving nation, as well as the Reman military to help sustain order. Some representation is given in the Reman Parliament, to give Wolof a minimal say in how Reme should be run. Meanwhile, plans to industrialize the coastal areas as well as plans for fortifications are presented, and should be executed by 1890.
  • Roman Diplomacy: The Roman government is interested in the idea of reviving the Olympics as an athletic competition, and will look into reviving them in the near future. 
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at 8.5 million people, while the number of military troops stands at 70,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 40 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. Fewer schools, colleges and more houses and mining planets are built. The mining plants produces materials coal and iron, which later used as products from industries. Industry continues improving and few factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. A few docks and mosques are built. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, few new trains are produced and one new railway line are opened in service. Seven of 14 wooden frigates are upgraded to armored iron frigates built by Moroccan harbors in Essaouira and Safi. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.
  • Czechia: We continue to build up our military. The building of a railroad throughout the nation continues. Factories continue to make railroad tracks. Many factories hire both men and women. The farming industry is still the biggest industry of the nation. The Voivode son Maximilian is born this year. We close the borders and not allow anyone that is Communist into our nation. People that are Communist in our nation is killed in the town square in front of a crowd of people.
  • Algonquia: Focuses on rebuilding after years of conflict against various countries. The military develops somewhat, wight he new Oldenburger ironclads integrated into the navy. The military also focuses on replicating captured Uzvards guns from the Pskovian Imperial Sea, with them expected to be widely available in three years. In the Imperial Sea territories, the Prussian and Livonian heritage of the areas is revived with enthusiasm. Many Prussians and Livonians fleeing the devastating conflict in the Baltic emigrate here, while Russian, feeling the hostile effects of the new government, begin to leave. the territories will be reconstituted as the autonomous territory of Lukayan next year. Immigrants also arrive from Czechia, particularly Communists fleeing persecution.
  • Sahtudene: Continues to expand 5000 km, with the port of Tuktoyaktuk built up on the Arctic Sea. A railway begins construction to the south, which will link the Arctic Sea with the Adelheid Sea and the Atlantic. Icebreaking ships come into widespread use as explorers begin to chart the area, hoping to find the Northwest Passage. If an outlet to the Pacific is found, experts estimate it will be usable for two months of the year. In preparation, soundings are taken and channels established for navigation.
  • In Russia, the returning troops after the defeat of the imperialists and the near certain reunification of Russian peoples come home to a massive military parade. Due to the celebrations, this year has an upwards population growth as the nation experiences a mini baby boom. Land redistribution continues
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. Trade also expands with Hawaii, which becomes an impressive conduit of trade for Roman merchants and businesses. As such, the Empire takes an interest in Hawaii, but rather than try to annex it, as it is too far from Roman authority to do so, Roman officials instead would like to see a strong and friendly Hawaii. Weapons and officers are sent to Hawaii to help train their soldiers and protect their independence. The Roman Empire responds to the increased activity of Communist insurgency in other nations in Europe by adopting a more aggressive stance. Troops are sent to Gothia and Ruthenia to protect against potential Communist aggression from the north, and the Roman Empire begins making overtures towards Croatia, Transylvania and Vlachia to prepare their defences. The Roman Empire also deploys more troops to Italy to present a clear vanguard against potential aggression from Communist France or Lombardy, which is seen as soon falling to Communists while the Roman Empire is forbidden by treaty to intervene. However, the Senate still demands that something aggressive be done to further solidify Imperial power in the face of the threat. The consul at the time, an Egyptian by the name of Michael Ramzy, makes a stirring speech in support of strengthening the Empire's southern flank by invading the newborn Republic of Africa. While some are skeptical of the merits of such an expedition, Ramzy is able to convince many that the potential benefits are greater than potential risks. He concludes his speech with a historical reference, stating that "Carthago libera est," or "Carthage must be freed." He ends his speech to the sound of much applause, and the vote to initiate military intervention in Africa is passed soon after. Roman forces invade Africa from Sicily and Barbaria, rapidly taking border towns and moving towards the major cities. Within the end of the year, Roman forces have managed to take Tripoli, Carthage, and Constantine while marching on Algiers and Oran and other cities in the country. African forces are demoralized and weak from the long and disastrous war in France. When the year ends, the intervention is going well, but unfinished. With such high spirits, the Senate turns to more peaceful issues such as exploring the possibility of restarting the Olympic games as an international athletic competition.
  • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
The Caliphate: Drastically tries to develop military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. In order to further Hashemite plans of Muslim dominance in the Middle East, Hashemite troops invade Azerbaijan again in order to secure more of the Caspian coast for the Caliphate. Following the less than expected results in India, the Caliphate also sends troops to help Bengal in their jihad. With the invasion of Azerbaijan in full steam, we also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. The Caliphate: with the war, we try to maintain our economy at a minimum. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. We also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. We welcome and accept all trade proposals. Caliph Malik incorporates the old system of Shura, democratically electing the new Caliph after the current one those, however, with a little modification: Caliphs can be only elected from one of four houses, all of them requiring to come from Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House), eventually tracing their origins back to Prophet Muhammad: House Hashemite, House Abbasid, House Fatimid, and the Alids or House of Ali, to please the Shias living in the realm. In his old age, Caliph Malik also begins to hold a Shia-Sunni conference, hoping to heal the schism. However, by the end of the year, Caliph Malik dies of illness. With the massive support and legitimacy Caliph had for implementing the system, his young son, at age 19, Hakeem, is elected as Caliph. 
  • Andea: Military begins to downsize, from 675,000 to 600,000. The Hesperia First party continues to grow. The military draft is met with mixed reactions, with many seeing it as a positive though many also comment that it increases the power and influence of the military. The industrial expansion slows, creating a minor panic in Andea. The normalization of Relations with Germany leads to increased trade, and an increased desire with bi-lateral relations with the UGK, seeing them as a good counter for Communist France. Population hits 41 million this year, with most of them being Quechua-Spanish Meztizos. Quechua remains the first language for most of the nation's residents. The government passes the Torrez-Sanchez Act, dictating election reforms, laws of succession for the president, and laws regarding running mates. Starting in the 1888 election, all presidents will pick their own vice president. Despite the ongoing war, the National Party remains popular in the countrysides of both Peru and the Amazon, though many major cities see the rise of the Hesperia First Reactionary Party. With the ongoing turmoil in Europe, both in the German wars and the Spanish wars, Andea increases the number of visas the government is able to administer. Average yearly wage sees a slight decrease from 486 Reals to 484 Reals, while the number of days a worker works a year increases from 355 to 356. Average work day remains at 11 hours. The tariff is raised to sponsor the rise of domestic industry, though this is unpopular in the rural areas of Apeac and the Amazon. The income tax remains set at 10% on those making more than 500 Reals and 5% for those making more than 300 reals. The average price of land remains 50 cents per acre, a 5% increase from 1850. With the Re-Admittance of Vorylaycor coming next year, the federal government ends the occupation. The federal government issues a formal apology for the burning of North Eastern Nov Xoyron, and spends considerable funds to reconstruct the city.
  • Osean Confederation: With the outbreak of war, the nation rapidly develops its industry and military to fit the need for war. Railroads are bulit up to allow the quick transfer of natural resources and industrial goods. The nation offically adopts conscription, raising a military of 150,000 men. Population stands at eight million, with the largest republic in the confederation being North Osea, with a popualtion of 1.3 Million people. Average yearly wage increases to 360 reals. Average work day remains at ten hours. The nation remains mostly Spanish in culture, though Quechua remains the most spoken language (though not the widest used or largest first language) with 66% of the population being able to speak Quechua, as opposed to 59% being able to speak Spanish. As stated, Spanish is still the most used langue and 48% of Oseans listing Spanish as their first language (as opposed to 36% listing Quechua as their first language). One thing of note regarding the lingustics of Osea is the dialect or diction of Spanish and Quechua. While Quechua in Andea and Osea is the same language, Quechua has Latin style pronunciation as opposed to traditional Quechua, while the areas once held by the British have a Germanic Influence on them. Spanish sees a similar development, with the larger, more traditionally Spanish republics using a high, traditonal diction as opposed to areas such as Paraguay, Santiago and Cordoba which have lower diction, noticeably different from that of Europeans.
    • Patagonia: Patagonia continues to recover from its occupation by the once stagnant British Empire. The nation Patagonia has three republics that will be admitted to Osea over the course of the next ten years. The first is the Republic of South Argentina, with one million people, to be admitted next year. The second is the Republic of Patagonia, with a population of 600,000. The third is the Republic of New Spain, with a population of 240,000.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39.7 million.
    • National Developments: The grain, coal and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. However, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party earns much support and attracts the eye of Hamburgian leadership. Bavaro-Germany, in honoring the Hamburgian alliances, joins the War. Troops are sent to Kuba and Prussia. Germany celebrates the dwindling war, and many citizens are glad it is over.
    • Commonwealth of Bavaria:  The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history. Markus Helenkamp continues serving as Chancellor, with elections coming up in 1890. The war winds down. As the war winds down, Markus Helenkamp declares that a united German nation, where Bavaria, Hamburg and Oldenburg form one nation, can be formedHelenkamp travels to Hamburg to meet with Emperor Mary and discuss terms of unification.
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Germain Hust, serving from 1880 to 1885. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism.
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist. Pro-Borealian and Pro-independence movements collapse by 1886 in face of the war, and pro-Bavarian movements rise in their place. Despite the collapse of radical movements, the government of Pearl River graciously accepts Borealian aid and agrees to cover the logistical cost.
  • Empire of Lanka: The Lankan government focuses on industrialization, infrastructural expansion, economic expansion, and military expansion. Dutch architecture and infrastructure such as canal design continue to influence Lankan culture. The army continues to be one of the most modern in Asia due to Dutch support. The Lankan army stays supplied with up-to-date with the newest rifles, side arms, and artillery. The army maintains Dutch military structure with infantry, cavalry, and artillery. They continue to train in Dutch tactics and warfare. As the populations move to the cities, more and more men are recruited in the Lankan army. The most recent census taken in 1860, accounts for 2,992,224 citizens. Although the expansion of Dutch trade ports in Lanka have stopped, they continue to be in heavy use with expansion of trade in Asia. Significant urbanization causes the cities of Waardige, Sri Jaywardenepura Kotte, Kandy, Kalmunai, and Galle, to be flooded with people. Waardige continues to be a trade, technological and industrial center in Asia. The complex Waardige canal system continues to be used for trade. The Kust Weg continues to be used, mostly for military reasons. The Island Spoorwegmaatschappij (ISW: Island Rail Company) is formed by the government, which begins to use experimental railroads. The first railroad by the company is built in the same path as Kust Weg and is named Kust Spoorweg. Religion in the empire continues to be mixed with the three main religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Dutch Reformist being worshipped on the main island while there are a few animist natives on Nava Kotte. The previous education reform instituted by Ranjit I continues to be working successfully. The Lankan navy continues to be up-to-date with Dutch-supplied warships and the shared ownership of an ironclad. The provincie system instituted in 1773 is changed to be less feudal and more bureaucratic, which basically turns them into an administrative division. The the title of the head of the provincie is changed from Count to Emperor's Commissioner. The King's Commissioner is also the head of the parliament (provinciale staten) in the provincie. Along with there being provinciale statens, a main parliament is also created. This main parliament will be assembled on the Emperor's command, and is used to decide issues, create public projects, and pass laws for the whole empire. Last year the emperor called the main parliament to discuss the issue of public education and the idea of the creating a constitution. The Emperor and the parliament passed the Compolsory Education Act of 1886, which states that education in Lanka for the ages of five to ten is compulsory. In elementary school the children learn Sinhala and Dutch (Reading and Writing) and basic Mathematics. Also incorporated in this act is an edict against children working over thirteen hours a day. The emperor and parliament also created a constitution that officially set up the bureaucratic system. This year parliament wants to start to pursue a policy of faster industrialization, and to do this they passed the Edict of 1888 which abolished the caste system and slavery as well. They hope to pass more industrialization edicts in the following years.
  • Ethiopia continues training in defense as rumors persist from the meetings in Alexandria. Meanwhile, Eskander is pressured by advisors to make reforms to the government, possibly using Rome as a model. We investigate the costs of upgrading naval vessels, especially those for trade. We look to meet with the leaders of Rome and Croatia to secure some investment in our nation. 
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: Work continues on rebuilding the nation and colonies after the war. Another two ships are sent to Algonquia persuant of the treaty.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to repair the damage caused by the brief war with Russia.
    • Imperial Japan: The 10,000 soldiers from the Hamburgian War return home in victory and are hailed as national Japanese heroes and there is a massive parade as a result of the victory and those who lived and died hold the highest honors in Japan, and shall forever go down in Japanese history as heroes. As a result of this victory, there is a surge of Japanese nationalism across the empire, for the tradition of both Japanese honor to our allies and Japanese militarism has resulted in the unification of the Philippines under Japanese rule, the fuffilliment of our debt to Borelia, and a new friend, our former enemy Hamburg. These positive results ensure that the Japanese way is the best way, and we continue our militarism. While the war increased the build up of our industry, it also negatively effected the economy. As such, we continue to fund our military and work on our economy. In order to build up our economy, we propose a trade pact with all the participants of the Great Hamburgian War. We also send emergency aid to those afflicted by the tsunami in China by giving them food, water, and shelter.
        • Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Econ/mil turn./
          • Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Industry also speeds up as a result of the wartime economy. Econ/mil turn. ' 
          • Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia. We rapidly increase port building to make this city a hub for trade.
          • Northern Philippines: We welcome the former French Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand our economy.
          • Southern Philippines: We welcome the former Hamburgian Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand our economy. 

1889

A total Solar eclipse occurs over much of central Borealia this year.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg expands by 750 px. Celebrations are held throughout the nation as the people celebrate the end of the war. Many consider the war a victory, seeing the ceded land to Japan and Borealia as mostly worthless and of little value. Despite the celebrations, army generals are in deep debate over infantry tactics, seeing the devastating effect entrenched rapid-fire weapons have against massed infantry charges. Several battleships, comparable to otl pre-dreadnoughts, are commissioned, replacing obsolete ironclads. Meanwhile, Emperor Mary agrees to a tentative 1895 date for unification, and suggests drafting a treaty to be ready. She also puts forward Oldenburgs terms to the Bavarian diplomats.
  • Indian Empire: Sultana Nur Jehan took on the title of Farah Shah and was proclaimed the Empress of India on 1888, starting a new era. The Indian population rose to about 318,772,000, and the flocking of the people to coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Kolkata, Mahmudpur, Karachi, Mumbai, Surat and various other minor cities and townships throughout the state. The Indian army, equipped with semi-modern armaments stood at 720,000 troops with an additional 250,000 reserves whilst the Imperial Guard was composed of 20,000 troops and the armament industry thrived on local and national level, with armaments rarely imported from foreign nations. The Indian navy experimented on ironclads and had started production of larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate ironclads for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets with 40% of the national navy harboured at the Andaman and Kolkata ports. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, exporting various crops to foreign nations with the international jute and cotton textile production largely under Indian control. Along the same time, the Indian Renaissance were in full swing, with movements such as the Young India movement having aided in national modernisation and a massive rise in literacy and education. Moreover, promotion of industrialisation and capitalism allowed the Imperial authorities to construct a Trans-National Railway, connecting the entire Empire as well as introduction of many other commodities such as telephones. [Mil/Eco Turn]
  • Khedivate of Bahamani: The Capital of Bahamani was Hyderabad and the population was 60.2 million. The Bahamani military was modernised, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, with 25% of the national navy harboured at Bahamani ports. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. About the same time, the Bahamani textile and fishery industries reached new heights.
  • Khedivate of Punjab: The Capital of Punjab was Lahore and the population was 45.8 million. The Punjabi military was modernised, standing at roughly 160,000. In the economic sector, wheat played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as rice, cotton, cotton and ruits maintained a major presence in Punjab's exports as well. About the same time, the Punjabi rock-salt, sugar and leather industries were of significant importance as well.
  • Khedivate of Vijaynagar: The Capital of Vijaynagar was Coimbatore and the population was 36.4 million. The Vijaynagari military was modernised, standing at roughly 120,000 with 15% of the national navy harboured at Vijaynagari ports. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as tea, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Vijaynagars exports as well. About the same time, the Vijaynagari fishery and leather industries were of significant importance as well.
  • Indian - Roman Diplomacy: The Indian Empire requests the Roman Empire to return the city of Chennai back to India. They're informed that they shall be allowed to maintain control of the Christian sacred sites, if they return the city. We're willing to pay money now gib clay. 
  • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
  • People's Republic of Poland: General Secretary Sokoloff condemns the atrocity committed by the evil state of Czechia. "This uncalled murder of innocent Communists calls for retaliation!" says the General Secretary in a speech in Warsaw, and calls upon all Communist nations in the world to save the people of Czechia from any further atrocities committed by their government toppling the government by force. Foreign Minister Dubanowski sends an ultimatum to Czechia: Allow Poland to install a Communist government in Czechia, or be attacked. Meanwhile, HM Starek pulls 90,000 of the 100,000 troops on the Pskov front to the Polish-Czech border in the case of a war. Although the General Secretary regrets the possible setbacks the war may have upon the reforms being put into place, he believes that the defense of Communists worldwide is of foremost importance. However even though the possibility of war looms upon the horizon, the reforms do continue to be put into place, and the process of partial collectivization continues, and its effects are already seen with a general increase in production. He also prepares for the possibility of a conference of the world leaders of Communist countries in Orleans this year.
    • Czechia Dip: We execpt the ultimatum.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements. Monarch Heonjong continues to plan new reforms for Korea and continues investing heavily in technology and science. Meanwhile, industrialisation and modernisation continues in Korea (similar to OTL Japan's Meiji Restoration).
  • France: Military buildup on Brittany's border and reconstruction continues from the war. Meanwhile, we begin to implement new education programs to make education in France free and available to all. Meanwhile, we begin spreading our influence beyond France's borders, that being said, we begin to fund Communist rebellions in Lombardy and in the Netherlands, hoping to install pro-Communist governments there. We also begin funding several Communist rebels in Bavarian and Hamburger Germany, and begin to host the Orleans Conferenece. Meanwhile, General Secretary Jacques Deschalms establishes his 10 Year Plan to help reconstruct France from the Civil War, among which includes the following: modernizing the French economy through government-controlled spending, the creation of key departments to help in this goal, and assist our farmers in producing the necessary food supplies that France needs, since among the causes for the French Revolution was food shortages, and some significant spending being done on technological advancements, in particular those needed for our military and industrial capability. Meanwhile, we condemn the Czechian government for their "White Terror" against Communists in Czechia, and begin to mobilize more of our Navy into the Mediterranean to keep Rome out of our island territories in the region.
    • Czechia Dip: We tell the French to calm down and we will not kill any more Communists.  
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Both the economy and military improve across all the provinces of the Union. The thriving industries now run entirely on petroleum, procured from the oil collected from Alaska and California. While the traditional hearts of each city, particularly New Vienna, continue to reflect the same idyllic Baroque style, newer expansions to these urban centers are packed with factories and other industrial equipment. Cities recently built in southern California and northern Alaska are much more developed, as some parts of the Kiatagmiut province are almost unrecognizable. The economy of the Union stems from the exportation of natural resources. San Francisco and Mamterlliq continue to be the main centers of the gold trade, while oil wells begin to speckle the coastal range of California. More oil wells are built in Upper Alaska, bringing entrepreneurs to that region. Large monopolies on lumber and animal products are also prevalent in Santiago and Pannenstiel. All of these businesses are connected with diesel trains that span the continent. As the various earlier philosophies continue to grow and factionalize, these turn into competing ideas that promote further progression and ingenuity from the younger generation. Radios become commonplace for media communication. One engineer claims that electricity can be more efficient than oil. As scientist explore mechanisms at smaller levels, it is theorized that all matter behaves like a particle and wave. Machine guns continue to improve with Andean supplies. Fatalities in surgeries are drastically reduced with modern medicine. Automobiles completely replace travel by horse. Submarines begin to be built for the purpose of breaking through northern ice caps. We continue to uphold the New Munich Declaration along with Algonquia, Reme, Mexaca, and Arcadia. An organization for promoting peace in the Pacific is established, whose members currently include Korea, China and Ayutthaya. Supplies and engineers are continually sent to the Timor Sultanate to improve their industry. As more industrial goods continue to pour in from Reme, Borealian entrepreneurs begin selling more oil, gold, lumber, and livestock to the East Coast. An expedition investigating the Jack incident returns in August, claiming to have accidentally discovered the Northwest Passage.
    • The Territory of Australia: The ports continue to be expanded and a new city is planned to be the center of trade in the Pacific. As more businesses are taken up by Muslim natives, the German colonists begin migrating to the new communities farther inland. Schools and media centers are established that teach Borealianist philosophy along with essential education. An irrigation program continues to be designed, with the hopes of aiding settlements in the outback.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically tries to develop military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. We also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. The Caliphate: with the war, we try to maintain our economy at a minimum. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We resume to improve cities and establish the capital of the Caliphate as Baghdad, as for diplomatic reason, Mecca is impractical. We also start to press claims on Tartary-owned Persia and Central Asia. We welcome and accept all trade proposals. Caliph Malik incorporates the old system of Shura, democratically electing the new Caliph after the current one those, however, with a little modification: Caliphs can be only elected from one of four houses, all of them requiring to come from Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House), eventually tracing their origins back to Prophet Muhammad: House Hashemite, House Abbasid, House Fatimid, and the Alids or House of Ali, to please the Shias living in the realm. In his old age, Caliph Malik also begins to hold a Shia-Sunni conference, hoping to heal the schism. However, by the end of the year, Caliph Malik dies of illness. With the massive support and legitimacy Caliph had for implementing the system, his young son, at age 19, Hakeem, is elected as Caliph. With all occuring in the previous year, Caliph Hakeem, hearing of her beauty, the Caliph proposes a marriage between Sultana Nur Jehan and himself. Caliph Hakeem continues ambitions for the Sunni-Shia schism to be mended. Major figures from both denominations are called into Baghdad, the center and capital of the Caliphate. 
    • ​Indian Diplomacy: Empress Farah Shah accepts the offer of marriage from Caliph Hakeem. However, she reminds the Caliph that given that both of them preside in different realms, it would be difficult for the marriage to surpass the label of 'political marriage'.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military, mainly the army and navy. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The population of Morocco now stands at 8.6 million people, while the number of military troops stands at 72,000 soldiers. Number of ships active in Moroccan Navy stands at 40 ironclad ships and 14 frigates. The nation expands by 1000 px per year to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. Fewer schools, colleges and more houses and mining planets are built. The mining plants produces materials coal and iron, which later used as products from industries. Industry continues improving and few factories are built along in cities, creating jobs for people of Morocco. A few docks and mosques are built. The second university in Morocco is built and opened in Rabat. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, few new trains are produced and one new railway line are opened in service. 8 of 14 wooden frigates are upgraded to armored iron frigates built by Moroccan harbors in Essaouira and Safi. Sultan Aslal I continues to plan new reforms for Morocco and continues investing heavily in technology and science.  
  • Czechia: We continue to build up our military. The building of a railroad throughout the nation continues. Factories continue to make railroad tracks. Many factories hire both men and women. The farming industry is still the biggest industry of the nation. We continue to monitor the borders closely not allow anyone that is Communist into our nation. The mass killing of Communist people in our nation stops after last year. We now pass a law allowing Jewish people to have equal rights just like women got in 1882. We execpt the ultimatum. The Polish set up a Communist government in our nation, but with a Czechia leader. Viktor Havel is the new Voivode.
  • No. Not so quickly, not without Russian/French influence. And definitely not with a simple overthrowing.
  • Algonquia condemns the killings and offers asylum to anyone wishing to flee Czechia.
  • Mexaca begins rebuilding from the war, and the military slowly recovers. Industrial construction continues.
  • Emeraldie: New construction starts on the nation's ports, farms and mines to increase the nation's exports and economic strength. The new royal palace is complete and the king makes a speak on how Emeraldie is the true successor of France and promises the people a grand and prosperous future. The expedition fleet arrives in Australia, along its journey the navy have discovered and claimed many islands in the region (French Polynesia, Pitcairn islands, Easter islands and Kiribati), in fact a notable a notable aspect of the journey was that by the time the fleet arrived in Australia they had run out of flags. We expand 500px into the continents interior.
    • Emeraldie Pacific Territories: With the success of the expedition, the government announces the creation of the Pacific territories. However, this entity only really exists on paper. Current plans are to send settlers and missionaries to the region along with government troops to bring the region fully under the crowns control.
  • Federal Commonwealth of Germany: Capital: Augsburg; Other cities: Wittelsbach, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Berlin; Population: 39.7 million.
    • National Developments: The grain, coal and railway industries remain heavily regulated. The Liberal Party remains in power in Augsburg. Women enter the national stage as ancient laws are repealed. However, many politicians fight to have women kept out of the government. In Stuttgart, the German Unification Party earns much support and attracts the eye of Hamburgian leadership. Markus Helenkamp is glad that Emperor Mary supports unification. He sends letters to Oldenburg promising that any united German state will totally honor Oldenburger society, culture, history, and autonomy. He proposes that while Bavarian regions will be known as Commonwealth States, and Hamburgian regions as Commonwealth Kingdoms, Oldenburg can be known as a Commonwealth Duchy.
    • Commonwealth of Bavaria:  The army is expanded, and the economy expands as well. Liberals maintain dominance in national government as conservatives retain the blame for economic disaster. Bavaria maintains alliances with Hamburg, Rome, France, Croatia, and Scandinavia. Gilbert Schuster serves as Chancellor since the King's abdication in 1879. In other news, one woman, Augsburg's Mathilde Ehrenful, is elected to the Diet this year, becoming the first woman elected to any legislature in Bavarian history. Markus Helenkamp continues serving as Chancellor, with elections coming up in 1890. The war winds down. As the war winds down, Markus Helenkamp declares that a united German nation, where Bavaria, Hamburg and Oldenburg form one nation, can be formedHelenkamp travels to Hamburg to meet with Emperor Mary and discuss terms of unification. In other news, the middle class grows exponentially as more jobs are created in light of advancing technology.
    • Commonwealth of Austria: The army and navy are expanded, as is the economy. Vienna remains a center of music, writing, art, and political power. The current governor is Leonardo von Benekat serving from 1885 to 1890. The Curia Austria remains one of the more moderate legislatures in the country, and is lax on regulation and economics. The Austrian Diet begins discussing universal suffrage for women.
    • Commonwealth of Brandenburg: The army is expanded, as is the economy. Berlin remains an important city in Germany, and hosts a large economic center for the whole country. Mikael von Urbacher is governor. The Liberal Party enacts a series of far-left reforms that slap heavy regulations on child labor and establishes government watchdog groups for several manufacturing companies. In Berlin, the Democratic Federal party is founded, advocating leftist policies and a strong central government. It is led by Magnus Alischermann. The Democrat Federalists are opposed by the older Berlin Conservatives, who advocate monarchism and social conservatism.
    • Commonwealth of Pomerania: The army and navy are expanded. Pomerania remains an important port for the country. The Curia Pomerania stands as a center-right beacon for German politics.
    • Commonwealth of Venezia: The army and navy are expanded. Venice remains one of the oldest and culturally diverse cities and ports in Germany, providing the country with a large Italian population. The Curia Venexia supports a largely center-left composure, supporting economic regulation to a limited degree and supporting most social liberal policies.
    • Commonwealth of Bremen: The army and navy are expanded. Bremen remains one of the most important and strategically located ports in all of the country. Being a part of Germany since the middle ages, the port of Bremen has served it loyally and is thus made a full commonwealth of the German nation. The political scene is moderately liberal.
    • Commonwealth of Pearl River: The army and navy are expanded. Pearl River was established as a colonial Borealian outpost hundreds of years ago, and due to its loyalty, is made a full commonwealth in Germany. The political scene is very centrist. Pro-Borealian and Pro-independence movements collapse by 1886 in face of the war, and pro-Bavarian movements rise in their place. Despite the collapse of radical movements, the government of Pearl River graciously accepts Borealian aid and agrees to cover the logistical cost.
  • Algonquia continues to recover from the recent conflicts, with some portions of the military being demobilized. Algonquia's navy continues to grow, with a new battleship being commissioned this year, with ironclads perceived as increasingly outdated. Trade continues to grow, with newly open markets providing large amounts of wealth. Numerous refugees arrive from the political killings in Czechia, mainly Communists dissidents, bringing with them some new European technologies and ideas. The construction of a railway to Tuktoyaktuk continues, with it to be completed next year. A colony is founded on Kitlineq to bring more of the Arctic under Algonquian sovereignty, and expands along the coast, bringing Inuit bands under the Algonquian government.
    • Sahtudene expands 5000 km along the Arctic Coast. Charting of the Northwest Passage continues.
    • Lukaian continues to reinforce its Prussian and Livonian national identity, with the former national languages being revived, align with native Lucayan. Russian continue to emigrate back to Pskov or to Russia, while some Algonquians arrive. A local militia of 8000, plus a lregr Algonquian garrison, is created.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. To further strengthen its position in Africa, the Roman government begins to make official claims in the Saharan desert north of Egypt's southern border. However, some in the Empire scoff at this, suggesting that the Empire is wasting its time claiming barren land and should focus on more resourceful areas of Africa, Asia or Europe. As European interest in Africa begins to heat up, Roman officials begin exploring possible resources or benefits from extended interaction with Madagascar, and trade and diplomats are directed there to assess the situation. Trade also expands with Hawaii, which becomes an impressive conduit of trade for Roman merchants and businesses. As such, the Empire takes an interest in Hawaii, but rather than try to annex it, as it is too far from Roman authority to do so, Roman officials instead would like to see a strong and friendly Hawaii. Weapons and officers are sent to Hawaii to help train their soldiers and protect their independence. The Roman Empire responds to the increased activity of Communist insurgency in other nations in Europe by adopting a more aggressive stance. Troops are sent to Gothia and Ruthenia to protect against potential Communist aggression from the north, and the Roman Empire begins making overtures towards Croatia, Transylvania and Vlachia to prepare their defences. The Roman Empire also deploys more troops to Italy to present a clear vanguard against potential aggression from Communist France or Lombardy, which is seen as soon falling to Communists while the Roman Empire is forbidden by treaty to intervene. Roman forces continue to battle remnants of the French African forces, who by the end of the year are largely defeated by Roman forces. However, fighting is still ongoing in the fringes of the desert between die-hard loyalists and some Berber tribes. Berbers from Barbaria and French exiles are brought in to help Roman administration of the new territory while Roman engineers and industrialists work hard to help restore basic utilities and transportation for the people. Telephone lines are laid and railroads repaired as part of the general effort. The Senatorial Olympic Committee explores the possibility of restarting the Olympics, and narrows down the choice of cities between Sparta and Patras, both in southern Greece near the original site of Olympia. 
  • In Spain, the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Spanish merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Spanish in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Spanish also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the burgeoning growth of the economy, new jobs created in the five major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza, Valencia, and Madrid. Steamboats and railways and all sorts of cool modern stuff. Spain continues to lay claim to Antarctica and proposes a Trans-European rail link from Lisbon to Constantinople and Moscow. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Spain commissions a more ironclads based on the German designs. More artillery stuff.  Kerguelen becomes a crown possession of Spain. Meanwhile, Prince Peter continues to claim the Kingdom of Africa and gains more support. The Spanish government condemns the Communists. Spain continues to seek out dissenters in Communist France to weaken the French government's strength. Spain proposes the formation of an anti-Communist league. Spain extends a hand of friendship and protection toward Britanny. The Iberian Railway Company finishes the rail link between Lisbon, Madrid, and Zaragoza. Spain also seeks the return of Gibraltar from Germany and Croatia, as well as Ceuta from Croatia and Melilla from Germany. Spain also seeks to purchase Dutch West Africa for x million Spanish currency units. Mod #NoMoreWikiaChanges
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: We continue building up economically from the war. The Duke and the Government consider Bavaria's terms reasonably good enough, although the military heads have some qualms about having both federal and state militaries. They feel that a better solution would be to maintain full state militaries, but with an overarching "Federal High Command" (Bundesstab) to enable full cooperativity during wartime. This would, the generals feel, eliminate any needless doubling up between federal and state forces.
  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. Reme elects a new president and starts to build up its navy. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. There is also the creation ofNew navy ships, to help modernize the Reman navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the native dark-grey clusterfuck, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Coal mines are built, and starts churning out coal at a consistent rate. Coal mining plants are also started to be upgraded. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Industrialization of river areas continue, as well as the production of textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton. Meanwhile a Socialist-based party starts to gain seats in parliament, with plans to make Reme a more self-sufficient state. People are getting anxious over the threat of Communism to Reme, and vote on the crackdown of Communist sympathizers and their families.
    • Protectorate of Wolof: Wolof begins to build up its military and economy. Reman food and supplies come in to help the formerly starving nation, as well as the Reman military to help sustain order. Some representation is given in the Reman Parliament, to give Wolof a minimal say in how Reme should be run. Meanwhile, plans to industrialize the coastal areas as well as plans for fortifications are presented, and are started to be worked on.
    • Imperial Japan: The 10,000 soldiers from the Hamburgian War return home in victory and are hailed as national Japanese heroes and there is a massive parade as a result of the victory and those who lived and died hold the highest honors in Japan, and shall forever go down in Japanese history as heroes. As a result of this victory, there is a surge of Japanese nationalism across the empire, for the tradition of both Japanese honor to our allies and Japanese militarism has resulted in the unification of the Philippines under Japanese rule, the fuffilliment of our debt to Borelia, and a new friend, our former enemy Hamburg. These positive results ensure that the Japanese way is the best way, and we continue our militarism. While the war increased the build up of our industry, it also negatively effected the economy. As such, we continue to fund our military and work on our economy. In order to build up our economy, we propose a trade pact with all the participants of the Great Hamburgian War. We also send emergency aid to those afflicted by the tsunami in China by giving them food, water, and shelter. We begin rebuilding our military and expand our Papua territories.
        • Japanese Manchuria: In order to fuel our modernization of the mainland, mines are built on a massive scale in Japanese Manchuria as well as farms to grow food for the mainland. We encourage young Japanese males to immigrate to the sparsely populated Manchuria to build it up and we reward them large plots of land. Ports are also built up as well as railroads to link the mining and farming. Factories also pop up as well as schools and hospitals. We heavily invest in industrializing Japanese Manchuria. Econ/mil turn./
          • Japanese Formosa: We invest in Formosa by implementing a massive railroad construction program as well as port construction to further the transportation of Formosa. We implement a program of both industry and agriculture in Formosa, with the industry being for Japan and the agriculture being for Formosa. We also make massive public education reform in Formosa. Industry also speeds up as a result of the wartime economy. Econ/mil turn. ' 
          • Japanese Shanghai: We industrialize Shanghai and upgrade its port and infrastructure, including education. We have Shanghai specialize in shipbuilding and trading, making it a hub for trade in East Asia. We rapidly increase port building to make this city a hub for trade.
          • Northern Philippines: We welcome the former French Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand our economy.
          • Southern Philippines: We welcome the former Hamburgian Philippines into our empire and we begin expanding its infrastructure and industry by constructing railroads, bridges, schools, hospitals, ports, etc. We also expand our economy. 
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A side-loading rifle is introduced to the armed forces. A rapid-fire firearm is invented with a rotating multiple barrels, crank-powered (OTL Gatling gun) by Genrik Uzvards, a Latvian. It is subsequently named the Uzvard Gun, and several are commissioned by the government. Meanwhile, an attempt at making an electrically-powered light source are now common amongst the science community, and a reward of 10,000 zolotniks is offered to the first to give the Pskov Academy of Sciences a working, feasible prototype. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Last year's election results are as follows: The Grand Union looks to the east with despair. The Government officially refuses to recognize the Socialist Republic, and decides to advance some forces in, promising asylum to all current residents. Many flee in the coming months, the Grand Union sends agents into Russia for the smuggling of human refugees fleeing the "red terror". At least 0.5 million people have already fled Russia towards the Grand Union thanks to human smugglers. After the armistrice, elections are scheduled for next year. The Leadership of the Communist party is killed by an angry lynch mob in central Taalinn, with their bodies displayed in front of the Estonian Riigikugu. The Estonian Vice-Consul officialy condemns it as an act of barbarism, but otherwise does noting to encourage an investigation, or prosecution of any mob members. Meanwhile, the Grand Senate approves of mandatory military service for 4 years for every man above the age of 18, with medical exemptions. Fortifications are built along the demilitarized zone, and some schools begin to "black out" captured areas on maps, calling them the "occupied territories". Envoys are sent to Scandinavia, Bavaria, and the UGK to discuss a certain thing ... The Workers' and Farmers' New Socialsit Party decides to rebrand in order to distance themselves from the Communist nations "stealing" the word "socialist:". They officialy rename themselves the "New Democratic Party". Support for the liberals has somewhat increased, as they were able to mobilize the population against an enemy of Russia. Miltiary infrastructure is built up.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to repair the damage caused by the brief war with Russia. The Ruthenians begin expanding industry as a way to recoup the damage caused by the war. The Ruthenians politely ask the Pskovites to at least consider cracking down on the human trafficking occuring in their nation. There's no evidence to show that the so-called "Red Terror" is still happening. Or that it was as bad as the rumors would lead people to believe. The only people who have claimed such are the ones who stand to profit the most from the trafficking.
  • Andea: Military begins to downsize, from 675,000 to 600,000. The Hesperia First party continues to grow. The military draft is met with mixed reactions, with many seeing it as a positive though many also comment that it increases the power and influence of the military. The industrial expansion slows, creating a minor panic in Andea. The normalization of Relations with Germany leads to increased trade, and an increased desire with bi-lateral relations with the UGK, seeing them as a good counter for Communist France. Population hits 41 million this year, with most of them being Quechua-Spanish Meztizos. Quechua remains the first language for most of the nation's residents. The government passes the Torrez-Sanchez Act, dictating election reforms, laws of succession for the president, and laws regarding running mates. Starting in the 1888 election, all presidents will pick their own vice president. Despite the ongoing war, the National Party remains popular in the countrysides of both Peru and the Amazon, though many major cities see the rise of the Hesperia First Reactionary Party. With the ongoing turmoil in Europe, both in the German wars and the Spanish wars, Andea increases the number of visas the government is able to administer. Average yearly wage sees a slight decrease from 486 Reals to 484 Reals, while the number of days a worker works a year increases from 355 to 356. Average work day remains at 11 hours. The tariff is raised to sponsor the rise of domestic industry, though this is unpopular in the rural areas of Apeac and the Amazon. The income tax remains set at 10% on those making more than 500 Reals and 5% for those making more than 300 reals. The average price of land remains 50 cents per acre, a 5% increase from 1850. With the Re-Admittance of Vorylaycor coming next year, the federal government ends the occupation. The federal government issues a formal apology for the burning of North Eastern Nov Xoyron, and spends considerable funds to reconstruct the city.
  • Osean Confederation: With the outbreak of war, the nation rapidly develops its industry and military to fit the need for war. Railroads are bulit up to allow the quick transfer of natural resources and industrial goods. The nation offically adopts conscription, raising a military of 150,000 men. Population stands at eight million, with the largest republic in the confederation being North Osea, with a popualtion of 1.3 Million people. Average yearly wage increases to 360 reals. Average work day remains at ten hours. The nation remains mostly Spanish in culture, though Quechua remains the most spoken language (though not the widest used or largest first language) with 66% of the population being able to speak Quechua, as opposed to 59% being able to speak Spanish. As stated, Spanish is still the most used langue and 48% of Oseans listing Spanish as their first language (as opposed to 36% listing Quechua as their first language). One thing of note regarding the lingustics of Osea is the dialect or diction of Spanish and Quechua. While Quechua in Andea and Osea is the same language, Quechua has Latin style pronunciation as opposed to traditional Quechua, while the areas once held by the British have a Germanic Influence on them. Spanish sees a similar development, with the larger, more traditionally Spanish republics using a high, traditonal diction as opposed to areas such as Paraguay, Santiago and Cordoba which have lower diction, noticeably different from that of Europeans.
    • Patagonia: Patagonia continues to recover from its occupation by the once stagnant British Empire. The nation Patagonia has three republics that will be admitted to Osea over the course of the next ten years. The first is the Republic of South Argentina, with one million people, to be admitted next year. The second is the Republic of Patagonia, with a population of 600,000. The third is the Republic of New Spain, with a population of 240,000.

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