1841-1844: Wars of Restoration

By 1841, New Spain was rebounding from the Mexican Revolution well, they continued to build up a powerful fleet and comparable army, they knew they would soon be able to retake Spain from the British, but their was one thing they didn't have, allies. The obvious answer was they turned to the Portuguese and Dutch governments who had been put into colonial exile by the British as well and had the resources of their own to make a comeback, and in early 1838, they signed a secret document which merged a majority of their armed forces together to create a unified force against the British. By early 1841, they were ready to strike back against the British, and so they did, on March 17, 1841, the unified armed forces and their exiled governments declared war on Britain and the Iberian peninsula and the Netherlands were invaded. The British army was moderately stretched out in the Iberian, usually they would be on the north side of the peninsula to defend from a possible French invasion, making the reaction to the invasion slow and somewhat ineffective. On the other hand, the British army in the Netherlands was easier to control and more flexible, but the number was far smaller than the number of Dutch troops. One thing the British had an obvious advantage of was their navy was larger and more well-equipped than the invaders, and using their naval power they were able to bring in more men in the last few months of the year via sea. The French, obviously against the British, opted out of fighting the British in Europe, instead they decided to help out the invaders in their own way, by invading eastern Canada, which was mostly French-speaking and felt separatist sentiment towards the British. They began this operation in April of 1841 when an army of 100,000 men, including cavalry, cannons, and the emperor himself, Napoleon II, to lead the army against the overstretched British army and navy. They landed in Halifax in early May and took the city without much of a fight, and then the army, little diminished by the trans-oceanic crossing, moved north to push on in order to capture Quebec and the majority of western Canada . The Canadian summer made for a perfect campaigning season as the French not only marched through Canada almost unopposed, but by the time the British found out, they had already captured the entire east coast of Canada, spare the north islands. When 1843 came around, the war was looking grim for the British, they were quickly losing land to the invaders fast and Canada was being consumed by the French more and more each day, and worse, in April 1843, the United States declared war on the British and moved to invade western Canada themselves. In the Iberian peninsula, Lisbon had already been recovered by the Portuguese, but Madrid, the traditional capital of Spain, was still now under British hands, as it had been switching sides constantly during the last year, but was now secured by the British. News was looking slightly grimmer in the Netherlands as British reinforcements arrived in late 1842 from Britain and now were set to fight the Dutch with a united and well-controlled army that had defeated the Dutch several times in northern Holland and they now controlled Amsterdam. Luck was the opposite in Canada, the French have moved west to conquer more and more of Canada in the east, while the Americans had been taking more and more land in the western part of Canada. When came around, the war seemed lost for the invaders in Europe, but they both were ready for one final, desperate, push against the British that was a huge gamble, and would likely have a low success rate. In March of 1844, as soon as the Dutch and Spanish-Portuguese armies could, they moved against the British, pushing with amazing speed towards Madrid and Amsterdam, the British were stunned on both fronts and both cities fell after a short siege, and by September, the British were forced to make peace. In Canada, more and more of it was being taken by the Americans and the French, but the arrival of British reinforcements in mid-1844, brought the advances to a halt, and the ensuing stalemate forced a peace later in the year. In the, what would soon be called, Treaty of Copenhagen, Britain was forced to recognize Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands as independent states, while also being forced to give chunks of Canada to America and France. The Americans also struck a deal with the French and the British, the French would be given Quebec City and Montreal as major cities for the new French colony of Quebec, and the British would be given back Ottawa and Toronto as to have proper cities for Canada back in British hands, though the amount they had to pay the Americans for the deal wasn't cheap, it made up for some of the losses of men and land during the war, one the British would not soon forget.
Restoration World

The World, Post-Wars of Restoration

1845-1848: First Mexican-American War

Mexico had gained its independence from Spain as the Mexican Empire in 1828, but unlike in OTL it was a great power to be reckoned with, boasting a population of about 7.6 million people and a conscript army of around 125,000 men, while its northern neighbor, the United States of America had a volunteer army of around 75,000, while the American navy was far larger than the Mexican navy, but they had a comparable economy, due to Mexican trading partners mainly being Britain, Denmark, and China, while the United States' main trading partners were France, Germany, and Austria, both had access to a wide array of resources. But war was beginning to loom as early as the mid-1830's as Texas and California, which had both been heavily settled by white settlers through a deal the US struck with Mexico, but both had witnessed an intense separatist movement and wanted to be annexed by the United States. The tensions between the two countries rose greatly when word came back to Mexico City via the Mexican Consulate in Washington that a bill had barely failed to pass Congress concerning the US annexation of California and Mexico in June 1844. But the tensions turned into war when Mexican troops along the border of the US, who were only supposed to be demonstrating along the border, shot and killed two US soldiers sent to watch them, and on May 21, 1845, the United States declared war on Mexico. Britain and its allies couldn't offer help because the Treaty of Copenhagen forbid them from participating in a war for 15 years, while France offered help to the United States but they denied it saying that this was their war to fight and theirs alone, so now the world watched as the two greatest powers of the New World duked it out for total dominance and the winner would be undisputed master of North America.

1845: The War Begins

After the war started, a huge priority for the American commanders was where to strike first, their plans were split into three possible operations, one from American Canada down into California for a long, but likely quick push down into Mexico, another was to invade into the central area of northern Mexico and split the Mexicans in two, and the third was to invade south into Texas and make a short, but bloody march for Mexico City. The final decision was made on September 19 of that year, the United States, who's army was greatly increased to 150,000 due to volunteers and patriotism, that they would go for all three, Zachary Taylor was made head of the United States First Army, consisting of 25,000 men, it would head south into California from Canada, Winfield Scott would lead the United States Second Army into Central Mexico and capture Nuevo Mexico with an army of 40,000 men, while the United States Third Army, lead by Stephen W. Kearny, will invade Texas with an army of 85,000 men and head towards Mexico City. The Mexicans on the other hand, didn't have much of a strategy, they knew the United States would make the first move and when that happened they would need to simply defend their homeland to force the Americans into a treaty. The first major engagement began when Kearny's troops engaged Mexican troops near an Indian settlement called Wichita Falls in Texas, when three American regiments totalling 6,000 men encountered a Mexican force of 15,000 men who were sent to defend against the invading Americans were harshly defeated and 5,000 of their men were killed, although this made ot easy for an American advance further ito Mexico, the time America lost deciding on a battle plan cost them vital time they could have used to campaign and the Mexican used the harsh winter that year to bring up much needed reinforcements from the south.

1846: Americans Advance and Texas Revolts

After the winter snow thawed in Mexico, troops began to move on both sides to begin what was likely to be a long an hard year of fighting, and that fighting began in the north as the First Army engaged a Mexican Army of 10,000 men near an old trappers trail called Redding in northern California, the battle was an easy victory for Taylor as the Mexican moral had been lowered by the harsh winter with which they had little supplies. The next big engagement came in Nuevo Mexico when Scott's Second Army fought and lost to a Mexican army of 15,000 near the city of Santa Fe, after a long campaign in the early Spring lead to the Second Army going too deep into Mexican territory, but the loss forced them to retreat south, but allowed them in the last few days of August to capture the town of Albuquerque and surround the Mexican Army based in Santa Fe and forcing them to surrender after another short battle. Then they decided that with the capital of Nuevo Mexico captured and the Mexican garrison there surrendered, they decided to move north to help with the battle of California, and arrived their after a long trek in December, giving Taylor an army of around 57,500 to command, making his next goal, San Francisco, seem an easy catch. Meanwhile in Texas, the 85,000 men of Kearny's Army moved south into deep Mexican territory and capturing the town of what would later be called Dallas in mid-July and then he began to move his army south to capture a small settlement in central Mexico called Waco from which he would use to capture the rest of central Texas and then move south into Mexico. However, a great surprise came to Kearny and his army when the state of Texas rose up in revolution and three armies commanded by revolutionary leaders went on to accompany Kearny, Stephan F. Austin with an army of 2,500 men, Edward Burleson with an army of 1,500 men, and Sam Houston with an army of 2,000 men, giving Kearny much needed reinforcements and public support, allowing him to enter northern Mexico in early November, with an army of 86,000 men and full supply wagons.

1847: Mexicans Retreat and Preparations Begin

The new year brought on many challenges for the Mexicans, what was supposed to be an easy Mexican victory was quickly turning int a series of embarrassing losses, and they needed someone who had the experience to fight the Americans and secure a victory. They called on the highly skilled Prime Minister of Mexico, Antonio López de Santa Anna, to combat the Americans and revolutionaries in Texas with an army of 80,000 men, and his first city to fight for was San Antonio, and it would be gruesome. He started by moving his army very quickly from Mexico City up to the border and then into central Texas in just under a month, a great military feat, and then moved in on San Antonio. The fight for the city began when 6,000 men lead by Santa Anna fought against a small force of 260 men in an old Spanish missionary called the Alamo, among those there were great legends like David Bowie and Davy Crockett, they fought for around 11 days until the Texan forces finally surrendered, all people in the Alamo were killed, including Bowie and Crockett, but this held off Santa Anna until Kearny's entire army could reach San Antonio. The battle for San Antonio lasted for three weeks, with intense street fighting and massive casualties daily, but in the end, Santa Anna was defeated and forced to retreat with the 12,000 men who hadn't been killed or captured back into northern Mexico. After the battle ended, Samuel Houston declared the Republic of Texas as an independent state from Mexico and thousands of now Texans cheered to the news and thousands more joined in the new Texas Army to fight in Mexico, and the remainder of the year was spent gathering troops for the new army. Meanwhile, in California, Taylor's army, now replenished with reinforcements, moved south into San Francisco Bay where they met little resistance while entering San Francisco, where they then moved south almost unopposed as they basically consumed the majority of California. Only in September did they realize why the Mexican resistance was so small when they enterred the cities of San Diego and Los Angeles when they recovered documents stating that Santa Anna, after his defeat at San Antonio, had ordered a total retreat from California, Nuevo Mexico, and Texas, and now ordered all troops to move to defend the northern border. Now the American commanders had to work around this defensive northern wall, and they would do it using the navy, instead of making two smaller landing in southern Mexico and then force a Mexican surrender there, they would move Taylor's and Scott's armies to Texas, where they would meet Kearny's army of now 75,000 men, and Sam Houston's army of 15,000 Texans, where they would travel to New Orleans and move onto the Yucatan peninsula.

1848: Mexico Invaded and End of the War

The final year of the war was a great struggle for both Mexico and the United States, as the Americans and Texans made their grand landing on the northern Yucatan in Early March, with a combined army of 150,000 men from Texas and the United States and moved in to capture the entire peninsula. The entire landing came as a surprise to Santa Anna, he was sure that the American and Texan armies would come from the north on land where they could be easily vanquished by the Mexican defenders and force the Americans to a treaty. He decided to move his armies from the north to the south, doing so in a little over two weeks, as he demanded perfection from his men, and they immediately went on to fight the Americans, who had by April capture the peninsula. But the greatest battle of th
Mexican-American War

The World, Post-First Mexican-American War

e war came when the Mexican army of 125,000 men engaged the entire invading armies of 150,000 men at Veracruz, a strategic point, that, if capture, would give the invaders a place where they could easily capture Mexico City, the Mexican capital. What ensued was the greatest, but also the bloodiest, battle of the entire war, the battle was also a naval battle as a large detachment of American ships engaged a few Mexican flotillas near Veracruz and the battle at sea lasted just six hours until the Americans had made a clear victory. Meanwhile, on land the forces clashed, in the end, 20,000 Mexicans and 10,500 Americans died and it lead to Santa Anna retreating and deciding to fight again in Mexico City, but after the pressure from the emperor and his subordinates, Santa Anna surrendered Mexico City after the invading forces arrived in late May and the First Mexican-American War ended in a resounding U.S. victory. Mexico was forced to cede all of California, Nuevo Mexico, and what was left of Texas in the ensuing Treaty of San Antonio, while Texas agreed to be annexed by the United States, but was allowed to keep their armed forces, any size they pleased. The defeat was a national embarrassment to Mexico and to Santa Anna, he was ousted of the Prime Ministership the next year and was forgotten in Mexican politics until three years later when he started a coup d'état that overthrew the Mexican emperor and installed himself as emperor and created his own line of succession that would last to this day. Texas, California, along with the other territory gained from the war would all soon become new US states, while many thought California was only good for the farmland, they were proven wrong, when in 1849, a huge deposit of gold was found their, starting the California Gold Rush, which would last the new few years and turn California into a great state.

1849-1855: African Monopoly and the Rise of the Ethiopian Empire

Following the end of a long series wars, many people that conflicts between any major power would be a long time coming, and they were right for the most part, but the European colonial empires knew they needed many more resources from Africa and Asia, so after the end of the Mexican-American War, the European powers began what would be called the African Monopoly where many countries would try to gain land across Africa as fast as possible and without little conflict.

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