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1860 US Presidential Election Results (No Civil War)

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State-by-State Results

Abraham Lincoln
Republican
Stephen Douglas
(Northern) Democrat
John Breckinridge
Southern Democrat
John Bell
Constitutional Union
State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#
Alabama 9 not on ballot 13,618 15.1 - 48,669 54.0 9 27,835 30.9 - 90,122 AL
Arkansas 4 not on ballot 5,357 9.9 - 28,732 53.1 4 20,063 37.0 - 54,152 AR
California 4 38,233 31.9 - 38,499 32.1 4 33,969 28.4 - 9,111 7.6 - 119,812 CA
Connecticut 6 43,488 58.1 6 15,431 20.6 - 14,372 19.2 - 1,528 2.0 - 74,819 CT
Delaware 3 3,822 23.7 - 1,066 6.6 - 7,339 45.5 3 3,888 24.1 - 16,115 DE
Florida 3 not on ballot 223 1.7 - 8,277 62.2 3 4,801 36.1 - 13,301 FL
Georgia 10 not on ballot 11,581 10.9 - 52,176 48.9 10 42,960 40.3 - 106,717 GA
Illinois 11 166,171 48.9 - 166,215 48.9 11 2,331 0.7 - 4,914 1.4 - 339,631 IL
Indiana 13 127,033 46.7 - 127,509 46.9 13 12,295 4.5 - 5,306 1.9 - 272,143 IN
Iowa 4 62,802 48.8 - 63,139 49.0 4 1,035 0.8 - 1,763 1.4 - 128,739 IA
Kentucky 12 1,364 0.9 - 25,651 17.5 - 53,143 36.3 - 66,058 45.2 12 146,216 KY
Louisiana 6 not on ballot 7,625 15.1 - 22,681 44.9 6 20,204 40.0 - 50,510 LA
Maine 8 62,811 62.2 8 29,693 29.4 - 6,368 6.3 - 2,046 2.0 - 100,918 ME
Maryland 8 2,294 2.5 - 5,966 6.4 - 42,482 45.9 8 41,760 45.1 - 92,502 MD
Massachusetts 13 106,684 62.9 13 34,370 20.3 - 6,163 3.6 - 22,331 13.2 - 169,548 MA
Michigan 6 76,481 49.4 - 77,057 49.8 6 805 0.5 - 415 0.3 - 154,758 MI
Minnesota 4 22,069 63.4 4 11,920 34.3 - 748 2.2 - 50 0.1 - 34,787 MN
Mississippi 7 not on ballot 3,282 4.7 - 40,768 59.0 7 25,045 36.2 - 69,095 MS
Missouri 9 17,028 10.3 - 58,501 35.3 - 31,362 18.9 - 58,672 35.4 9 165,563 MO
New Hampshire 5 37,519 56.9 5 25,887 39.3 - 2,125 3.2 - 412 0.6 - 65,943 NH
New Jersey 7 58,346 48.1 4 62,869 51.9 3 partial fusion ticket with Douglas 121,215 NJ
New York 35 337,546 50.0 - 337,610 50.0 35 fusion ticket with Douglas 675,156 NY
North Carolina 10 not on ballot 2,737 2.8 - 48,846 50.5 10 45,129 46.7 - 96,712 NC
Ohio 23 209,509 47.3 - 209,621 47.3 23 11,406 2.6 - 12,194 2.8 - 442,730 OH
Oregon 3 5,129 34.7 - 4,136 28.0 - 5,275 35.7 3 218 1.5 - 14,758 OR
Pennsylvania 27 223,030 46.8 - 16,765 3.5 - 223,871 47.0 27 12,776 2.7 - 476,442 PA
Rhode Island 4 12,244 61.4 4 7,707 38.6 - fusion ticket with Douglas 19,951 RI
South Carolina 8 - - - 8 - SC
Tennessee 12 not on ballot 11,281 7.7 - 65,097 44.6 - 69,728 47.7 12 146,106 TN
Texas 4 not on ballot 18 0.0 - 47,454 75.5 4 15,383 24.5 - 62,855 TX
Vermont 5 33,808 75.7 5 8,649 19.4 - 218 0.5 - 1,969 4.4 - 44,644 VT
Virginia 15 1,887 1.1 - 16,198 9.7 - 74,325 44.5 - 74,481 44.6 15 166,891 VA
Wisconsin 5 86,110 56.6 5 65,021 42.7 - 887 0.6 - 161 0.1 - 152,179 WI
TOTALS: 303 1,755,408 37.5 54 1,465,202 31.3 108 893,219 19.1 94 591,201 12.6 56 4,685,030
TO WIN: 152


South Carolina's vote

In South Carolina, the electors were chosen by the state legislature. South Carolina's electors, knowing that Douglas and Breckenridge would finish 1-2, decided to vote for Bell, even though they preferred Breckenridge, because that would eliminate Lincoln from consideration.

Final Electoral Vote

  • Douglas/Johnson (North D) - 108
  • Breckenridge/Lane (South D) - 94
  • Bell/Everett (CU) - 56
  • Lincoln/Hamlin (R) - 54

As a result, the House got to vote on the president between Douglas, Breckenridge and Bell and the Senate could choose either Johnson or Lane as the new VP. Abraham Lincoln finished last, although he won the popular vote.

House of Representatives Runoff

Per the Constitution, each state's delegation could cast one vote for president, which would be determined based upon majority vote within that delegation. There were 33 states at the time within the Union, so 17 states were required to be elected president.

As expected, the Southern delegations of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas voted for Breckenridge, as did the sole representative from Joseph Lane's home state. Missouri's all-Democrat delegation would vote for Breckenridge, even though the citizens of their state chose Bell as president. This gave the Breckenridge/Lane ticket 11 states.

The Border States of Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland, Tennessee, and Virginia voted for Bell.

California voted for Douglas, however most northern states had Republican majorities in Congress.

The Republicans tried to get concessions from the other 3 parties and eventually made a deal to elect the centrist Constitutional Union ticket instead of either Democrat ticket. This meant that the United Stats would have a president and vice president of different parties for the first time in 36 years and for only the 2nd time ever.

Senate Runoff

The Senate had to choose the new vice president between Georgian former Senator Herschel Johnson and General Joseph Lane of Oregon. Both were pro-slavery. Lane would defeat Johnson 44-22, as Senators voted regionally.

Significance

The result of this election was highly controversial and many began to criticize the electoral college itself. Republicans were shocked that their candidate had finished 4th despite winning the popular vote and that the candidate who finished last in the popular vote became the new president. Democrats blamed their losing the White House on party disunity and the 2 factions of the Democracy would reunite by 1864. However, the Constitutional Union and Republican Parties were clearly major parties and it appeared that America would become the world's first 3-major party republic.

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