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Trouble in Mexico
However, the situation in Mexico was dire. By 1831, the countryside was in tatters, with roving bands of revolutionaries terrorising British military bases and hijacking trade convoys. Led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, the rebels fought to regain the short lived independence they had in 1821 before the British took over the country. Despite the British efforts to keep the rebels contained in the Yucatan peninsula, the revolutionaries expanded their power to other sections of the country.
The countryside soon rallied behind the rebels. Antagonism between the rich city dwellers and the poor, rural farmers had divided the colony, which was blamed on the British. With the promise of a free Mexico, the farmers joined the ranks of the rebels, and took up arms. More British soldiers were sent to put down the soon-to-be rebellion.
The first confrontation took place between 90 British soldiers and 30 Mexican soldiers on a farm in the countryside. A firefight erupted, and about 28 of the rebels were killed compared to the British seven. Several literature and artwork were created based on the fight, which were often exaggerated the death of the Mexicans. One famous piece by Johann Moritz Rugendas was quickly sent to all corners of the colonies as propaganda.This was the last straw for the rebels. Inspired by the recent July Revolution in France, the rebels marched on Veracruz on October 4, 1831. There, thousands of peasants had gathered around the Municipal Palace demanding the governor step down. British soldiers contained the crowd, but were defeated after a short battle with an overwhelming amount of Mexican rebels. The peasants then stormed the building and dragged the governor away. Other attacks in the city had surprised the guards and forced them to flee. In the plaza, the British flag was burned and replaced by another: the flag of the new Republic of Mexico.
Growth in North America
Following the end of the Toledo War, conflicts with the British came to a close, and American industries began to grow. Treaties between Pennsylvania and Piedmont ensured trade, with agricultural products from Virginian factories being traded for industrial products from the factories in Pittsburgh. New York and New England, though still somewhat angry toward each other, had also implemented trade treaties. Despite losing Toledo, Michigan had taken control over the Upper Peninsula and became rich from the iron, copper, and timber found there.In Britain's Louisiana Colony, the British North America Company began to map out the vast new territories. Trading with native tribes and the Canadian and Mexican colonies had ensured Louisiana's success. In order to control and explore these new lands, the British North American Company. Its leader was Daniel Boone, who, in one of his last great frontier exploits in 1807 had mapped out most of the northern Rocky Mountains, and established the city of Booneville. Booneville thrived from the gold and timber found there. Booneville became a rest spot for travelers crossing the Rocky Mountains for the new settlements along the Pacific.
Railroads, which were first placed in Piedmont, became widespread, and transportation became easier. The Erie Canal, built in New York, opened up in 1828. The Canal became an important link between trade from Upstate New York and New York City. The capital city of Albany became the center of population growth in upstate New York.
In 1830, the Democratic Party led by Andrew Jackson gained a majority in the Louisiana Parliament, and the colony entered the era of Jacksonian democracy. Suffrage was granted to all white male adult citizens, and he promoted more strength to the governor while weakening the Parliament. He also broadened the public's participation in the government. Supporters of Jackson formed the Democratic Party, which was the dominant party during Jackson's reign. Opposing the Democrats were the Whigs, led by William C.C. Claiborne. The Whigs supported the supremacy of Parliament over the prime minister, as well as the abolition of slavery, Native American rights, and free trade.
With the aid of the Georgian and Florida colonies, Jackson began the process of removing Native Americans from the homelands and placing in several reservations in western Oklahoma. In the southeast, four of the "Five Civilized Tribes" were relocated to the west. Only the Cherokee were allowed to stay, because they were employed as a militia and were tasked to defend the borders. Several tribes refused to stay, and wars erupted across the southern colonies. While these rebellions were defeated, it wasted resources and men which could have been used for other purposes. Several of the other nations in North America learned of the British misfortune and made peace treaties with the tribes located inside their territory.Jackson also ended the colonial bank in Louisiana, resulting in runaway inflation. In 1838, the banks of New Orleans and other cities decided to only accept payment in the form of gold and silver coinage, resulting in a depression. Several banks failed, companies went bankrupt, and unemployment was at an all time high. Jackson was blamed for the depression, and in the next election the Whigs had the majority in the House of Commons. Claiborne became the new Governor-General, and with a few years the economy had rebounded. In 1843 slavery was abolished in Louisiana, which was on the last colonies to still have slavery.
Expansion in North AmericaFollowing Daniel Boone, other pioneers began to blaze trails heading west. A major stopping point in the trails was Boonesborough (Denver), which was now a major city. The Mormons, led by Brigham Young, hoped to escape religious persecution by heading west, and they established Salt Lake City. The British allowed the Mormons to stay as long as they never rebelled. Salt Lake City and Boonesborough became a mid-point for settlers heading for the Pacific Coast. The Oregon Trail headed farther to northwest corner of North America, and cities such as Portland (1851), Seattle (1869) and Vancouver (1867). Further south, new villages included San Francisco (1850), Los Angeles (1850), and Oakland (1852). These six cities and territory around them made up the new Pacifica Colony, which soon became a leading center of trade and ship building.
In 1848, gold was discovered in Pacifica, causing a gold rush. Thousands of people arrived looking for gold, traveling overseas from Asia or on land across the trails. In six years San Francisco's population increased by over 35,000 people, and it was decided that San Francisco would be the capital of Pacifica. Roads, churches, schools, farms, and other towns were built, as well as railroads. In 1867, the first railroad connecting New Orleans to San Francisco was complete. Railroads connecting Boonesborough and Salt Lake City to the other cities were built as well. The two colonies produced tons of resources and riches for the United Kingdom, resulting in an economic boom throughout the British Empire.
The Irish Potato Famine of 1844 sent thousands of refugees to New York. New York City became the largest city on the eastern coast of North America, and the new amount of manpower resulted in building projects including railroads, roads, and the new telegraph, invented by Samuel Morse. With no where to expand, New York began the process of urbanization. Several new cities appeared in upstate New York, resulting the switching of the capital from New York City to the more central Albany. Roads and railroads were built to connect these cities. Along with New England, slavery was outlawed in 1833. New England got its sixth state when Maine succeeded from Massachusetts to become its own state.
The four nations of the east coast would now have better relations, and in 1855 the first railroad between two states was created, connecting Piedmont's Richmond to Pennsylvania's Philadelphia. In 1863 a railroad was completed which connected Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Richmond.
The Turbulent 1860s
The 1860s were an extremely turbulent decade with several cultural, social and political upheavals in Europe and North America. Revolutions occurred in Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The West Virginian Rebellion began the process of removing slavery in Piedmont, but the rise of white supremacist organizations created turmoil and controversy. Another colonial war between Britain and France occurred in Mexico, resulting the defeat of France and the European balance of power theory.