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1860 to 1869 (Principia Moderni III Map Game)

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Archive Forty-Five:

1850 - 1859

Archive Forty-Six:

1860 - 1869

Archive Forty-Seven:

1870 - 1879

This page is an archive for the Principia Moderni III map game, from 1860 to 1869.


1860

Abandonato continues to increase his influence in northern Italy, mostly in the city of Pisa.

  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines come into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politican, gains popularity, and gains influence thorugout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheapen the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Reme also sends a diplomat to Byzantium, who wishes for the nation to recognize the sovereignty of Reme and to drop claims to the nation. Reme, along with Algonquia, declares war on Arcadia and invades on another front.
  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. 1860 sees the first parliamentary elections where there is an organized political party, the Socialists. The socialists campaign on a platform calling for the nationalization of the growing businesses and corporations, confiscation of wealth over a certain amount, and redistribution among the lower classes. King Mary openly denounces the socialists, calling them "... a threat to the very way of life of Hamburg's citizens." Mary's popularity among the commoners further helps her point. Only seven seats in the 525 seat House of Commons fall to the socialists. In response, opposing political parties are formed. The Crown Loyalists and Conservative parties, center-right and right respectively, prove to become the largest with a combined seat count of 306. They subsequently form the first coalition government. Together with the smaller Centrist, the center-right coalition controls 341 seats. In June, the SMS Meteor catches fire and burns in its drydock. While the wooden hull is a loss, the steam engines, among other things, are salvageable. The wreck remains in the drydock, while a rather curios dock captain rents it out for his own business.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. A formal dynastic union is established with Jaunpur given that the current Bengali Sultan is in marriage with the daughter of the Jaunpuri Sultan. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.1 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
  • Tibet: Not much happens. More rights are given to the people. We seek good relations with China. Improves tech and military
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Algonquia: Continues its military buildup after the conquest of Arcadia. Several Atlantic ports are built up as naval bases and heavily fortified to enforce Algonquian naval dominance of its immediate surroundings. New ships of the line are launched, while new gun found ires open to supply them. Some naval strategists wonder if even these ships will soon become obsolete, however, with the rumoured advent of ironclads in Europe. Europeans, encouraged by financial incentives, continue to flee Algonquia and return to their homelands. Algonquia continues to expand its overseas trade, with merchants opening trade routes to Africa and even into the Indian Ocean. Algonquian diplomats leave this year to visit the Zulu.
    • Labrador: The revolt collapses but the famine continues. Algonquian troops gradually regain control of the area, putting down looters and re-establishing order, as well as distributing food. Somewhat more food and help makes its way to the native population than to the European one. The property of those who revolted is seized, and they are either executed, deported, or resettled in the Arctic. Public support, even among Europeans, is universal for this policy, as they are blamed for the famine. The leader, Albert Westinghouse, is publicly shot. As the famine begins to settle down toward the end of the year, the government begins to resettle Beothuk (who have emigrated from Newfoundland) and other Algonquians in the now empty land.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to make infrastructure repairs and upgrades to their new territory. The Tartar architecture of the East continues to influence the Ruthenians.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and population continues to grow. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities built and roads built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. As the nation westernizes, the first railway line between Casablanca and Marrakesh is opened in Morocco for first time and the first newly built Moroccan train is built by Ruqayyah Stellim Co. in Berrechid. This begins the Railroad age in Morocco.
  • Mexaca: Begins establishing our control over the land taken from California. Economy growth continues and plans are laid for roadworks to be constructed throughout Mexaca. An alliance is offered to Reme with the hope that it will aid in the conquest of Belize. We ask to establish trade with most of our neighbours and begin building ports on the East coast.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The railway to Frankfurt is complete with the trip between the two Imperial Capitals now a matter of mere hours. The military, somewhat neglected of late, is expanded by order of the new Duke, who spent many years in the army.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. The world's first oil drill in constructed in the coastal mountains, but most experts scoff at it. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. A census this year has found the population to be 30 million. We offer to purchase the colony of New Bavaria for a total of 1.8 million Reichsthalers. Outraged by the mismanagement of the Californian earthquake, the Romanesque movement erupts into demonstrations across many major cities in the country. Seeing that the republic of California is not stable enough to properly protect itself from invasion, the Commonwealth completely annexes the region.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • Andea: The Nationals win elections this year. Kurillianka, age 77, remains on the throne. The Nationals continue to reduce the power of the monarchy and increase the power of the Buenos Noches Congress and Council. Andeans begin to flock to Osea to gain new opportunities in industry and agriculture. Population stands at 28 million and rising slowly, due to the rapid migration of Andean's away from Andea proper. The Government continues to expand the industry and railroads of the nation, supporting the growth through government aid. The nation continues to lead the Second Hesperian League, and incorporates Osea into the Buenos Noches Council. They are granted six seats, and the size of the council is adjusted acordingly. In total, 100,000 Andeans enter Osea this year. Neo-Hesperianism emerges from the University of Cuzco. This school of thought calls for greater unity between Andea and her satellites, as opposed to the older schools of thought. In general, many Andeans begin to support Union. As Andeans flock to Osea, Apeac and Vorlayacor, they carry this support for union with them. Work on the transcontinental railroad continues, with the process expected to take 20 to 30 years.
      • ​Osean Confederation: The nation is nearly leveled by the war. In total, 53% of the nations infrastructure was destroyed over the course of the 14-year long civil war and almost one million civilians were killed. The population stands at nearly 5.6 million, with more Andeans entering the nation each year. The Mestizo culture begins to take hold in Andea, as the New World and Old World meld together. Osea continues rebuilding, with the effort being driven by Andean capital. Oseans themselves are treated as equals within Osea, with many local leaders working with the Andeans for the rebuilding effort. Osea itself is dividing into ten republics, under the banner of a confederation. The ten Republics are, in decreasing order of population: Buenos Aires (one million), North Osea (900,000), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (850,000), Cordoba (600,000), San Salvacion (400,000), Bolivia (350,000), Granada (250,000), Santiago (100,000) and Paraguay (80,000). The Republic of Osea is divided into North and South Osea. The Andeans continue to work with the local governments on the rebuilding process. Universities are planned, with hopes to attract more settlers from Andea. Industry is built up to attract low skill workers in search of jobs. Spaniards who desire to do so are allowed to leave the nation free of charge, with monetary reimbursment from Andea. Roughly 80,000 this year take this offer. Last Year's famine continues to cause issues, as over 50,000 people die.
      • Andean Overseas Territories: The Falkland Islands, under direct control of the Andean military, prove to be a strategic location in protecting Vorlayacor's coast line. A military force of 35,000 is stationed on the islands.
      • Kingdom of Apeac: Military, economy and navy improve. Population stands at 400,000, as Andean settlers come in, seeking more land then they can get in their homeland. 4000 militiamen remain activated in the territory. 20,000 Andean military men remain active in the territory. Andean Settlers meet resistance from Mataco raiders, who attack settlements on the frontier. The nation mobilizes against Southern Osea.
      • Vorlayacor: Military, economy and navy improve. The nation sees a massive expansion of its infrastructure, with the Royal family owning much of the nation's infrastructure. Population stands at seven million. Military stands at 25,000 active men, with another 20,000 in reserve. Andean military bases have 35,000 men stationed there. The Mapuche National Front pushes for independence. The Mapuche national front declares Vorlayacor independent from Andea, and launch several co-ordinated attacks on Andean military bases and Loyalist bases. They prepare to march on the Roman military stationed in the territory.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The growth of Socialism increases with each year. Disillusioned by the current state of things, a young deputee to the General Assembly from central Tartu, Kaarel Uluolts, takes upon himself the mantle of what he dubs "New Socialism". His popularity soars, and he, a non-aligned member of parliament, a few fellow non-aligned members, as well as four Industrialists and many Agrarians and Nationalists meet in the Konigsberg Hotel in Prussia. After much discussion, on the 14th of september the 43 deputees from various factions (or lack thereof) give a list of names, and a Party Constitution to the central party registrar. From this year forward, the Workers' and Farmers' New Socialist Party, led by Kaarel Uluolts, becomes the third registered Political Party in the Union. They chose orange as their party colour, and decide to sit with the opposition. This creates chaos amongst the government, as now twelve of the Nationalist Faction members have joined the NSP. This leads to a situation where the government is now only a plurality of seats. This leads to a confidence motion, which is barely defeated 584-416 due to the efforts by some non-aligned deputees, many of whom did not want elections this early. This year, Vladimir Rasputin dies unexpectedly. Instead of a new election, on the 31st of May Feodor Timofeevich Prokazov is chosen as the new Leader of the National Conservative party, and subsequently appointed as First Senator. One of his first acts of parliament is to being to set up a "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. This is done in part to cater to some nationalist sentiment, and unite the NSP once again after its disaster last election.

1861

  • Reme: Reme begins to build up its military and economy. After a long, heated discussion of how Reme would be governed, the tribal representatives (as well as notable Byzantine-Borealians) decide to create a republic, with a basic constitution that would be given basic rights to citizens of Reme. After these discussions, a rich Byzantine-Borealian named Stephanos Shawnee, and becomes the first President of Reme. Shawnee starts to upgrade trade and military services. However seeing Reme, a new nation, vulnerable to foreign attack, starts to encourage militarization of the west, and opens up to military alliances with other nations. Meanwhile, trade is improved on, with industrialization, mainly former Byzantine areas slowly being introduced to populous areas. Lumber, cash crops, and other goods become a major export of Reme, and starts getting Reme a jump-start into the European economy. Shawnee also commands the creation of a couple new navy ships, to help modernize the outdated Remian navy. Reme continues its current expansion into the Michigan peninsula, expanding another 150 pixels into it. Meanwhile, the idea of building coal mines come into mind, especially in the OTL West Virginian area. Coal mining plants are started to be worked on. Reme also starts very slowly changing its focus to industrial things, with a nation wide railroad being considered to be built. Reme incorporates the French territory of Rouenelle as a province of Reme, with Cahokie being designated as a territory of Reme. With this, French is now declared an official language of Reme, with Greek and French made mandatory for children in Reman schools. Construction in the railroad continues, with the two native states being declared war upon to fix the track and to oust from that area. Jayson Chistakos, a politican, gains popularity, and gains influence thorugout the Republic. He eventually wins the election called for by the population and becomes the first Emperor of Reme. Jayson's first action is to immediately start industrializing river areas, and to mass produce textiles to cheaper the price of Reman cotton products. Jayson also demands that the Mexica border be fortified, since the nation poses a threat to the safety of Reme. Jayson also demands that Reme starts militarializing these areas, as well as the border with Arcadia. Reme also sends a diplomat to Byzantium, who wishes for the nation to recognize the sovereignty of Reme and to drop claims to the nation. Reme, along with Algonquia, declares war on Arcadia and invades on another front.
  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The results of the 1860 census are published this year, the total population of the UGK, minus the unincorporated colonies, is 14.9 million, aided by waves of immigration from Borealia and Eastern Europe. The biggest increase in population, relative to its population in the last census, is New Brunswick, a result of refugees fleeing the fall of Acadia.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultan implements the Blasphemy Law with support of the Majlis e Shura, but extends the Blasphemy Law to include important figures of Islam and Hinduism. This is generally done to please the miniorities as well. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Andea: The Nationals win elections this year. Kurillianka, age 77, remains on the throne. The Nationals continue to reduce the power of the monarchy and increase the power of the Buenos Noches Congress and Council. Andeans begin to flock to Osea to gain new opportunities in industry and agriculture. Population stands at 28 million and rising slowly, due to the rapid migration of Andean's away from Andea proper. The Government continues to expand the industry and railroads of the nation, supporting the growth through government aid. The nation continues to lead the Second Hesperian League, and incorporates Osea into the Buenos Noches Council. They are granted six seats, and the size of the council is adjusted acordingly. In total, 100,000 Andeans enter Osea this year. Neo-Hesperianism emerges from the University of Cuzco. This school of thought calls for greater unity between Andea and her satellites, as opposed to the older schools of thought. In general, many Andeans begin to support Union. As Andeans flock to Osea, Apeac and Vorlayacor, they carry this support for union with them. Work on the transcontinental railroad continues, with the process expected to take 20 to 30 years.
      • ​Osean Confederation: The nation is nearly leveled by the war. In total, 53% of the nations infrastructure was destroyed over the course of the 14-year long civil war and almost one million civilians were killed. The population stands at nearly 5.6 million, with more Andeans entering the nation each year. The Mestizo culture begins to take hold in Andea, as the New World and Old World meld together. Osea continues rebuilding, with the effort being driven by Andean capital. Oseans themselves are treated as equals within Osea, with many local leaders working with the Andeans for the rebuilding effort. Osea itself is dividing into ten republics, under the banner of a confederation. The ten Republics are in decreasing order of population: Buenos Aires (one million), North Osea (900,000), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (850,000), Cordoba (600,000), San Salvacion (400,000), Bolivia (350,000), Granada (250,000), Santiago (100,000) and Paraguay (80,000). The Republic of Osea is divided into North and South Osea. The Andeans continue to work with the local governments on the rebuilding process. Universities are planned, with hopes to attract more settlers from Andea. Industry is built up to attract low skill workers in search of jobs. Spaniards who desire to do so are allowed to leave the nation free of charge, with monetary reimbursment from Andea. Roughly 80,000 this year take this offer. Last Year's famine continues to cause issues, as over 50,000 people die.
      • Andean Overseas Territories: The Falkland Islands, under direct control of the Andean military, prove to be a strategic location in protecting Vorlayacor's coast line. A military force of 35,000 is stationed on the islands.
      • Kingdom of Apeac: Military, economy and navy improve. Population stands at 400,000, as Andean settlers come in, seeking more land then they can get in their homeland. 4000 militiamen remain activated in the territory. 20,000 Andean military men remain active in the territory. Andean Settlers meet resistance from Mataco raiders, who attack settlements on the frontier. The nation mobilizes against Southern Osea.
      • Vorlayacor: Military, economy and navy improve. The nation sees a massive expansion of its infrastructure, with the Royal family owning much of the nation's infrastructure. Population stands at seven million. Military stands at 25,000 active men, with another 20,000 in reserve. Andean military bases have 35,000 men stationed. The Mapuche National Front pushes for independence. The Mapuche national front declares Vorlayacor independent from Andea, and launch several co-ordinated attacks on Andean military bases and Loyalist bases. They prepare to march on the Roman military stationed in the territory.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to make infrastructure repairs and upgrades to their new territory. The Tartar architecture of the East continues to influence the Ruthenians.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities built and roads built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. The second railway line between Casablanca and Rabat is opened in Morocco for second time. In political news, the previous king Abd al-Rahman dies at age 83 and Mohammed IV succeeds to throne as the new king of Morocco. But the royal name has now renamed, in Berber languages it's known as Masinissa IV.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. An oil vein is struck in California, but it is still being analysed. The accidental death of one Romanesque leader whilst protesting causes the movement to explode into violent riots across the country. We offer to purchase the colony of New Bavaria for a total of 1.8 million Reichsthalers.
    • Borealian Dip (to Mexaca): We would like to formally invite your empire into the New Munich pact. As a member of the pact (which includes Reme, Algonquia and Arcadia), you will enjoy all the military resources of the member nations when you go to war against a non-Borealian power (such as Hamburg, for instance).
    • Mexaca: Accepts the offer. We will not fight against Andea.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: With the fall of Arcadia, Oldenburg begins a frantic military buildup in Neu Norderney and Neu Juist. More ships are stationed there, and engineers are sent in from Oldenburg to ensure the defensibility of the major towns, especially the capital Jacqueline.
    • Algonquia is alarmed by this buildup, particularly in light of unrest in nearby areas, and moves 20,000 troops to the border for defence.
  • Algonquia: Continues its military buildup after the conquest of Arcadia. Several Atlantic ports are built up as naval bases and heavily fortified to enforce Algonquian naval dominance of its immediate surroundings. New ships of the line are launched, while new gun foundries open to supply them. Some naval strategists wonder if even these ships will soon become obsolete, however, with the rumoured advent of ironclads in Europe. Europeans, encouraged by financial incentives, continue to flee Algonquia and return to their homelands. Algonquia continues to expand its overseas trade, with merchants opening trade routes to Africa and even into the Indian Ocean. Socialism begins to catch on in Algonquia, with the formation of a Smallholder's Party. Algonquia requests a trade deal with the Zulu. (Mod Response)
    • Labrador: The famine finally fully ends, with Algonquian troops moving into afflicted areas to provide succour to the starving inhabitants. Resettlement of Algonquians into the now-empty lands continues, while those guilty of the revolt are dispossessed of their land and imprisoned, executed or expelled. The local militia, consisting of 12,000 loyal natives, continues to be built up.
  • In Aragon the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of some taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. A rail link between Zaragoza and Madrid is proposed. With the advent of steam power, factories begin to be built and stuff. Textile mills, cloth factories and other places begin to harness steam power to do more things faster, which creates more jobs that people move to cities to get. Industrialization is gaining speed. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns.

1862

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The SMS Meteor, which was burned in its drydock two years ago, re-enters service reborn: its above-water hull is completely cladded in iron armor, and completely reliant on its steam engines. Dubbed an "ironclad", the Meteor enters testing as the navy ponders whether to build more. King Mary replies to Duke Dietrich, offering the Imperial Parliament building in Frankfurt to hold the election. In light of Mexacas joining the New Munich pact, the move is denounced and is received as a claim to Hamburgian land in the region. The government announces that a corp of 25,000 men will be stationed in Belize at all times, and asks the Reman Emperor for an alliance and recognition of Hamburg's ownership of New Hamburg and New Brunswick.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultan visits the Hashemite Caliphate just cause. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
    • Bengal - Jaunpur Diplomacy: The Sultanate of Jaunpur is requested to adopt the Bengali Tanki as its official currency, given that it has already been adopted almost all of Jaunpur's major trading partners such as Bengal, Bahamani and Udaipur [Mod Response].
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: With Algonquia moving 20,000 troops to the border of Neu Norderney, the Duke realises he has to work quickly to defuse the situation. Veteran diplomat Msgr Fr Franz Wolfenburg is sent to Algonquia as an ambassador extraordinaire with the sole aim of placating the government by assuring them that the military buildup in Neu Norderney and Neu Juist is purely of a defensive nature and mainly the result of the neglect given to the colonial armed forces of late and also, that we unreservedly respect Algonquia's territorial integrity (including its newly acquired land). Praying that that's sufficient, Duke Dietrich III, the High Council, and the Landtag all hold their breath. In other news, Dietrich contacts Hamburg about electing a new Holy Roman Emperor since Conrad's death a few years ago, hinting that perhaps it might be time for a Holy Roman Empress.
    • Algonquia: Is pleased to learn that the military buildup is not of a hostile nature, and will lower its forces on the border to more reasonable levels. To prevent such unfortunate tensions recurring, it proposes a trade deal and exchange of permanent embassies.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians officially finish the infrastructure repairs to the east. The eastern territories have fully assimilated into Ruthenia, with the Tartar cultural flourishes being diffused through the country. The Tartar minority has shrunk considerably, with many leaving for the Tartary or intermarrying with local Ukrainians. There is still a small population of Tartar people, but they are but a fraction of the former population.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. As we also begin to modernize our army, we improve the many cities of the Caliphate, specifically in Arabia and Iraq.
  • Algonquia: Continues its military buildup after the conquest of Arcadia. Several Atlantic ports are built up as naval bases and heavily fortified to enforce Algonquian naval dominance of its immediate surroundings. New ships of the line are launched, while new gun foundries open to supply them. Some naval strategists wonder if even these ships will soon become obsolete, however, with the rumoured advent of ironclads in Europe. Europeans, encouraged by financial incentives, continue to flee Algonquia and return to their homelands. Algonquia continues to expand its overseas trade, with merchants opening trade routes to Africa and even into the Indian Ocean. The Council of Sachems issues the Nemiscau Declaration this year, stating that Algonquia will intervene to protect native populations across Borealia if they are abused. This legitimizes the conquest of Arcadia and much of Algonquia's foreign policy.
    • Labrador: The famine finally fully ends, with Algonquian troops moving into afflicted areas to provide succour to the starving inhabitants. Resettlement of Algonquians into the now-empty lands continues, while those guilty of the revolt are dispossessed of their land and imprisoned, executed or expelled. The local church structure is dismantled, church properties seized, and what remains of it placed under the control of Algonquian sycreticist priests.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. An oil vein is struck in California, but it is still being analysed. We offer to purchase the colony of New Bavaria for a total of 1.8 million Reichsthalers. The Curia formally accepts the Nemiscau Declaration and incorporates it into the constitution, thereby accepting all natives in the region as citizens of the Commonwealth. The Romanesque movement is generally pleased with these reforms, but one extremist group continues to show violence around New Munich. Most members of the movement, however, re-devote their efforts to eradicate prejudice against natives on an individual level.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. Once again, political stuff happens. last year there were elections. The NCP got an even smaller minority than last time. IN any case, here are the results. The Government is formed by a coalition of the National Conservative Party, Controling 432 seats, and the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by 21 seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the United Liberal Party, controling 282 seats. The Governement is also opposed by the Workers' and Farmers' New Socialist Party, controling 75 seats, the Industrialist faction, loosely represented by 45 seats and the Agrarian faction, loosely represented by 29 seats. 116 deputees sit without allegiance. The Government is tested this year, and more and more people are put against it. The Government manages to stay in power thanks to the aid of non-aligned deputees. However, the latest budget only passed with 514 votes, a very slim majority, and an indication that many non-aligned members would rather face elections, than keep the Conservatives in power.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Croatian Archvoivodeship (Hrvatsko Nadvojvodstvo): Sewerage systems similar to Ragusan ones are built in major towns of the Archvoivodeship. With growing Ragusan influence, and the beginning of further colonization, the navy expands rapidly using much of the Ragusan expertise. Moreover, with the influx of new resources in form of lumber, labour and metals, the navy begins expanding at a fast rate. More and more ships capable of crossing the Atlantic with ease are built. The Sabor intends to restore the glorious naval culture of the Neretva peoples and plans to do so by expanding the navy. The kravata (tie) is more and more used as an accessory. Trade routes are strengthened and the salt mines around Tuzla are explored as well as the salt industry in Pag and Nin. Using irrigation from the Danube, Sava, Drava, Drina, Cetina, Una, Vrbaš, Kupa, Neretva and other rivers the fields in the kingdom are developed, used for crops such as wheat, rye and barley. With trade routes increasing and Croatia entering an era of peace and of stability, the development of new trade ships is issued. Stone mining is furthered as well as the timber industry. The need for these resources rises as urbanization carries on. Iron ores in Dugopolje, Zenice and at last the 'mud' ore in Vojvodina and eastern Slavonia are to be exploited alongside the silver and copper ores more frequently and of better quality than the iron ores. The exploitation of iron ores in the Lika and Gorski kotar areas continues. The salt industry in Ston is funded by the government. The influx of resources from Dahomey aids the economy. However, the government makes sure that the gold arriving isn't immediately put on the market in order to control the inflation in the worth of gold. The silver mine in Srebrenica is mined. The administrative reform continues. Kotor Saraka (Adelaide) continues to expand. The conquest of Sukadang begins.
    • Županija Dahomey: The natural resources are quickly put to use, such as coconuts, cotton both refined and raw as well as the gold. Finally, the wood industry prospers as materials are needed for new ships that would help keep the connection between Croatia and Dahomey strong.
    • Isles of the Archvoivodeship (Otoci Nadvojvodstva): The infrastructure is built up.
    • Županija of Hercules Pillars' (Županija Herkulovih Stupova): The županija's pivotal position as a trade nod creates an a sufficite allowing for the economy to expand.
    • Priština Voivodeship (Prištinsko Vojvodstvo): Due to the focus on the regional denominations of the nation, the Serbian national sense slowly suffers.
    • Carantanian Voivodeship (Karantansko Vojvodstvo): Being Alpine Slavic nation, the leaders begin a programme to create a standardized Carantanian language that will reflect on both the Slavic and Alpine (Germanic) aspects of Carantania.
  • BaiernFlag8Kingdom of Bavaria (Constituent State of the Crown-Union of Germany): In 1862, Bavaria expands its economy. National infrastructure is developed. The population continues to rise. Trausnitz is returned to its place as national capital. CuriaBavariaFlag The Curia Bavaria, also known as the Bavarian Parliament or Bavarian Diet, continue to operate in the Parliamentary Palace in Landshut. It is a regional legislature. The Diet orders the German Army to be outfitted in modern uniform and to hold modern weaponry. In political news, the Curia Bavaria continue to implement infrastructural, diplomatic, and tax base laws. In Munich, Queen Isabell University remains a staple of education in Bavaria. King Franz-Rudolph I (born 1798) and his children; Maria (born 1817) and Johann (born 1822) compose the current royal family. Several modern warships and trade vessels begin construction at Bremen Port. Modern weaponry make its introduction into Bavaria. In diplomatic news, Germany maintains alliances with Hamburg, Britannia, France, The Netherlands, Scandinavia and Rome. There has been an uptick of 80% of Bavaro-German primary speakers in Franconia, Saxony, Pomerania, and Brandenburg, and uptick of 95% secondary speakers in those areas. In colonial news, Nei Baiern continues to expand. In political news, the King continues to sit at both Bavarian and Austrian privy councils. In industrial news, the effects of industrialization and urbanization begin to be felt in Swabia, Würzburg and Bavaria, where Stuttgart becomes the center of manufacturing and modern production. By year end, it becomes clear that industrialization is spreading in Germany after a long period of stagnation. While I was gone The Randolphines and Marians created much political instability in the 1840s as the Hamburgian civil war raged on in the nieghboring Kingdom. Initially, the monarchy allied with the the conservative, crazy King, while the Diet allied with Princess Mary. This disparation caused significant discord and created antagonism toward the King. Furthermore, more criticism arose over industrialism, with many fretting over poor treatment of workers, children, and women. However, a moderate Diet was elected in the 1850s and healed many wounds. A more left-leaning King now rules as railways expand exponentially and feed the coal industry. Because of this, many workers are once more subjected to harsh conditons, treatment, and low pay. But most of the population remain cheery due to political stability. Instability rises in New Bavaria as many nobles in Katharinas-Hafen begin supporting independence.
    • Ddcoa2Deutsche Diet: The Deutsche Diet, also known as the German Parliament or German Diet, is established by the decree of Queen Frances I in 1736, and is given a charter that year.
    • Flag of AustriaKingdom of Austria (Constituent State of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King and Queen continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. The Austrian Council is created as an independent privy council for the King. CuriaAustriaFlagThe Curia Austria remains the official legislature in Austria. The Curia is popular in Vienna and surrounding areas. Parliamentarians usually pass laws concerning taxes, diplomacy, and infrastructure. Johann Florinsburg is successfully re-elected as Minister-Governor in 1822. The next elections are to be held in 1832.
    • Flag of Most Serene Republic of VeniceKingdom of Venezia (Constituent State of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. The Curia Venexia is responsible for overseeing the legal, economic and political goings on of all those in Venezia.
    • Flagge Preußen - Provinz BrandenburgCommonwealth of Brandenburg (Constituent State of the CUG): Brandenburg is re-established in 1837, and a Governor is elected promptly thereafter. Having more autonomy than other Bavaro-German realms, the Governor creates many new departments in Brandenburg. Among them is the Department of the Military, which train troops and research modern military technology. Also created is the Department of Commerce and Treasury, which handles issues of domestic economy and foreign trade.
    • Pommernflagpm3Commonwealth of Pomerania (Constituent State of the CUG): Pomerania is re-established in 1837, and a Governor is elected promptly thereafter. Having more autonomy than other Bavaro-German realms, the Governor creates many new departments in Pomerania. Among them is the Department of War, which handles military strategy and financing. Also created are two smaller departments, each being responsible for the Army and the Navy. Also created is a Department of Treasurers. Interestingly enough, a Department of Polish Affairs is created to better assimilate the ethnic Polish minorities into Bavaro-German culture.
    • Flag of BremenBremen Port (Constituent Territory of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King and Queen continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. Several cogs are constructed, and plans are drafted to construct many larger ships. Several modern warships and trade vessels begin construction at Bremen Port.
    • NewBavariaFlagNew Bavaria (Colony of the CUG): The colony of Nei Baiern continues to expand in population. Katharinas-Hafen, Franznacken, Bayreuth, Nei Regens, and Regenholz all expand by the end of the year. Houses and shops in each settlement continue being built. Jülichsberg and Wittlesberg both expand. Nei Baiern expands 2000 km. The militias and shops are developed. A small logging and fishing town is founded north of Wilhelmsbaum island, on the mainland. The settlement, mainly populated by Saxons, comes to be called Regenholz.
    • PearlRiverFlagPearl River (Colony of the CUG): The outpost of Perlefluss is established. A capital is expected to be constructed over the next few years. The capital of Pearl River is named Pearl River, after the colony itself.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.

1863

Abandonato and his group proclaim themselves the Italian Republican Front and continue to gain support from the lower classes of Northern Italy. Numbering almost 100,000, they are the largest Anti-Rome Group in Italy.

People living in the Germano-Bavarian colony of New Bavaria begin wondering why they are still tied to European powers when their neighbor Borealia is independent and a leading force against European influence in the region.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. King Mary is surprised by Duke Dietrich's vote for her, and decides to cast her vote for herself. With the other four electors seemingly deciding to not vote, again, King Mary, only 24, is set to become the first Holy Roman Empress. A devote Catholic, she initially expressed a desire for a papal coronation, but decides to opt for the Archbishop of Münster. Citing Hamburg's lack of a provision for "Queen" (hence why she's crowned "King"), she does insist on being titled "Holy Roman Emperor".
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultans wife gives birth to a son. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
    • Bengal - Jaunpur Diplomacy: The Sultanate of Jaunpur is requested to adopt the Bengali Tanki as its official currency, given that it has already been adopted almost all of Jaunpur's major trading partners such as Bengal, Bahamani and Udaipur [MOD RESPONSE].
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The Oldenburger delegate to Frankfurt casts his vote for Holy Roman Emperor, and then proceeds to visit various cafes in the city to kill time before the results are announced. Luckily for him, he's not averse to eating cakes, as the results could be some time in coming. In slightly more interesting news, the whole government breathes a collective sigh of relief after receiving Algonquia's response, and appoints Msgr Fr Franz Wolfenburg the permanent ambassador pleniopotentiary to Algonquia. A nice building in Oldenburg is also set aside for an Algonquian delegation. In order to avert potentially catastrophic misunderstandings in a timely fashion, the Landtag votes to establish a regular steamship packet running from Oldenburg to Jacqueline, with a ship leaving every Monday. The task of actually doing this falls to the OHG, which is always looking to diversify its investments. The OHG Packet is expected to be fully operational late next year. (Econ turn).
  • Andea: The Nationals win elections this year. Kurillianka, age 77, remains on the throne. The Nationals continue to reduce the power of the monarchy and increase the power of the Buenos Noches Congress and Council. Andeans begin to flock to Osea to gain new opportunities in industry and agriculture. Population stands at 28 million and rising slowly, due to the rapid migration of Andean's away from Andea proper. The Government continues to expand the industry and railroads of the nation, supporting the growth through government aid. The nation continues to lead the Second Hesperian League, and incorporates Osea into the Buenos Noches Council. They are granted six seats, and the size of the council is adjusted acordingly. In total, 100,000 Andeans enter Osea this year. Neo-Hesperianism emerges from the University of Cuzco. This school of thought calls for greater unity between Andea and her satellites, as opposed to the older schools of thought. In general, many Andeans begin to support Union. As Andeans flock to Osea, Apeac and Vorlayacor, they carry this support for union with them. Work on the transcontinental railroad continues, with the process expected to take 20 to 30 years.
      • ​Osean Confederation: The nation is nearly leveled by the war. In total, 53% of the nations infrastructure was destroyed over the course of the 14-year long civil war and almost one million civilians were killed. The population stands at nearly 5.6 million, with more Andeans entering the nation each year. The Mestizo culture begins to take hold in Andea, as the New World and Old World meld together. Osea continues rebuilding, with the effort being driven by Andean capital. Oseans themselves are treated as equals within Osea, with many local leaders working with the Andeans for the rebuilding effort. Osea itself is dividing into ten republics, under the banner of a confederation. The ten Republics are in decreasing order of population: Buenos Aires (one million), North Osea (900,000), South Osea (800,000), Uruguay (850,000), Cordoba (600,000), San Salvacion (400,000), Bolivia (350,000), Granada (250,000), Santiago (100,000) and Paraguay (80,000). The Republic of Osea is divided into North and South Osea. The Andeans continue to work with the local governments on the rebuilding process. Universities are planned, with hopes to attract more settlers from Andea. Industry is built up to attract low skill workers in search of jobs. Spaniards who desire to do so are allowed to leave the nation free of charge, with monetary reimbursment from Andea. Roughly 80,000 this year take this offer. Last Year's famine continues to cause issues, as over 50,000 people die.
      • Andean Overseas Territories: The Falkland Islands, under direct control of the Andean military, prove to be a strategic location in protecting Vorlayacor's coast line. A military force of 35,000 is stationed on the islands.
      • Kingdom of Apeac: Military, economy and navy improve. Population stands at 400,000, as Andean settlers come in, seeking more land then they can get in their homeland. 4000 militiamen remain activated in the territory. 20,000 Andean military men remain active in the territory. Andean Settlers meet resistance from Mataco raiders, who attack settlements on the frontier. The nation mobilizes against Southern Osea.
      • Vorlayacor: Military, economy and navy improve. The nation sees a massive expansion of its infrastructure, with the Royal family owning much of the nation's infrastructure. Population stands at seven million. Military stands at 25,000 active men, with another 20,000 in reserve. Andean military bases have 35,000 men stationed. The War for independence continues, though Andean-Osean Forces make gains agiainst the nationals, with aid from the Loyalists in the territory.
  • Algonquia: Continues its military buildup after the conquest of Arcadia. Several Atlantic ports are built up as naval bases and heavily fortified to enforce Algonquian naval dominance of its immediate surroundings. New ships of the line are launched, while new gun foundries open to supply them. Some naval strategists wonder if even these ships will soon become obsolete, however, with the rumoured advent of ironclads in Europe. Europeans, encouraged by financial incentives, continue to flee Algonquia and return to their homelands. Algonquia continues to expand its overseas trade, with merchants opening trade routes to Africa and even into the Indian Ocean. The Council of Sachems issues the Nemiscau Declaration this year, stating that Algonquia will intervene to protect native populations across Borealia if they are abused. This legitimizes the conquest of Arcadia and much of Algonquia's foreign policy.
    • Labrador: With the European inhabitants increasingly marginalized by resettlement policies, they demand full land and linguistic rights in several protests to the Algonquian government. In response, the government orders the creation of "reservations", the land of which shall be permanently controlled by European groups. This comes at the cost of their having to move to these reservations and give up land outside of them. The Europeans agree enthusiastically, eager for legal protection, only to find that the reservations are mostly marginal and unarable land. By that point, however, they have lost all other land rights. Many begin to choose to sell their land on the reservations and move back to Europe, while others intermarry with Algonquians and adopt their culture in order to receive full rights. The military and economy continues to develop, unhindered by famine, and resettlement, particularly into the thousands of acres freed up by the reservation scheme, continues.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities built and roads built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. After two first railway lines was opened, the Moroccan government creates a network of Moroccan railroads and for first time in African railroad history, Morocco becomes the first African country to build railroads and simply new parts of railroads are built between largest cities.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. An oil vein is struck in California, but it is still being analysed. We offer New Bavaria representation in the Curia in the event that Germany grants them independence. The Romanesque movement begins to wind down, although it leaves a permanent affect on Borealian culture, and the Romanesque leaders continue to fight against discrimination.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians officially begin expanding their military. The new military technologies developed by Pskov are adopted by the Ruthenians.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. As we also begin to modernize our army, we improve the many cities of the Caliphate, specifically in Arabia and Iraq.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and 'invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov.'Some disaster strikes the National Conservatives - well, in the long run anyway - as competing nationalisms rip apart some members. This year two new parties from the Conservatives, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LNS), and the Latvian Democratic National Coalition (LDNK). A new law is passed with support from the Liberals, Conservatives and Socialists, regarding parties and their powers compared to factions. One of the biggest advantages compared to them, in fact is the appointment of party whips (something that was much debated as the NCP appointed one, and the legality of such a position), something that was of much contention in the past. Now parties, but not factions, are permitted to appoint whips, so long as they have a platform and are properly registered with the national Political Party Registrar (Factions do not need such registration, and can form and dissolve at will. However, they are not permitted whip, and are treated as independents in order of precedence and roll call. However, it is also good to mention that the order of precedence thus: 1. Government, 2. Official Opposition, 3. All others who wish to speak in alphabetical order, with independents going first if possible). These two new parties declare that they will have nothing to do with the NCP.

1864

Federico Della Rovere proclaims himself to be the true monarch of Italy, staking his claim on ancestral service and rewards during the reign of the Habsburgs. Gathering the wsupport of the conservative elite, Rovere quickly grows in popularity among the Italian Upper class

Thoughts of independence or joining Borealia become more and more common amongst the various classes of New Bavaria, although a noticeable split emerges between the upper class, who want to remain with Bavaria, and the commoners, who want to join Borealia.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. There is much celebration in Hamburg over King Mary being elected Holy Roman Empire, the first member of the House of Hamburg to be elected. In light of the celebration, the government rejects any "pressure" from Mexaca to cede them Belize. Emperor Mary's grandmother, Sophia the Just, handily defeated the Mexacan military when they first attempted to take Belize, and many of the fortifications are still present. Another 5,000 troops are sent to Belize, and the reserves in Kuba are put on notice. The navy also allocates a large portion of its steamship fleet for a show of force, a cruise to travel along Mexacas gulf coast. Meanwhile, the long-present Hamburgian traders in Hawaii grow more influential in the Hawaiian court.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultans wife gives birth to a son. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
    • Bengal - Jaunpur Diplomacy: The Sultanate of Jaunpur is requested to adopt the Bengali Tanki as its official currency, given that it has already been adopted almost all of Jaunpur's major trading partners such as Bengal, Bahamani and Udaipur [MOD RESPONSE].
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
    • The Commonwealth of Borealia: Offers an alliance and trade agreement with Korea.
    • Korea Diplomacy: Korea accepts the trade agreement and alliance offer from Borealia.
  • Mexaca: Begins to enjoy new economic gains and wealth with much of California under our control. We begin putting pressure on Hamburg to cede Belize to us, and the military is just reaching 50,000 men. Modern weapons are introduced, and railways are built to connect the Empire. Telegrams are also researched, and the navy sees some slight construction.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, two new railway lines, named Fes-Marrakesh and Marrakesh-El-Aaiun, are opened in service.
  • Ayutthaya: (I don't LOOK like I'm colonized so can I play as this?) Ayutthaya begins to improve its economy by beginning the plantation of farms for certain goods. We send explorers northwest of the Kingdom to uncharted land (OTL Burma) and begin plans for occupation of it. Military is improved and military training begins to be part of education. Schools and universities are constructed. Ayutthaya would like to send intellectuals and scholars to study the educational, economic, political, and military systems of European powers.
  • In Aragon the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of some taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. A rail link between Zaragoza and Madrid is proposed. With the advent of steam power, factories begin to be built and stuff. Textile mills, cloth factories and other places begin to harness steam power to do more things faster, which creates more jobs that people move to cities to get. Industrialization is gaining speed. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. Greater emphasis is given to expand the navy in the expectation of promoting trade in the Pacific. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. An oil vein is struck in California, but it is still being analysed. We encourage New Bavaria to join Borealia, while diplomats begin to put pressure on the upper class to come to a decision.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. As we also begin to modernize our army, we improve the many cities of the Caliphate, specifically in Arabia and Iraq. We demand the annexation of Azerbaijan in motive for the unification of an Islamic State west of the Indus. If not, we will invade.[Mod Response]
  • Azerbaijan declines.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The Neu Norderney Packet is up and running by the middle of the year, with ships leaving the Jade Bay for Neu Norderney (and vice versa) every week. Duke Dietrich II congratulates Emperor Mary on her accession to the Imperial throne. The speedy election is not as well-received by the Oldenburger representative, who returns to Oldenburg somewhat dismayed he didn't get to have a longer all-expenses-paid holiday. In other news, the Church has managed to establish schools in most every parish, leading to a slow but steady rise in basic literacy and numeracy. The Prince-Bishop of Osnabruck sets up a fund to provide exceptionally talented students of the Parish Schools with scholarships to attend higher schools and even university. With the advent of railways, the proprietors of the Turnpike Trusts have noticed a sharp fall in revenue. Many trusts start investing in small trunk railway lines as a way of making more mone.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. When the Conservatives table another budget this year, diaster strikes. Not only do all opposition parties unanimously vote against it, the budget fails to enlist much support in the unaligned deputees, being defeated in a 507-493 vote. This is taken, by the Supreme Prince, to be equivelant to a vote of no confidence, so he dissolves the Senate and calls for new elections. He also signs a decree guaranteeing that the past budget will be "extended" i.e. the same institutions will receive the same monthly funding, until the new elections bring in a new government and a new budget is passed. The Election is scheduled for April, and the Liberals really make it part of their goals to "Push the Conservatives off the Island" (i.e., the central part of GA, esentially the threshold for 400 seats). After a long and arduous campaign, the Conservatives lose much more of the vote, winning only 397 seats, loosing most to the splinter parties, the LNS and the LDNK. This is disastrous, because this is the first election since their first government where the national conservative party has less seats that the combined results of their opposition, and must rely on massive compromise if they do not wish to end their mandate prematurely. They are lucky that the opposition is not willing to form a large coalition. Results are as follows: A minority government is formed by the National Conservative Party, controling 397 seats. The Government is supported by the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by nine seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the United Liberal Party, controlling 281 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Workers' and Farmers New Socialist Party, controlling 73 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LNS), controlling 32 seats, the Latvian Democratic National Coalition (LDNK), controlling 17 seats, the Agrarian Faction, loosely represented by 26 seats, and the Industrialist Faction, loosely represented by 48 seats. 117 deputees sit without allegiance.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans City (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • Algonquia: Continues its military buildup after the conquest of Arcadia. Several Atlantic ports are built up as naval bases and heavily fortified to enforce Algonquian naval dominance of its immediate surroundings. New ships of the line are launched, while new gun foundries open to supply them. Some naval strategists wonder if even these ships will soon become obsolete, however, with the rumoured advent of ironclads in Europe. Europeans, encouraged by financial incentives, continue to flee Algonquia and return to their homelands. Algonquia continues to expand its overseas trade, with merchants opening trade routes to Africa and even into the Indian Ocean. The economy industrializes and modernizes, while Arcadians continue to flee back to Europe, any chance of their regaining control of their homeland having clearly vanished.
    • Labrador: The famine finally fully ends, with Algonquian troops moving into afflicted areas to provide succour to the starving inhabitants. Resettlement of Algonquians into the now-empty lands continues, while those guilty of the revolt are dispossessed of their land and imprisoned, executed or expelled. The local church structure is dismantled, church properties seized, and what remains of it placed under the control of Algonquian sycreticist priests. The local military continues to build up.

1865

The current leader of the Italian government appointed by the De Luca family dies. Upon his death, a large corruption scandal between him and several officials appointed by the Roman government in Constantinople is uncovered by the Italian upper class. This Scandal pushes many Italians to either Rovere or Abandonato.

Members of New Bavarian society, feeling the growing need for action regarding New Bavaria’s status, petition the government in Bavaria to have a referendum for New Bavaria’s future.

  • United German Kngdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The next ships on the Meteor class ironclads are commissioned, part of the Navy's expansive modernization program. Meanwhile, a new type of ironclad, armed with one or two rotating gun housings, is constructed starting with the SMS Monitor, which enters service in November. Hamburg's steamship fleet returns to Havana after an uneventful show of force cruise off the coast of Mexaca. Hamburgian traders and farmers grow in number and influence, and the Hawaiian trade becomes very lucrative for the Hamburgian Asian companies.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultans wife gives birth to a son. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
    • Bengal - Jaunpur Diplomacy: The Sultanate of Jaunpur is requested to adopt the Bengali Tanki as its official currency, given that it has already been adopted almost all of Jaunpur's major trading partners such as Bengal, Bahamani and Udaipur [MP PLS REPLY damnit ].
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • Mexaca: Continues the massive project to connect the nation, and sees new roads, railways and canals built across the land. Mexaca City becomes the center of the railway network, and several Mexacan railway companies begin making profits. Jobs are made for many in the empire, and the people begin to experience higher standards of living. The military continues to modernizes, and modern weapons and technology are introduced.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, two new railway lines, named Fes-Midelt and Marrakesh-Ouarzazate, are opened in service.
  • Andea: Andea continues its efforts against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. President Apaec is quoted as saying "United we will prosper. Divided we will Falter. Standing Strong now is a necessity, not a choice." . Andean Rifles prove to be more effective than Mapuche Muskets, with greater range, stopping power, and reliability. Military training continues, with the amount of Regulars being brought up to 450,000 men. Industry expands as well, with more goods being created for the war. Infrastructure expands as well, with the amount of roads and railroads being expanded upon drasticly. Ships of the Line begin to get replaced by Ironclads, which prove far more effective than the Ships used by the Limited Mapuche Navy.
    • Andean Overseas Territories: Forces from the Falklands are used to engage the Mapuche Nationalist Navy. A Naval landing on Mapuche Nationalist Front Controlled territory occurs this year, with 15,000 men landing in Nov Xoyran. The Campaign to reclaim the city ends after six months, with Andean Forces securing the territory. Casualties are heavy, with the Coalition suffering 6000 losses and the Mapuche Nationalist Front suffering 3000 losses. These losses are mirrored elsewhere, with the casualty ratio remaining two-to-one throughout the war. An Additional 5000 men land in friendly territory to re-inforce the battle lines.
    • Osean Confederation: The outbreak of civil war in Vorlayacor leads the a rapid expansion of the nations infrastructure. Roads, Railroads, and Factories are all rapidly built up. Andean Settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. Two new republics are created: Castile and East Osea. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (750,000) South Osea (680,000) Uruguay (550,000) Cordoba (450,000) Buenos Aires (400,000), San Salvacion (300,000) East Osea (270,000) Boliva (200,000) Granada (280,000), Santiago (140,000), Castile (70,000) and Paraguay (45,000). For the first time, the Republics of Santiago and Paraguay have Andean Majorities, standing at 45% (vs 38% Spanish and 17% Mestizo) and 53% (Vs 34% Spanish and 13% Mestizo) respectively.
    • Kingdom of Apeac: The Nation aids in the War against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. Population stands at 450,000, 68% of which are Andean.
    • Vorlayacor (Loyalist Territory): The war continues to rage on in the territory. Over 150,000 people have died thus far, and Nationals remain strong at 120,000 men. Loyalist, Andean and Osean (Collectively, the Hesperian Coalition) forces stand at 350,000. The Population Remains 40% Loyalist, 20% Nuetral, and 40% in support of the Mapuche National Front. Population of the Loyalist controlled territorries stands at 4.9 million.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. Greater emphasis is given to expand the navy in the expectation of promoting trade in the Pacific. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. The first oil-driven motor is demonstrated as superior to steam, with the prospect of oil factories in the future. We encourage New Bavaria to join Borealia, while diplomats begin to put pressure on the upper class to come to a decision. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with Ayutthaya.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: Military is built up, especially the navy.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. When the Conservatives table another budget this year, disaster strikes. Not only do all opposition parties unanimously vote against it, the budget fails to enlist much support in the unaligned deputees, being defeated in a 507-493 vote. This is taken, by the Supreme Prince, to be equivelant to a vote of no confidence, so he dissolves the Senate and calls for new elections. He also signs a decree guaranteeing that the past budget will be "extended", i.e., the same institutions will receive the same monthly funding, until the new elections bring in a new government and a new budget is passed. The election is scheduled for April, and the Liberals really make it part of their goals to "Push the Conservatives off the Island" (i.e. the central part of GA, esentially the threshold for 400 seats). After a long and arduous campaign, the Conservatives lose much more of the vote, winning only 397 seats, losing most to the splinter parties, the LNS and the LDNK. This is disastrous, because this is the first election since their first government where the national conservative party has less seats that the combined results of their opposition, and must rely on massive compromise if they do not wish to end their mandate prematurely. They are lucky that the opposition is not willing to form a large coalition. Results are as follows: A minority Government is formed by the National Conservative Party, controling 397 seats. The Government is supported by the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by nine seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the United Liberal Party, controlling 281 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Workers' and Farmers New Socialist Party, controlling 73 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LNS), controlling 32 seats, the Latvian Democratic National Coalition (LDNK), controlling 17 seats, the Agrarian Faction, loosely represented by 26 seats, and the Industrialist Faction, loosely represented by 48 seats. 117 deputees sit without allegiance.

1866

Late in the Year, Abantonato leads a raid on a Roman military base near Pisa, making off with some weapons and supplies.

The government in Bavaria agrees to allow the proposed referendum in New Bavaria to determine how the people in New Bavaria want to participate in future Bavarian affairs, if at all. Bavarian officials begin setting up the referendum, which will take place next year.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. Mexaca's new calls to cede them Belize, a province of the Kingdom of Kuba, in turn a member of the UGK, is rejected outright. The 30,000 troops stationed in Belize and Kuba are put on alert, and reinforcements begin flowing into Belize. Some 150 warships (steamships, ironclads, and Monitors among them) are also stationed off Belize, ready to seize naval supremacy. In light of these preparations, Hamburg demands that Mexaca demilitarize their side of the border.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultan's wife gives birth to a son. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • BaiernFlag8Kingdom of Bavaria (Constituent State of the Crown-Union of Germany): In 1862, Bavaria expands its economy. National infrastructure is developed. The population continues to rise. Trausnitz is returned to its place as national capital. CuriaBavariaFlag The Curia Bavaria, also known as the Bavarian Parliament or Bavarian Diet, continue to operate in the Parliamentary Palace in Landshut. It is a regional legislature. The Diet orders the German Army to be outfitted in modern uniform and to hold modern weaponry. In political news, the Curia Bavaria continue to implement infrastructural, diplomatic, and tax base laws. In Munich, Queen Isabell University remains a staple of education in Bavaria. King Franz-Rudolph I (born 1798) and his children; Maria (born 1817) and Johann (born 1822) compose the current royal family. Several modern warships and trade vessels begin construction at Bremen Port. Modern weaponry make its introduction into Bavaria. In diplomatic news, Germany maintains alliances with Hamburg, Britannia, France, The Netherlands, Scandinavia and Rome. There has been an uptick of 80% of Bavaro-German primary speakers in Franconia, Saxony, Pomerania, and Brandenburg, and uptick of 95% secondary speakers in those areas. In colonial news, Nei Baiern continues to expand. In political news, the King continues to sit at both Bavarian and Austrian privy councils. In industrial news, the effects of industrialization and urbanization begin to be felt in Swabia, Würzburg and Bavaria, where Stuttgart becomes the center of manufacturing and modern production. By year end, it becomes clear that industrialization is spreading in Germany after a long period of stagnation. While I was gone The Randolphines and Marians created much political instability in the 1840s as the Hamburgian civil war raged on in the nieghboring Kingdom. Initially, the monarchy allied with the the conservative, crazy King, while the Diet allied with Princess Mary. This disparation caused significant discord and created antagonism toward the King. Furthermore, more criticism arose over industrialism, with many fretting over poor treatment of workers, children, and women. However, a moderate Diet was elected in the 1850s and healed many wounds. A more left-leaning King now rules as railways expand exponentially and feed the coal industry. Because of this, many workers are once more subjected to harsh conditons, treatment, and low pay. But most of the population remain cheery due to political stability. Instability rises in New Bavaria as many nobles in Katharinas-Hafen begin supporting independence. A referendum is allowed, and the King states that if independence is voted upon, Bavaria will allow it, and will support the new country with trade pacts and military alliances, and will safeguard its independence. In other news, author Ingrid von Schteilman publishes a scathing work criticizing child labour, railway abuse, and the horrors that coal miners undergo.
    • Ddcoa2Deutsche Diet: The Deutsche Diet, also known as the German Parliament or German Diet, is established by the decree of Queen Frances I in 1736, and is given a charter that year.
    • Flag of AustriaKingdom of Austria (Constituent State of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King and Queen continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. The Austrian Council is created as an independent privy council for the King. CuriaAustriaFlagThe Curia Austria remains the official legislature in Austria. The Curia is popular in Vienna and surrounding areas. Parliamentarians usually pass laws concerning taxes, diplomacy, and infrastructure. Johann Florinsburg is successfully re-elected as Minister-Governor in 1822. The next elections are to be held in 1832.
    • Flag of Most Serene Republic of VeniceKingdom of Venezia (Constituent State of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. The Curia Venexia is responsible for overseeing the legal, economic and political goings on of all those in Venezia.
    • Flagge Preußen - Provinz BrandenburgCommonwealth of Brandenburg (Constituent State of the CUG): Brandenburg is re-established in 1837, and a Governor is elected promptly thereafter. Having more autonomy than other Bavaro-German realms, the Governor creates many new departments in Brandenburg. Among them is the Department of the Military, which train troops and research modern military technology. Also created is the Department of Commerce and Treasury, which handles issues of domestic economy and foreign trade.
    • Pommernflagpm3Commonwealth of Pomerania (Constituent State of the CUG): Pomerania is re-established in 1837, and a Governor is elected promptly thereafter. Having more autonomy than other Bavaro-German realms, the Governor creates many new departments in Pomerania. Among them is the Department of War, which handles military strategy and financing. Also created are two smaller departments, each being responsible for the Army and the Navy. Also created is a Department of Treasurers. Interestingly enough, a Department of Polish Affairs is created to better assimilate the ethnic Polish minorities into Bavaro-German culture.
    • Flag of BremenBremen Port (Constituent Territory of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King and Queen continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. Several cogs are constructed, and plans are drafted to construct many larger ships. Several modern warships and trade vessels begin construction at Bremen Port.
    • NewBavariaFlagNew Bavaria (Colony of the CUG): The colony of Nei Baiern continues to expand in population. Katharinas-Hafen, Franznacken, Bayreuth, Nei Regens, and Regenholz all expand by the end of the year. Houses and shops in each settlement continue being built. Jülichsberg and Wittlesberg both expand. Nei Baiern expands 2000 km. The militias and shops are developed. A small logging and fishing town is founded north of Wilhelmsbaum island, on the mainland. The settlement, mainly populated by Saxons, comes to be called Regenholz.
    • PearlRiverFlagPearl River (Colony of the CUG): The outpost of Perlefluss is established. A capital is expected to be constructed over the next few years. The capital of Pearl River is named Pearl River, after the colony itself.
  • Mexaca: Continues the construction of railways across the empire, and telegram poles are laid down in the capital. We again ask the Hamburger cede Belize to the empire. We begin militarizing the border with Belize, and support rebels in the region.
  • Andea: Andea continues its efforts against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. President Apaec is quoted as saying "United we will prosper. Divided we will Falter. Standing Strong now is a necessity, not a choice." . Andean Rifles prove to be more effective than Mapuche Muskets, with greater range, stopping power, and reliability. Military training continues, with the amount of regulars being brought up to 550,000 men. Industry expands as well, with more goods being created for the war. Infrastructure expands as well, with the amount of roads and railroads being expanded upon drastically. Ships of the Line begin to get replaced by Ironclads, which prove far more effective than the ships used by the Limited Mapuche Navy. Population stands at 29 million.
    • Andean Overseas Territories: Andean military governors are installed in any territory north of the Uruguay River that Allied powers control. This territories are under constant raids, though as the MNF struggles to find new recruits.
    • Osean Confederation: The outbreak of civil war in Vorlayacor leads the a rapid expansion of the nations infrastructure. Roads, Railroads, and Factories are all rapidly built up. Andean Settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (750,000) South Osea (680,000) Uruguay (550,000) Cordoba (450,000) Buenos Aires (400,000), San Salvacion (300,000) East Osea (270,000) Boliva (200,000) Granada (280,000), Santiago (140,000), Castile (70,000) and Paraguay (45,000). For the first time, the Republics of Santiago and Paraguay have Andean Majorities, standing at 45% (vs 38% Spanish and 17% Mestizo) and 53% (Vs 34% Spanish and 13% Mestizo) respectivly.
    • Kingdom of Apeac: The nation aids in the War against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. Population stands at 455,000, 69% of whom are Andean. The Mataco stage an uprising in the eastern part of the territory. Although Small in Number, it distracts from the overall war effort
    • Vorlayacor (Loyalist Territory): The war continues to rage on in the territory. Over 200,000 people have died so far. The Nationalists, after a stinging defeat at Nov Xoyran, regroup and launch a counter attack. The counterattack fails, with Andean led Forces repelling wave after wave of attack. Casualties are heavy on both sides, with the Allied Forces losing 25,000 men, and the Mapuche Nationalists losing 38,000 men. The Mapuche Nationalist Front forms a defensive line on the Uruguay river, consiting of 10,000 men. The numbers of the Mapuche nationalist front begin to shrink. New recruits are hard to come by, and the MNF controls only about 40% of the nation. The MNF stands at 150,000 men. The Allies stand at 300,000 men.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding one million people every five years and two million people every ten years, thanks to the population growing act is signed. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, three new railway lines are opened in service.
  • That is too fast a rate for almost any country, let alone Morocco. -MP
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. Greater emphasis is given to expand the navy in the expectation of promoting trade in the Pacific. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. The first oil-driven motor is demonstrated as superior to steam, with the prospect of oil factories in the future. We encourage New Bavaria to join Borealia, while diplomats begin to put pressure on the upper class to come to a decision. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with Ayutthaya.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. As we also begin to modernize our army, we improve the many cities of the Caliphate, specifically in Arabia and Iraq. We invade Azerbaijan and ask for the support of Rome.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • In Aragon the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of some taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. A rail link between Zaragoza and Madrid is built. With the advent of steam power, factories begin to be built and stuff. Textile mills, cloth factories and other places begin to harness steam power to do more things faster, which creates more jobs that people move to cities to get. Industrialization is gaining speed. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. When the Conservatives table another budget this year, diaster strikes. Not only do all opposition parties unanimously vote against it, the budget fails to enlist much support in the unaligned deputees, being defeated in a 507-493 vote. This is taken, by the Supreme Prince, to be equivelant to a vote of no confidence, so he dissolves the Senate and calls for new elections. He also signs a decree guaranteeing that the past budget will be "extended", i.e., the same institutions will receive the same monthly funding, until the new elections bring in a new government and a new budget is passed. The election is scheduled for April, and the Liberals really make it part of their goals to "Push the Conservatives off the Island" (i.e. the central part of GA, esentially the threshold for 400 seats). After a long and arduous campaign, the Conservatives lose much more of the vote, winning only 397 seats, losing most to the splinter parties, the LNS and the LDNK. This is disastrous, because this is the first election since their first government where the national conservative party has less seats that the combined results of their opposition, and must rely on massive compromise if they do not wish to end their mandate prematurely. They are lucky that the opposition is not willing to form a large coalition. Results are as follows: A minority Government is formed by the National Conservative Party, controling 397 seats. The Government is supported by the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by nine seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the United Liberal Party, controlling 281 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Workers' and Farmers New Socialist Party, controlling 73 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LNS), controlling 32 seats, the Latvian Democratic National Coalition (LDNK), controlling 17 seats, the Agrarian Faction, loosely represented by 26 seats, and the Industrialist Faction, loosely represented by 48 seats. 117 deputees sit without allegiance.

1867

Full Scale war begins in Italy, between the Conservatives led by Rovere, the Republicans led by Abandonato, and the De Luca’s backed by the Romans. The Conservatives number 65,000 and the Republicans number 125,000.

The New Bavarian referendum takes place. Voters are able to select whether they want to remain part of Bavaria as is, become independent, join Borealia, or remain with Bavaria but with more political power.

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. Hamburg again rejects Mexaca's demand to cede them Belize. Some 35,000 troops are mobilized in Kuba, and an additional 10,000 are sent from New Hamburg and New Brunswick. In August, the first 15,000 troops make the voyage from Europe, and Emperor Mary travels with them. She visits the fortifications on the Belizian border, now fully manned for the first time in three decades. Mary walks a considerable length to cheers of "Long Live the Emperor!", often scaling to vantage points where Mexacan flags can be seen. Finally heeding her advisors counsel, she returns to Belize City, and leaves after several more days there. But she stops in Kuba, intent on visiting as many of Hamburg's territories as possible.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Sultan's wife gives birth to a son. [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • BaiernFlag8Kingdom of Bavaria (Constituent State of the Crown-Union of Germany): In 1867, Bavaria expands its economy. National infrastructure is developed. The population continues to rise. Trausnitz is returned to its place as national capital. CuriaBavariaFlag The Curia Bavaria, also known as the Bavarian Parliament or Bavarian Diet, continue to operate in the Parliamentary Palace in Landshut. It is a regional legislature. The Diet orders the German Army to be outfitted in modern uniform and to hold modern weaponry. In political news, the Curia Bavaria continue to implement infrastructural, diplomatic, and tax base laws. In Munich, Queen Isabell University remains a staple of education in Bavaria. King Franz-Rudolph I (born 1798) and his children; Maria (born 1817) and Johann (born 1822) compose the current royal family. Several modern warships and trade vessels begin construction at Bremen Port. Modern weaponry make its introduction into Bavaria. In diplomatic news, Germany maintains alliances with Hamburg, Britannia, France, The Netherlands, Scandinavia and Rome. There has been an uptick of 80% of Bavaro-German primary speakers in Franconia, Saxony, Pomerania, and Brandenburg, and uptick of 95% secondary speakers in those areas. In colonial news, Nei Baiern continues to expand. In political news, the King continues to sit at both Bavarian and Austrian privy councils. In industrial news, the effects of industrialization and urbanization begin to be felt in Swabia, Würzburg and Bavaria, where Stuttgart becomes the center of manufacturing and modern production. By year end, it becomes clear that industrialization is spreading in Germany after a long period of stagnation. While I was gone: The Randolphines and Marians created much political instability in the 1840s as the Hamburgian civil war raged on in the nieghboring Kingdom. Initially, the monarchy allied with the the conservative, crazy King, while the Diet allied with Princess Mary. This disparation caused significant discord and created antagonism toward the King. Furthermore, more criticism arose over industrialism, with many fretting over poor treatment of workers, children, and women. However, a moderate Diet was elected in the 1850s and healed many wounds. A more left-leaning King now rules as railways expand exponentially and feed the coal industry. Because of this, many workers are once more subjected to harsh conditons, treatment, and low pay. But most of the population remain cheery due to political stability. In New Bavaria, 43% vote to go independent as the Republic of Bayreuth, 41% want to join Borealia, while 14 want more autonomy, and 2% want to remain a colony. In order to please all parties, Chancellor Filipe Dascherman allows the colony to go independent, but offers a military alliance and trade pact. He also offers to both Bayreuth and Borealia to join Bavaria under a new "Union of Western Borealia" which could foster better relations between all nations and facilitate a stable union between Borealia and Bayreuth. In other news, author Ingrid von Schteilman publishes a scathing work criticizing child labour, railway abuse, and the horrors that coal miners undergo.
    • Ddcoa2Deutsche Diet: The Deutsche Diet, also known as the German Parliament or German Diet, is established by the decree of Queen Frances I in 1736, and is given a charter that year.
    • Flag of AustriaKingdom of Austria (Constituent State of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King and Queen continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. The Austrian Council is created as an independent privy council for the King. CuriaAustriaFlagThe Curia Austria remains the official legislature in Austria. The Curia is popular in Vienna and surrounding areas. Parliamentarians usually pass laws concerning taxes, diplomacy, and infrastructure. Johann Florinsburg is successfully re-elected as Minister-Governor in 1822. The next elections are to be held in 1832.
    • Flag of Most Serene Republic of VeniceKingdom of Venezia (Constituent State of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. The Curia Venexia is responsible for overseeing the legal, economic and political goings on of all those in Venezia.
    • Flagge Preußen - Provinz BrandenburgCommonwealth of Brandenburg (Constituent State of the CUG): Brandenburg is re-established in 1837, and a Governor is elected promptly thereafter. Having more autonomy than other Bavaro-German realms, the Governor creates many new departments in Brandenburg. Among them is the Department of the Military, which train troops and research modern military technology. Also created is the Department of Commerce and Treasury, which handles issues of domestic economy and foreign trade.
    • Pommernflagpm3Commonwealth of Pomerania (Constituent State of the CUG): Pomerania is re-established in 1837, and a Governor is elected promptly thereafter. Having more autonomy than other Bavaro-German realms, the Governor creates many new departments in Pomerania. Among them is the Department of War, which handles military strategy and financing. Also created are two smaller departments, each being responsible for the Army and the Navy. Also created is a Department of Treasurers. Interestingly enough, a Department of Polish Affairs is created to better assimilate the ethnic Polish minorities into Bavaro-German culture.
    • Flag of BremenBremen Port (Constituent Territory of the CUG): Troops authorized by the King and Queen continue training. Several markets are constructed as well as trade houses for European traders. Several cogs are constructed, and plans are drafted to construct many larger ships. Several modern warships and trade vessels begin construction at Bremen Port.
    • NewBavariaFlagNew Bavaria (Colony of the CUG): The colony of Nei Baiern continues to expand in population. Katharinas-Hafen, Franznacken, Bayreuth, Nei Regens, and Regenholz all expand by the end of the year. Houses and shops in each settlement continue being built. Jülichsberg and Wittlesberg both expand. Nei Baiern expands 2000 km. The militias and shops are developed. A small logging and fishing town is founded north of Wilhelmsbaum island, on the mainland. The settlement, mainly populated by Saxons, comes to be called Regenholz. New Bavaria votes for independence in 1867 as the Republic of Bayreuth.
    • PearlRiverFlagPearl River (Colony of the CUG): The outpost of Perlefluss is established. A capital is expected to be constructed over the next few years. The capital of Pearl River is named Pearl River, after the colony itself.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding one million people every ten years, thanks to the population growing act is signed. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, three new railway lines are opened in service.
  • Mexaca: Warns Hamburg that if they do not cede Belize to us by the next year, then we will launch a full scale invasion of Belize. We request that the other members of the New Munich Pact support us in this, and we also begin militarizing the borders. Economic growth continues for the people of Mexaca, and many begin to regard themselves as loyal citizens of the empire.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. Greater emphasis is given to expand the navy in the expectation of promoting trade in the Pacific. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with Ayutthaya. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. The first oil-driven motor is demonstrated as superior to steam, with the prospect of oil factories in the future. Borealia accept Bavaria and Bayreuth's alliance as the Union of West Borealia. To facilitate such, the Curia proposes to organize a federal government over the Union that would administer the governments of both Borealia and Bayreuth. A new constitution will be drafted that is applicable to both states.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: Military expands.
  • Nordic Union: The economy and military of Scandinavia and Britannia improves this year. Import/export businesses in Denmark, Sweden and Norway bring in a considerable amount of income. Urbanization in London leads to rapid industrialization of southern Britannia. This also happens in Copenhagen and Oslo. While Oslo celebrates the explosion of population, Copenhagen starts seeing overcrowding issues. Incentives to resettle in Finnish and Icelandic areas are enacted. Scandinavia and Britannia's chief exports include iron, wood, and other construction materiel, a commodity that is vastly growing in necessity as urbanization increases throughout Europe. Militaries in Europe purchase Nordic iron for ships and weapons. The Scandinavian colonies are a source of even more lumber. The British colonies, in the meantime, provide bountiful food for the Nordic Union. Resources such as pelts bring in massive amounts of profit for Scandinavia, both due to intranational trading and international trading. Scandinavia exports resources such as textiles, dyes and foodstuffs from its trading partners. Interest in coffee plants rises among nobles as the drink becomes more popular among the population of Scandinvia, especially in the upper class and in the aristocracy. Though the bean is expensive to Scandinavia, coffee sales spike. Indonesian powers are offered exclusive trade deals for coffee in exchange for discounted, high-quality wood and iron. Scandinavia retains its alliances with Pskov, the Roman Empire, and many other nations. These alliances are celebrated in the Scandinavian and British courts. The ports in Iceland and London are expanded to accommodate more ships. Education in Scandinavia continues to improve. The literacy rate is steadily increasing as public schools are built throughout the nation. The population of Scandinavia continues to explode as well. Urbanization, more food supplies, better census data, and other factors are all leading to a spike in population. Scandinavia's population is expected to reach twenty million by 1830. While this increase in population does come with benefits, it has its drawbacks as well. In political news, the House of Scandinavia-Britannia continues to remain in charge of Scandinavia. The Riksdag is dominated by this royal house. Scandinavia wishes to become closer to the Dutch. Centuries ago, the Northern Trading Pact had solidified British, Scandinavian and Dutch relations alike. In the meantime, Scandinavia finishes vassalizing |onte (or whatever big bubble is right above it). Socialist and Republican sentiment grows in Scandinavia, especially in Finland.
    • Durbin: The colony of Durbin expands along the western coast of Australia from the former settlement that crashed there so long ago. With contact and resources flowing in from Scandinavia-Britannia, a minor boom is witnessed (colony expands 1000 sq km south along western coast).
    • Eire: The Irish continue to expand their navy and army, even more so due to the strains in Europe.
    • Ghana: More troops are raised from locals. Military and infrastructure are expanded. Most locals now see themselves as loyal British citizens and now fully vote and represent the colonies, Ghana becomes the first Brittannic colony to invoke near self rule, with little regulation from the homeland due to the mutual respect from the others. Any separatist movements are largely ignored.
    • Helluland: The military and economy are improved. Helluland expands by 10,000 sq km this year. Helluland is responsible for the production of furs in the Scandinavian Empire, generating much profit for the colony.
    • Hondeklip: The military of this African colony expands. In the meantime, Hondeklip expands by 1000 sq km.
    • Iceland: The military and economy are improved. Iceland is an important port for northern Europeans. Due to the large amounts of trade flowing into Icelandic ports, the population of Iceland increases. Iceland begins to expand its outpost on Greenland by 20,000 sq km this year. The iron mines in Iceland lead to several entrepreneurs flocking to Iceland in the interest of expanding their personal fortunes.
    • Karelia: The military and economy expand. Karelia has been in the Scandinavian realm for centuries now. It is the location of many important fortresses, namely Castle Vyborg. Karelia is a massive source of iron for Scandinavia. Trade with Russia and Pskov flows through Karelia during the summer months.
    • New Zealand: The military and economy expand.
    • Port Edmundburg: Expands by 1000 sq km south and east down the coast. The African colonists begin looking toward mining and other ventures to generate profit. A new newspaper, the first in a colony, is founded, called the Edmundburg Report. The slave trade begins to boom as exploitation of local minerals reaches a high amount. Slaves are sent to the New World to help boost production.
    • Schleswig: The military and economy are expanded. Schleswig has been a vassal of the Scandinavian Empire for quite some time. All land routes into Scandinavia go through this vassal, meaning Schleswig is one of Scandinavia's wealthiest vassals.
    • Scotland: Expands navy and military. The Edinburgh Stock Exchange continues to do well. The Emperor visits Glasgow for the wedding of noblewoman Cassandra De' Levae, wife of the Duke of Westminster in a surprise visit keen on proving that he is open to reconciliation with the House of Hamburg.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. When the Conservatives table another budget this year, diaster strikes. Not only do all opposition parties unanimously vote against it, the budget fails to enlist much support in the unaligned deputees, being defeated in a 507-493 vote. This is taken, by the Supreme Prince, to be equivelant to a vote of no confidence, so he dissolves the Senate and calls for new elections. He also signs a decree guaranteeing that the past budget will be "extended", i.e., the same institutions will receive the same monthly funding, until the new elections bring in a new government and a new budget is passed. The election is scheduled for April, and the Liberals really make it part of their goals to "Push the Conservatives off the Island" (i.e., the central part of GA, esentially the threshold for 400 seats). After a long and arduous campaign, the Conservatives lose much more of the vote, winning only 397 seats, losing most to the splinter parties, the LNS and the LDNK. This is disastrous, because this is the first election since their first government where the national conservative party has less seats that the combined results of their opposition, and must rely on massive compromise if they do not wish to end their mandate prematurely. They are lucky that the opposition is not willing to form a large coalition. Results are as follows: A minority Government is formed by the National Conservative Party, controling 397 seats. The Government is supported by the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by nine seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the United Liberal Party, controlling 281 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Workers' and Farmers New Socialist Party, controlling 73 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union (LNS), controlling 32 seats, the Latvian Democratic National Coalition (LDNK), controlling 17 seats, the Agrarian Faction, loosely represented by 26 seats, and the Industrialist Faction, loosely represented by 48 seats. 117 deputees sit without allegiance.
  • Andea: Andea continues its efforts against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. President Apaec is quoted as saying "United we will prosper. Divided we will Falter. Standing Strong now is a necessity, not a choice." . Andean Rifles prove to be more effective than Mapuche Muskets, with greater range, stopping power, and reliability. Military training continues, with the amount of Regulars being brought up to 550,000 men. Industry expands as well, with more goods being created for the war. Infrastructure expands as well, with the amount of roads and railroads being expanded upon drasticly. Ships of the Line begin to get replaced by Ironclads, which prove far more effective than the ships used by the Limited Mapuche Navy. Population stands at 29 million.
    • Andean Overseas Territories: Andean Military Governors are installed in any territory north of the Uruguay River that Allied powers control. This territories are under constant raids, though as the MNF struggles to find new recruits
    • Osean Confederation: The outbreak of civil war in Vorlayacor leads the a rapid expansion of the nation's infrastructure. Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andeans and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (750,000), South Osea (680,000), Uruguay (550,000), Cordoba (450,000), Buenos Aires (400,000), San Salvacion (300,000), East Osea (270,000), Bolivia (200,000), Granada (280,000), Santiago (140,000), Castile (70,000), and Paraguay (45,000). For the first time, the Republics of Santiago and Paraguay have Andean majorities, standing at 45% (vs 38% Spanish and 17% Mestizo) and 53% (vs 34% Spanish and 13% Mestizo) respectivly.
    • Kingdom of Apeac: The nation aids in the War against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. Population stands at 455,000, 69% of whom are Andean. The Mataco stage an uprising in the eastern part of the territory. Although Small in Number, it distracts from the overall war effort
    • Vorlayacor (Loyalist Territory): The war continues to rage on in the territory. Over 200,000 people have died so far. The Nationalists, after a stinging defeat at Nov Xoyran, regroup and launch a counter attack. The Second Battle of the Uruguay is won by Andean Forces.

1868

It would appear the slight majority of New Bavarians have chosen to declare independence. The colony does so soon after the results of the referendum are known to the public.

The Kingdom of Lombardy undergoes a series of centralization in order to maintain its strength, which is deemed vital following the outbreak of civil war in Roman Italy to the south.

The small splinter republics formed following the destruction of Arcadia merge back together in spite of the Remans, daring them to fight the Arcadians once more.

  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 80.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. Bengal mobilizes reserves and declares war upon Punjab and invades! [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 25.6 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. Bahamani declares war upon Punjab and invades!
  • Algonquia: Views the revival of Arcadia as explicitly threatening to its territorial integrity and to the freedom of natives across the eastern seaboard. The High Sachem, now nearing 80 and thoroughly decrepit, delivers a rousing speech declaring that "Algonquia will not accept the return of a state bent on imperialist and near-genocidal domination of the original peoples of Borealia." The Council of Sachems votes unanimously for war, and Algonquia's full forces are mobilized, per its obligations to help suppress revolts under the Treaty of St. Johns. 50,000 troops cross the border, while Algonquia's new navy smashes the tiny rebel fleet before blockading its ports entirely.
    • Labrador: 10,000 Algonquian troops, backed by the local militia, remain as garrison troops. Europeans, encouraged by financial incentives and marginalized by the "reservation" scheme, continue to flee.
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We are generually unable to improve cities other than Mecca due to the war in Azerbaijan and sending aid to the Romans in Italy.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Demak Sultanate: Sultan Agung Patah, at the ripe age of 20 years, decides to embark on trying to rebuild and reform the Sultanate to a degree. The Sultan engages trading with the Dutch colonies and protectorates nearby, trying to gain modern weaponry from them, as well as trying to get the secrets of building guns and such. He also sends out trade emissaries as far as he can to try to open up trade and diplomacy with as many European powers as is possible. As Sultan Agung gains a stockpile of guns to a degree, he starts equipping and training as many soldiers with the weapons as possible. The man feels that this is just the start of much innovation in his nation.
    • Roman Diplomacy: We would like to trade.
    • Demak Diplomacy: The Sultan would be delighted to open trade with Rome.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, four new railway lines are opened in service. Dynamite is invented and deployed by the Moroccan chemist and engineer Afulay Nommiard (OTL Alfred Nobel) and begins to use it across the PMIII world.
  • BoraliaFlagCommonwealth of Borealia: Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. Greater emphasis is given to expand the navy in the expectation of promoting trade in the Pacific. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with Ayutthaya. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. The first oil-driven motor is demonstrated as superior to steam, with the prospect of oil factories in the future. We proposes to organize a federal government over the Union of West Borealia that would administer the governments of both Borealia and Bayreuth. A new constitution will be drafted that is applicable to both states. (Mode response)
  • Mod Response, uhh, sure.
  • In Aragon the nation continues to prosper as a center of the arts and learning. The construction of new buildings, roads and other infrastructure continues. Aragonese merchants and emissaries continue to sail around the world to expand the reach of Aragon in terms of wealth and diplomatic connections. Aragon also becomes a place where artists and intellectual minds meet and do things. It is cool. Due to the regrowth of the economy, new jobs created in the three major cities lead to more people moving to the cities. Stronger cements are produced, whatever that means, leading to the construction of much taller buildings, especially in the major cities such as Zaragoza and Valencia. With the advent of steam power, factories begin to be built and stuff. Textile mills, cloth factories and other places begin to harness steam power to do more things faster, which creates more jobs that people move to cities to get. Industrialization is gaining speed. The construction of ships and weaponry continues. Aragon takes all the people from Edgistan. Boats and guns. Aragon commissions a few ironclads based on the German designs.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • Andea: Andea continues its efforts against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. President Apaec is quoted as saying "United we will prosper. Divided we will Falter. Standing Strong now is a necessity, not a choice." . Andean Rifles prove to be more effective than Mapuche Muskets, with greater range, stopping power, and reliability. Military training continues, with the amount of Regulars being brought up to 550,000 men. Industry expands as well, with more goods being created for the war. Infrastructure expands as well, with the amount of roads and railroads being expanded upon drasticly. Ships of the Line begin to get replaced by Ironclads, which prove far more effective than the ships used by the Limited Mapuche Navy. Population stands at 29 million.
    • Andean Overseas Territories: Andean Military Governors are installed in any territory north of the Uruguay River that Allied powers control. This territories are under constant raids, though as the MNF struggles to find new recruits
    • Osean Confederation: The outbreak of civil war in Vorlayacor leads the a rapid expansion of the nation's infrastructure. Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean Settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (750,000) South Osea (680,000) Uruguay (550,000) Cordoba (450,000) Buenos Aires (400,000), San Salvacion (300,000) East Osea (270,000) Boliva (200,000) Granada (280,000), Santiago (140,000), Castile (70,000) and Paraguay (45,000). For the first time, the Republics of Santiago and Paraguay have Andean Majorities, standing at 45% (vs 38% Spanish and 17% Mestizo) and 53% (vs 34% Spanish and 13% Mestizo) respectivly.
    • Kingdom of Apeac: The nation aids in the War against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. Population stands at 455,000, 69% of whom are Andean. The Mataco stage an uprising in the eastern part of the territory. Although Small in Number, it distracts from the overall war effort
    • Vorlayacor (Loyalist Territory): The war continues to rage on in the territory. Over 200,000 people have died so far. The Nationalists, after a stinging defeat at Nov Xoyran, regroup and launch a counter attack. The Second Battle of the Uruguay is won by Andean Forces.
  • Duchy of Oldenburg: The military is built up, with ironclad vessels becoming more and more prevalent in the navy.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. The Conservative budget is once again toppled by a vote of no confidence, triggering new elections this year. The Conservatives decline is hastened by the Agrarians' conglomerating into a single political party this year, the Grand Union Agrarian Party, and campaiging in force in the rural areas. However, their biggest hit is to the Liberals, as they now have a new charismatic leader, and the conservatives are left with an old man who has done absolutely nothing during his term in office (or at least nothing of note). In the end, the NCP loses 65 of its seats to the United Liberal Party, leading to the fist time the Conservatives have not held government since their inception. Needless to say, Timofey Prokazov resigns his post as leader of the National Conservatives immediately after such a blunder. After the election, the results are clear, the Liberals have a plurality, but they do not have a majority, so after a week of talks, the Liberal, Socialist and Agrarian parties form a "safe minority" coalition, the Agrarians agreeing after receiving the position of Minister of Agriculture for their leader/ The young liberal Leader, Boris Bryakin is appointed as First Senator, and the position of Second Senator goes to Kaarel Uluolts, the New Socialist leader. The Full results are as follows: The Government is formed by a coalition of the United Liberal Party, controlling 356 seats, the Workers' and Farmers' New Socialist Party, controlling 77 seats, and the Grand Union Agrarian Party, Controlling 28 seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the National Conservative Party, controlling 319 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Industrialist Faction, loosely represented by 48 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, controlling 30 seats, the Latvian National Democratic Coalition, controlling 12 seats, and the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by five seats. 125 Deputees sit without allegiance.

1869

None of the mods will be available to change the turn at the right time. As such, here is the turn in advance. Don't post anything here until the correct time. -MP

  • United German Kingdoms: New Mecklenburg in OTL Australia expands by 750 px. The year goes by uneventfully, as it seems for the second year in a row, Mexaca fails to make good on its threat. However, several new ironclads and Monitors arrive in support for the fleet still stationed there.
  • Sultanate of Bengal: Sultan Timur Ashraf Shah was proclaimed the Sultan of the Sultanate of Bengal in 1859, and he initiated his rule over the Sultanate soon after. The Bengali population rose about 86.5 million, mostly due to the large influx of Bengali immigrants coming from former Bengali crown vassals, for the economic opportunity was on the rise. The Empire officially began a reform of the economic system looking to bail the economy out of crisis from war debt, and the bullion was geared toward giving the empire a competitive edge in being able to invest millions on a whim in order to drive up investments and production. A new and strict tax system was established, based on Sharia law, a decision lauded by the largely conservative populace. The monarchy also implemented a new currency system which was to be the well-regulated silver-based Bengali Tanki. Meanwhile, the Bengali military was divided into a Naval Force, Land Force and an Imperial Guard with each having their appointed head, answerable to the Sultan. The Bengali navy experimented its first ironclads and began further development of its new larger classes of steam engine ships, churning out first rate flagships for various fleets, and more third rates, and fourth rates with the occasional second rate to augment the smaller patrol fleets, the fifth and sixth rates began to become more standard as light and medium frigates for singular voyages and patrols among other things. For the land force, a standardized army of roughly 300,000 was raised with soldiers armed with modern rifles and with cannons to be used as the ideal seige equipment. The infantry was also equipped with daggers and swords, although the latter were usually ceremonial. The land forces acted to prevent any foreign incursion into Bengal whilst the Imperial Guard existed to thwart any attempt by revolutionaries to abolish the Sultanate. Given the lack of supply of armaments from Europe, many armament companies were established at local as well as national level which served national interests, as they actively engaged in production of firearms. In agriculture was the largest economic focus of Bengal, selling such goods as rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, indigo, opium, wheat, cannabis and other crops to European merchants as well as Indian. However, jute and muslin in particular, served as the most important exports of Bengal given the general need for such in Europe. The flocking of populations to Bengal coastal cities continued, with a mass increase of population in Visakhapatnam, Calcutta, Bhubaneswar, and various other minor cities and townships throughout the south. Of particular importance was the city of Calcutta which was established as the new capital of Bengal, replacing Pandua. Thus, with the constant inflow of manpower toward the coast, the Sultanate expanded upon its shipbuilding and fishery industry, and actively exploited the riches of the Bay of Bengal as it had been established as a virtual Bengali lake, with little to no opposition faced from Burma or Vijaynagar. Indeed, Bengal served as the principle centres of industry in the world. Along the same time, the Bengali Renaissance was in full swing with movements such as the Young Bengal movement established that espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct amongst the educated masses. The monarchy generally co-operated with the upholders of the renaissance, and brought forth social reforms in order to disband various backward practices such as belief in 'Priests' possessing powers which was termed shirk. Along the same time, education and scientific research was promoted amongst the masses, with schools and colleges constructed throughout the Sultanate. International-standard universities were also constructed at Kolkata, Pauda, Gaur and Visakhapatnam in order for Bengal to advance ahead of other Indian states and maintain a particular pace as the world entered into the stage of industrialization. However, it was the Bengali literature that reached its Golden Age with hundreds of poets and scholars sprouting throughout the Sultanate. The Sultanate itself promoted Urdu as well as Bengali, however it was generally the former which entered into its zenith since Urdu was largely used amongst the elites. The positive attitude of the populace toward industrialization aided in promoting it, with a railroad and telephone system established which connected the Sultanate and eased transportation and communication. Along the same time, Bengali influence steadily grew in Jaunpur with extensive co-operation and trade between the two states. The Coalition troops rapidly advance into Confederate territory, capturing large parts of Sind, and reaching the outskirts of the heavily fortified city of Multan! Along the same time, the navy establishes a total blockade upon Punjab [Mil/Eco Turn]
    • Khedivate of Bahamani: Prince Imran Ashraf Shah married the daughter of Ibrahim Adil Shah, establishing a dynastic union between Bahamani and Bengal. The population of Bahamani stood at 30.2 million. Under their rule, construction for a new capital at Hyderabad was initiated. The Bengali Tanki was also imposed upon Bahamani as the new currency, and the trans-railroad system established in Bengal was extended into Bahamani. The Bahamani military was modernized, standing at roughly 80,000 and a major port and naval base was constructed at Mahmudpur, the latter which would act to maintain Bengali presence in the Arabian Sea. In the economic sector, rice played the role as a major food crop to be exported. However, other important crops such as cotton, sugarcane, mango and tobacco maintained a major presence in Bahamanis exports as well. Along the same time, the Bahamani textile industry reached new heights. Troops from Bahamani continue to aid in the offensive against Punjab!
  • The Caliphate: Drastically develops military and the economy of the nation. We begin to construct the nation to its previous extent and glory. With the agreement with Rome, we begin to ease tensions with our previous enemy. Also, with the ownership of the entire Persian Gulf, we dominate trade in the region. We improve Mecca every year, donating a significant part of our treasury to the Holy City. As our steady population increases, so does our economy. A significant number of ships are built for our fleet. We are generally unable to improve cities other than Mecca due to the war in Azerbaijan and sending aid to the Romans in Italy.
  • Demak Sultanate: The Sultan is pleased by the response of the Romans to the emissaries that were sent out. Trading is continued for guns and other weaponry. Plans and such for new gun and ship designs from Rome and the Dutch colonies. The Sultan also sends emissaries to the Bengal Sultanate and the Caliphate asking for alliances and trade pacts. Another emissary is also sent to Europe in order to gather more knowledge in aiding the process of modernizing the country. Re-equipping the army and navy with new weaponry bought and purchased from Europe continues, and the structure of the army is reformed in a manner more similar to more modern armies. Modern fertilizers are also bought from Europe and used in farming rice. Farming methods are also brought into the nation from Europe.
    • Bengal - Demak Diplomacy: Bengal accepts the request by the Demak Sultanate, and hopes to see a return of the close relations that had once existed between Bengal and Demak during the days of the UIN.
  • Ruthenia: The Ruthenians continue to expand their military.
  • BoraliaFlag Union of Borealia: Also known as the Union of Western Borealia, acting as the federal government over the Commonwealth and Bayreuth. Both the military and economy improve. The continual industrial revolution has led to an increasing birth rate. Recent theories on economics and agriculture have led to the expansion of businesses at an exponential rate, including various forms of manufacturing, mining and printing. Machines using steam power are also popular, as the first factories appear. Some of these businesses are also internationally based, buying and selling to the neighboring colonies of France, Britain and Scandinavia, as well as the sovereign states of Reme, Arcadia, Aragon, Algonquia and Germany. The most productive of these businesses is the buffalo industry, monopolized by a few companies based in Kristallstadt (OTL Salt Lake City). The professional army and cavalry are continually trained, while the forts on both borders are expanded and new artillery is manufactured. Rifles are now standard equipment across the military. Caravels and frigates fitted with steam engines are constructed while coastal merchant trade expands across the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii. Greater emphasis is given to expand the navy in the expectation of promoting trade in the Pacific. We offer an alliance and trade agreement with Ayutthaya. The University of New Vienna continues to produce new intellectuals and engineers. Railroads for steam engines begin to be built to span many cities across the plains. As military and diplomatic support is sent to Reme, the curia also offers to mass manufacture raw materials from them and sell bison products. A massive amount of gold is struck in California, followed by a second wave in Alaska three months later. By the end of the year, the economy of San Francisco begins to rival that of Kristallstadt, and the immigrant population of Alaska continues to climb. More settlers move into the northern territories. Petroleum begins to replace steam power as primary industrial force.
    • Bayreuth: Also represented as a member of the Union of Borealia, continues to work on ratifying the new constitution. Houses and shops in each settlement continue being built. The militias and shops are also developed.
  • Korea: Korea continues to build up its military. Meanwhile, more Taoist, Neo-Confucian and Buddhist temples are built. Taoism rises in popularity and gains more followers. Regular (read: not Imperial) Shinto gains a few more followers as well, mainly along the coastline in Southeastern Korea, particularly in Busan, Jejudo, Ulsan, and the coastal cities and coastal towns of Southern Gyeongsang Province. Mahayana Tao-Shintoism also continues to grow, and begins gaining followers from the areas where Shinto is growing, with some Shintoists switching to Mahayana Tao-Shintoism. The military in the colony of Haejagang (해자강) continues to be on high alert and continues to heavily patrol the Korean settlements.
  • Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco continues to improve its economy, infrastructure and build up its military. Morocco continues to westernize the nation and the population continues to grow by adding 100,000 people every year. The nation expands by 10,000 sq km to keep it stronger and independent, with a few new cities are built, roads and railroads are built between old and new cities. More schools and houses are built and technology improves as well. Industry continues improving to become one of best works in Morocco, mostly new are built in largest populated areas of Morocco. Sunni Islam rises in popularity and gains more followers. Meanwhile, more new trains are produced and four new railway lines are opened in service.
  • Andea: Andea continues its efforts against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. President Apaec is quoted as saying "United we will prosper. Divided we will Falter. Standing Strong now is a necessity, not a choice." . Andean Rifles prove to be more effective than Mapuche Muskets, with greater range, stopping power, and reliability. Military training continues, with the amount of Regulars being brought up to 550,000 men. Industry expands as well, with more goods being created for the war. Infrastructure expands as well, with the amount of roads and railroads being expanded upon drasticly. Ships of the Line begin to get replaced by Ironclads, which prove far more effective than the ships used by the Limited Mapuche Navy. Population stands at 29 million.
    • Andean Overseas Territories: Andean Military Governors are installed in any territory north of the Uruguay River that Allied powers control. This territories are under constant raids, though as the MNF struggles to find new recruits.
    • Osean Confederation: The outbreak of civil war in Vorlayacor leads the rapid expansion of the nation's infrastructure. Roads, railroads and factories are all rapidly built up. Andean Settlers are pushed into the territory to fill the need for workers. This leads to several new communities of Andean and Mestizos. The republics, in decreasing order of population are: North Osea (750,000) South Osea (680,000) Uruguay (550,000) Cordoba (450,000) Buenos Aires (400,000), San Salvacion (300,000) East Osea (270,000) Boliva (200,000) Granada (280,000), Santiago (140,000), Castile (70,000) and Paraguay (45,000). For the first time, the Republics of Santiago and Paraguay have Andean Majorities, standing at 45% (vs 38% Spanish and 17% Mestizo) and 53% (vs 34% Spanish and 13% Mestizo) respectivly.
    • Kingdom of Apeac: The nation aids in the War against the Mapuche Nationalist Front. Population stands at 455,000, 69% of whom are Andean. The Mataco stage an uprising in the eastern part of the territory. Although Small in Number, it distracts from the overall war effort
    • Vorlayacor: The Civil War ends with the capture of Buenos Dias.
  • Tartary: The economy and military of Tartary are developed this year. Farming is the largest industry throughout the nation. The nation continues to develop cities. The population of Tartary continues to become larger. Tartary looks to establish an alliance with Scandinavia. We continue to expand 1000 px northeast. The Emperor position is re-established, and Alexis I becomes the Emperor.
    • Great Perm: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Azov: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bukhara: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Bajkal: We build up our military and economy.
    • Khanate of Khiva: We build up our military and economy.
    • Kingdom of Parthia: We build up our military and economy.
  • Roman Empire: The Empire is now at a period of peace and prosperity after a long period of war and uncertainty. Roman trade routes stretch across most of the world in the pursuit of wealth and trade goods and Roman military might remains a powerful force in Europe and other parts of the world. The Roman central government does what it can to address all of the issues of the various archonates within the Empire and ensure that their needs are met even as they help instill strength in the central government. Railroads are constructed around the nation to help connect the Empire and its peoples and steamships are used for much the same purpose on water. One of the most important railroads constructed in the Empire is the Trans-Imperial Railway, stretching all the way from Patras in Achaea all the way to Alexandria in Egypt. The Railway is immense and not yet completed, but when it is will provide the people of the Empire a cheaper and safer means of travel to the various regions of the Empire as well as increase commerce and military deployment. Despite this success, the Empire continues to worry about some of its more restive or vulnerable archonates, and makes efforts to help solve that. A fort is constructed in Lutriwita, military garrisons are established in Syria, and a new harbor is constructed in Antillia. Because of the protests, a new political party is formed called the Fascist Party after mobs of protestors walk with fasces in hand. The party soon springs to dominance, obtaining a large portion of the Senate in elections.
    • Lutriwita: The colony was relatively unaffected by the war, and as such life more or less continued on normally, although contact with the Empire was much less often than before. As such, the colony developed a sense of nationalism and independence in very much the same way that the other archonates did during the war. Luckily, the government in Constantinople realizes this and offers them the same representation rights that the archonates are now given in the Imperial Senate. This does much to ease any of the potential political issues at the present time.
    • Italy: Italy begins to recover from the war, and the local military and economy continues to grow and stabilize in the aftermath. The economy is largely built up with help from the central government, as the entire economy is in shambles and the central government is doing its best to help the entire Empire grow and interconnect better through economics. The Roman government begins a major drive to help improve the region and re-inforce its control. Forts are constructed around major cities like Naples, Rome, and Florence and a line of border posts and fortifications are constructed along the border with Lombardy. Railroads are constructed from Bari in the south to Ravenna in the north, connecting the two parts of the country together and easing travel for both civilians and military across the land.
    • Syria: The former capital region proves to be a considerable issue for the Roman occupation forces, as the region is full of Muslims but also a significant quantity of Christians. Roman forces establish themselves in the city of Antioch, which houses the largest Christian community of Syria, and from there they use military and economic power to heal the land and expand Roman control over taxation, military patrols, and infrastructure rebuilding. The population begins to see major changes since the fall of the Damascans. Many Muslims have either fled the area or have converted by this time, althougth there is still a sizable number of Muslims still living in Syria as well as other areas. Syrian Christians are integrated into the local government to help govern the area, and while many are opposed, a few Muslims are as well.
  • France: Military, navy and economy are built up. The colony continues expanding and growing by 100 sq km among both colonies into the Galapago Islands called Illes d'Neptune. The colonies continue growing as expected. The colony of Nouvelle Rouen continues to expand inland throughout the land corridor given by Cahokie by 9800 sq km. Mining continues in the colony of Nouvelle Orleans. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The king is outraged, for such freedom given to the Rhenish kingdom so much betrayal! In an act of sheer punishment he declares an all-out war against the rebels and the nobles he dispatches a coalition army of around 400,000 troops (from all around the empire) to quell the uprising. in the now called French Borealia, the displacement of small Spanish settlements begin, offering a free ride for them to return back into Castile, and exchange or sell their possessions in the colonies or swear allegiance to the King. Trinity colony expands by 700 sq km, a local uprising begins in Nouvelle Orleans city (OTL Cartagena de las Indias, Colombia) it soon spreads through the country to Coucut (OTL Cucuta) Sableville (in Falcon Venezuela) and St Joseph d'Bacatte (OTL Bogota) and Basse Nubou (shortened Nouvelle Bourdeaux, OTL Bucaramanga). Demanding the lowering of the taxes in the colony, and the granting of local self ruling, the King considers it, making a promise to do so within the next 30 years, thinking it to be far enough for the promise to be forgotten. The government agrees on giving the Californian state or region self rule recognizing its own right to determine its destiny, however, remaining a territory of the Borealian Domain. The colony of Emeraldia is given free state status with the official name of Etat-livre du Nouvelle Orleans.
  • Kingdom of Rhenanie: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
  • Kingdom of Lower Burgundy: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy.
      • Sardinia-Corsica: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The Sardinian language has lowered its usage to only 10% of the population of Sardinia (roughly 50,000 people) with the speaking African (43%) and French (38%) or Vandalian (9% African Rhenish German dialect) and with the vast majority being able to speak both African and French (that is more or less 85% of the nation's population). The population is stable at 500,000 people.
      • Andorra: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up.
      • Africa: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure is built up as well as navy. The African language has become the de facto leading language surpassing every other (outside of French) being spoken by the 2.3 million people living in the country as either native or second language. Vandalian, however, dominates area of Tripolitania's coast with a population of around 5000 speakers in the region. French is still the main language officially. Trading outposts begin to be made in the border of the country to trade with Tuareg and inland tribes. Sends supplies to the Rhenish War.
      • French Mali: Due to vast piracy campaigns which France and Spain have contributed to has resulted in many pirate coves in the Bissagos Islands, and as a result a larger influx of Frenchmen arrived this year, though they still don't even make up 1% yet. Ports continue to expand appropriately and the region becomes a place worth note on many maps. Roads continue being built to outlying villages and plantations continue being built.
      • Artois: Military and economy are built up. Infrastructure and navy are built up. The nation prepares an army for the conflict in Britannia.
      • Free City of Danzig: The military, economy, infrastructure, and navy are built up, Danzig asks for an alliance with the current Prussian and Polish government.
  • In the Grand Union (Pskov), the GDP rises along with average wages. The Inter-Republic Road network is expanded. The Science and technology aspect of Pskov is not overlooked either. As prosperity in the nation increases, the amount of money and new people investing in institutions of higher learning. As such, the various schools that existed in Nizhegorodsk-Na-Narve unite and form the "University of Nizhegorodsk", beginning a rivalry between it and Pskov. The Pskovians want to encourage emigration from Russia, and are somewhat more successful with the Muscovite serfs, who can move around freely with their landlord's consent. This puts many issues with the leadership of Novgorod and Muscovy, who think Pskov is just looking for a fight. The ruble is becoming more and more used and is becoming the unofficial currency of Russia. The idea of currency reform, to reform it to a decimal system is put out, in order to simplify much trade (even though it is already simple enough with multiples of 20). Zlatobrezhie becomes wealthier and wealthier as more people get used to over 100 years of Pskovian governance. A gunsmith introduces the first revolver, and it quickly becomes popular with both the officer class. A new bullet is invented, conical inside, and with the advent of industry, rifles become the norm for the Guard regiments, and will soon enter service for the regular forces. The Conservatives set up another "International Slavic Congress", and invites representatives from all slavic nations to join a celebration of traditions that unite all slavs in Pskov. The Conservative budget is once again toppled by a vote of no confidence, triggering new elections this year. The Conservatives decline is hastened by the Agrarians' conglomerating into a single political party this year, the Grand Union Agrarian Party, and campaigning in force in the rural areas. However, their biggest hit is to the Liberals, as they now have a new charismatic leader, and the conservatives are left with an old man who has done absolutely nothing during his term in office (or at least nothing of note). In the end, the NCP loses 65 of its seats to the United Liberal Party, leading to the first time the Conservatives have not held government since their inception. Needless to say, Timofey Prokazov resigns his post as leader of the National Conservatives immediately after such a blunder. After the election, the results are clear, the Liberals have a plurality, but they do not have a majority, so after a week of talks, the Liberal, Socialist and Agrarian parties form a "safe minority" coalition, the Agrarians agreeing after receiving the position of Minister of Agriculture for their leader. The young liberal Leader, Boris Bryakin is appointed as First Senator, and the position of Second Senator goes to Kaarel Uluolts, the New Socialist leader. The full results are as follows: The Government is formed by a coalition of the United Liberal Party, controlling 356 seats, the Workers' and Farmers' New Socialist Party, controlling 77 seats, and the Grand Union Agrarian Party, Controlling 28 seats. The Official Opposition is represented by the National Conservative Party, controlling 319 seats. The Government is also opposed by the Industrialist Faction, loosely represented by 48 seats, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, controlling 30 seats, the Latvian National Democratic Coalition, controlling 12 seats, and the Nationalist Faction, loosely represented by five seats. 125 Deputees sit without allegiance.

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