Mexican Independence 1821

Excerpt from: A Brief History of Mexico, Mexico City, 1967

The origin of the idea of Mexican independence came with Father Hidalgo on September 6, 1810 when he delivered the Cry of Dolores. The Spanish colonials executed Hidalgo; however, the country rose in rebellion. The early rebels had problems and suffered many defeats. Finally, Agustin de Iturbide, a Creole officer joined the rebellion, and in 1821 Mexico gained its independence as an independent monarchy. Agustin de Iturbide, to whom the country owes its freedom, wanted a European monarch to rule Mexico. He turned to the defeated King of Spain, Ferdinand. However, Ferdinand refused and finally Iturbide proclaimed himself Emperor Agustin I in 1822.

The Early Reign of Agustin I

Excerpt from: Founding the State 1822-1855, Mexico City, 1996

Emperor Agustin I, a firm conservator and believer of the divine right of kings, ruled as an absolute monarch for the first two years of his reign (1822-1823). After a failed military coup in March 1823, Agustin I's position was in danger. He turned to Valentin Gomez Farias, his advisor. He decided to re-establish the dissolved Congress and write a constitution. In 1824, he drafted the Constitution of 1824, which established a Congress and assured rights such as freedom of worship. The constitution, however, did not mention freedom of speech and press. The constitution tried to establish a democracy, but in practice, Iturbide retained final power.

The 1826 Riots

Excerpt from: Early Riots in Mexico, Richmond, CSA, 1956

In 1825, after high inflation of the Peso and food shortages, the province of Texas and Chihuahua rose in revolt. Soon, other provinces joined the rebellion and held hostage government employees in the capital and in other cities. Emperor Agustin I's troops were called in to restore order. In June 1826, Imperial troops met with the rebels in Guadalajara. Rebel troops, led by Republican Guadalupe Victoria were defeated and forced to retreat back towards their positions in Monterrey and Chihuahua. Finally, in October 1826, Emperor Agustin I ended the rebellion by lowering food prices, demanding new farms to be built, and re-evaluating the Peso as the New Peso. The rebels were pardoned, except for leader Guadalupe Victoria who was executed.

Foreign Problems

Excerpt from: Relations between the USA and Mexico, Philadelphia USA, 1979

After independence in 1821, the USA was the first country to recognize Mexico. Emperor Agustin I entertained friendly relations with the White House until the US moved 200,000 settlers into Texas illegally in 1832. Mexico denounced the action, and sent troops to Texas. The 200,000 settlers were forced out and relations with the US deteriorated. The US insisted that Texas be de-militarized and open to colonization. Agustin I refused and started to build up the army. At the same time, Emperor Agustin I received the support of military general Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who was convinced of the empire's power during the rebellion. With Santa Anna in place as General and Minister of Defense and War, Agustin I could consider himself ready for war.

The Era of Reforms

Excerpt from: Reforms of Agustin Iturbide, Mexico City, 2002

With a strong military, and the people under his iron fist, Agustin I insisted on reforms, to keep power. In 1828, he reformed the education system and opened male and female schools in every district. He incited people to go to school and educate themselves. In 1830, he created hospitals in major cities, and hired European and American doctors. In 1835, he reformed the social classes and allowed every Mexican to hold office. This move, popular among peasants, was unpopular among fellow Creoles, who controlled the government. In 1837, he created a central bank in Mexico, in 1838, he created a regular police and security service, and finally in 1840, he launched a plan leading to industrialization of the cities, and the construction of better roads, on the model of the US.

War with the United States

Excerpt from: La Guerre Mexicaine, Paris, FR, 1998

Meanwhile, tensions between the US and Mexico rose. American troops in present-day Colorado crossed into Mexican territory in 1844 and established their positions there. Mexico moved a contingent of 600 men to occupy Fort Jefferson. On May 19, 1844, both sides met near the fort, and the Americans forced the Mexicans in retreat. Agustin I declared war on the United States on July 23, 1844. Soon afterwards, two whole armies from northern Mexico and California were sent to the front. The war caught the US unready for full-scale war. In November 1844, Mexican forces advanced through Colorado, defeating US forces in Denver. Meanwhile, the newly created Mexican Navy gunboats headed for Florida's west coast were US troops were staging naval attacks on Mexico. The gunboats were able to land Mexican troops in St. Petersburg and Tampa. With only a few troops in the area, by January 1845, the whole of Florida was conquered. Soon, the Indian Territory and Colorado fell, and in March 1845, Mexican troops launched a final large-scale attack on New Orleans from Texas. The Mexican Northern Army was able to defeat the much larger US 5th Army in a matter of hours. The defeated Americans fled Louisiana and demanded a ceasefire. A ceasefire agreement was reached on July 28, 1845.

The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Excerpt from: Building an Empire, Mexico City, 2005

The American and Mexican delegates met in Mexico City on June 17, 1846, almost one year after the ceasefire. The American delegates expected no major territory loss, but the Mexican delegation demanded 15,000 New Pesos and the territory of Florida, Louisiana, Nebraska, Colorado, and the Indian Territory. In return, they promised to let American settlers settle Mexican territory (esp. Texas). The Americans refused at first, but the Mexicans threatened to end the ceasefire. The Americans were forced, reluctantly, to agree to these terms. In 1848, an Imperial Decree ended the reparations.

Northern Expansion

Excerpt from: Expansion and Industrialization of Mexico, Philadelphia, USA, 1997

Before 1848, the territory of California and most of Mexico's northern territories were sparsely inhabited. This changed drastically, at least for California, in 1848. In 1848, near Sacramento, gold was discovered. The news of gold reached US and Mexican settlers a few days later, and soon, California, and San Francisco were booming. Thousands of new settlers arrived in California to make their share of money. Settlers set up their houses and families and made California their home. Soon, in 1852, the Mormon sect, a Puritan Christian group arrived in Utah Province and founded Salt Lake City. They called their new home Deseret. In 1855, they received the government's authorization to control Utah's provincial government.

The Emergence of Colombia and the Central American Conflict

Excerpt from: The Central American Spectrum 1850-1870, Mexico City, 1999

During the 1830's, newly freed Colombia united with Venezuela, Peru, and Ecuador in union. The country soon grew in importance, and in 1843, it took over Panama. Mexico was alarmed by the annexation of Panama, but failed to respond due to US threats in the north. In 1847, after the end of the American War, Colombia invaded Costa Rica, a state in the crumbling Central American Confederation. After the fall of Costa Rica and El Salvador, Mexico and Britain united to stop the Colombian threat to South America. In October 1850, Colombia invaded Guatemala. Mexico mobilized, and on November 17, 1850, Mexico declared war on Colombia to support Guatemala. Soon, Mexican troops met their equals, the strong Colombian army. Mexican troops were able to hold the upper hand at first, but the arrival of more Colombian troops meant the end of that. By January 1851, both sides were at a stalemate around Guatemala City. Trenches were dug by both sides, and neither could hold the upper hand. It was not until 1 year later, in January 1852, that the stalemate ended. By then, both sides had lost thousands of valuable men, and won almost no territory. In January 1852, the destruction of the Colombian fleet by the Mexican Navy. In February 1852, Colombia announced that it had signed a peace with the Central American Confederation. In March, both countries joined in an alliance, and Mexico was forced to attack Central American troops. However, Mexico captured Guatemala in June and El Salvador in November. By January 1853, the defeated Colombians agreed to a ceasefire.

The Treaty of Guatemala City

Excerpt from: Building an Empire, Mexico City, 2005

After the end of the conflict with Colombia, both sides agreed to talks. Talks were opened in Guatemala City in 1854. Mexico annexed the whole of the Confederation, while Colombia would retain Panama. Both sides agreed to joint war-guilt and thus, no reparations were enforced. At first, Mexico administered Central America as a colony, but in 1857, after a plebiscite, Central America was divided in provinces.

The Death of Emperor Agustin I

Excerpt from: The First Emperor's Last Days, Mexico City, 1969

Just after a victory parade in December 1854, Emperor Agustin I was taken to bed where doctors treated a "bad cold". The nation stood silent for one month while the doctors tried to treat the ailing, 72 year old emperor. On January 6th 1855, Agustin I died of what today is considered a cancer. His oldest son, Prince Imperial Agustin de Iturbide was crowned emperor of Mexico in Mexico City Cathedral on January 15, 1855.

Emperor Agustin II First Year's

Excerpt from: Agustin II and the Quiet Years, Mexico City, 1999

Agustin II inherited from his father a peaceful, calm country. In the north, California, and Utah were in full expansion, and in the south, farms were prospering in the newly-acquired territories of Central America. In Mexico, meanwhile, the un-regular Congress decided to meet every week and imposed on Emperor Agustin II a right to veto Imperial Laws and Decrees. Congress received that right, but Agustin II was smart enough to keep his right to override Congressional vetoes.

New Troubles with the United States

Excerpt from: Mexican-US Relations 1821-1950, Richmond, CSA, 1996

In 1857, the United States demanded from the Mexican governor of Louisiana Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada the opening of the port of New Orleans to only American ships. In return, the Americans offered 10 million$, de Tejada, under orders of the Congress, refused to let the Americans control the port of New Orleans and decided to keep the right to open and close the port at any time. In 1858, the Americans made the same demand once again, and this time, de Tejada, guaranteed to the Americans that he would keep the port open for an undetermined number of years. In the north, in the American Oregon Territory, American troops were being stationed on the Mexican border. When Prime Minister Miguel Miramon heard of the American troops, he decided to personally lead an army to California to occupy American positions. In 1860, he reached the front and demanded the Americans retreat. Four hours later, the Americans left the border.

The US Civil War

Excerpt from: Mexico, the CSA, and the USA, New Orleans, 1999

In 1861, 10 southern states seceded from the USA. These slave states formed the Confederate States of America. Mexico, a abolitionist country, refused to recognize the CSA and supported the Union indirectly for the first year. In 1862, southern rebels crossed into Louisiana and met Mexican troops. Mexico declared war in support of the US, and closed Louisiana to all foreign imports to the CSA. Mexican troops under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna inflicted several defeats on southern troops in Louisiana. By January 1863, Mexican marines and troops had gone upstream along the Mississippi to Kentucky, a rebel stronghold. Mexican troops landed in Kentucky and marched through the country, burning Confederate positions and storehouses. However, the US was defeated on all fronts, and on May 7th 1864, the US surrendered. Mexico agreed to a ceasefire with the CSA, but refused to participate in any treaty of peace. In 1865, when the CSA was recognized by the USA, Mexico agreed to retreat back to New Orleans. The port remained closed until 1902 to CSA goods.

The Death of Emperor Agustin II

Excerpt from: Agustin II and the Quiet Years, Mexico City, 1999

Following the US Civil War, Emperor Agustin II was starting to feel weaker than usual, and on May 6th 1866, he decided to lie in bed. The next morning, he was dead, victim of what is believed to be a severe heart attack. The Prince Imperial, Agustin de Iturbide, was crowned emperor two weeks later and assumed the Cobalt Throne of Mexico.

Troubles in the North

Excerpt from: The Foundation of Cascadia, Portland, Cascadia, 1998

After the Civil War, the US resumed control over Oregon and Washington Territory. However, by that time, several inhabitants of these regions formed the Cascadian National Congress in 1869 and demanded independence from the USA. This was refused, and the CNC took up armed rebellion against the United States. The CNC contacted Mexico and asked Mexican aid to gain Cascadian independence. In 1870, Mexico sent troops to protect Mexican territory, in practice, however, these troops smuggled arms to the CNC rebels. In July 1870, Mexico officially demanded Cascadian independence and threatened another invasion of the United States if it was refused. The US agreed and sold the land to Mexico for 15 million$. Two days later, Mexico granted Oregon and Washington independence. The US sold the land to Mexico to avoid losing its pride once again in another defeat. Two years later, in 1872, Cascadia assumed control over British Columbia.

A New State

Excerpt from: Agustin III's Reforms, London, UK, 1917

After Agustin III assumed the throne in Mexico, he set his mind on reforming both the corrupt Congress and his country. He dissolved the corrupt sessions of Congress, and demanded a new constitution. In 1868, the Emperor and his group of Imperial Advisors met and drafted a new constitution for Mexico. As part of the 1868 Constitution, drastic changes were enforced such as a set schedule for Congress, freedom of speech, press, peaceful assembly, and the right to form political parties. Another part called for elections every 5 years for Congress, and repealed the Emperor's right to override Congressional vetoes. In 1869, the final draft was signed and sent to the separate provincial governments. Almost all of the governments approved the Constitution by 1870. In 1871, the first political groups were formed, the National Action Party (PAN) and the Movement for Mexico (MPM). In 1875, the first elections were held for Congress and resulted in a PAN-dominated Congress.

Tensions with the CSA

Excerpt from: Mexico and CSA: A Story of Hatred, Mexico City, 2004

Meanwhile, the Confederacy positioned troops along the border with Louisiana. In 1872, Mexico sent three gunboats up the Mississippi and 500,000 armed troops to the CS border. On May 17, 1872, CS and Mexican soldiers met near the border. CS artillery opened fire on the Mexicans. However, Mexican commander General Porfirio Diaz made a smart move. He sent his infantry charging, only to retreat back and form a square. The Southerners charged with light cavalry and were massacred under the Mexican guns. After the battle, the Southerners retreated back across the border. The Mexicans, under Imperial order stopped following the CS troops.

A World Power

Excerpt from: Mexico in the World, Mexico City, 1985

With the US defeated in the South and the North, and Colombia struggling to hold on to Panama and Peru, Mexico was the strongest power in the continent, challenged only by the weak CSA. However, in 1880, Mexican Prime Minister Porfirio Diaz met the CS Congress and they agreed to a status-quo and normalization of relations. This move was highly unpopular among veteran circles and led in 1882 to the resignation of Diaz.

Building the Nation

Excerpt from: Industrialization of Mexico, Richmond, CSA, 1987

Although a world power, Mexico was still a very rural country, with very bad roads and railways. In 1883, the new Prime Minister Manuel Gonzales started the New Economic Plan, which led to the opening of over 200 factories nationwide. Many farmers were hostile to this plan, and it was only through bribery that the government moved them to factories. By 1899, 36% of the workforce worked in the industrial sector. In 1924, 67% worked in the industrial sector. In 1889, Prime Minister Manuel Gonzales, raised a fund to help the construction of roads, canals, and railways. The first priority was a system of roads. Construction went quickly, in 1891, the first smooth road between Mexico City and El Paso was opened. In 1892, the road linking Guatemala City with Los Angeles via Mexico City was opened. In 1895, the first railway part of the planned Trans-American Railway (San Jose, Costa Rica to San Francisco, California) between San Jose and Guatemala City opened. In 1898, the Guatemala City-Ciudad Juarez track was opened. The railway was finished in 1903.

Reforming the Army

Excerpt from: The Road to War: North America, Los Angeles, 2005

In order to maintain its position in the world, Mexico needed to keep a strong, modern army. In 1895, PM Gonzales signed a plan allowing for the introduction of modern rifles into army units. In 1898, hot-air observation balloons were introduced, and in 1901, a khaki camouflage dress was introduced, replacing the blue tunics. In the navy, a massive ship building project was begun to replace the gunboats, still the Navy's mainstay. Modern dreadnoughts replaced old gunboats in 1907 and in 1910, the navy counted 10 modern warships, 5 destroyers, and 2 cruisers.

The Prime Ministerial Bill of 1900

Excerpt from: The Encyclopedia of Mexico, Mexico City, 2006

Even after the Constitution of 1869, the Prime Minister, who joined a political group, was still chosen by the Emperor. However, at the request of Prime Minister Francisco Leon de la Barra, and Emperor Agustin III, the Prime Minister was to be the head of the majority party after each term-election. The Emperor signed the Prime Ministerial Bill on August 4th 1900. The November 1900 elections were the first held under this law and resulted in MPM leader de la Barra keeping power. In 1905, PAN leader Francisco Madero gained power.

A Trial for Democracy

Excerpt from: Struggles with Democracy in Mexico, Richmond, CSA, 1994

The greatest test to the real power of the Constitution came in 1904, when the governor of Morelos, Emiliano Zapata was arrested by the Mexican Army for denouncing the Emperor and insulting publicly the government. He was brought in trial in Mexico City in front of the Provincial Court. The Provincial Court demanded the trial be moved to the Imperial Supreme Court. The Chief Justice judged in favor of the government of Mexico. However, Emperor Agustin III used his power to reverse the court decisions and declared Zapata innocent under the constitution. He later assured his fellow citizens that the troops who arrested Zapata would "read the constitution over".

A Richer Nation

Excerpt from: The Encyclopedia of Mexico, Mexico City, 2006

After reforming many sectors, the Emperor and Prime Minister Madero launched a social aid and equality program in 1908. The program sought to reach out the poorer classes of the country. The government raised a fund-charity out of the tax money and distributed about 900,000 Mexican Pesos per year. However, in 1910, with the fall of Prime Minister Madero, the program was halted by the pro-upper-class Prime Minister Francisco S. Carvajal. Later, in 1915, Carvajal launched the popular program once again, but with no immediate success, since Mexico was at war, and jobs had been created in the defense sector.

Rise of Tensions in the Americas

Excerpt from: The Great War in the Americas. London, UK, 1998

Meanwhile in North America, two old rivals, the US and the CSA were taking the path to war once again. The US had built up its army in the years before the Great War, as did the CSA. In the north, the Republic of Cascadia still had a weak, third world army. However, the Empire of Mexico, south of Cascadia, had built up, along with Colombia, one of the world's strongest armies. Allied with Colombia's army, the two countries formed the strongest armed forces in the continent. In 1913, the US met CS troops near the US-CS border. The CS troops had been defeated by the Americans, and the CSA's government turned to Germany for military help. Alarmed by the new alliance, the US joined the Mexican-Colombian alliance and turned to France and the UK for military assistance. In 1914, the war broke out in Europe.

The Great War from 1914 to 1916

Excerpt from: The Great War in the Americas. London, UK, 1998

After the start of the war in Europe, the CSA joined the war on the German side; soon, the US, Mexico, and the rest of the Allied Powers joined the war. Immediately, Mexican general Pancho Villa's "Pancho's Brigades of New Orleans", stationed in Louisiana, and sent his troops and gunboats up the Mississippi to CS Arkansas. Villa landed his brigades in southern Missouri, where the Army of Missouri was preparing military action, and Villa's Brigades A was sent to CS Mississippi. The A group marched quickly through the state, and finally met resistance from CS troops in Meridian. The Mexican troops pushed the southerners back towards Alabama, and crossed into Alabama. The Mexicans continued through northern Alabama towards Georgia. Meanwhile, Georgian irregulars met the Mexican troops in northern Georgia. In a 2-day battle, the Mexicans finally defeated the Georgians in Marietta (Cobb County, near Atlanta). The Mexicans continued towards the Atlantic coast, meeting only minor resistance. This was because the CS was preoccupied fighting the US in the north. However, the Mexicans soon met another Georgian militia unit, this time in the small town of Waynesboro. The Mexicans used General Diaz's classic "1872 Retreat Strategy" to easily win the battle. The reduced A group now marched to Savannah, Georgia, near the Atlantic coastline. Meanwhile, the defeated militia from Waynesboro marched south under government orders to conquer northern and western Florida. The Mexicans reported the troop movement and met the Georgians in the small town of White Springs, Florida in January 1916. The Georgians fled upon seeing the Mexican army, not the Florida militia. The whole remaining militia of Georgia was captured. Meanwhile, Pancho Villa's B group, stationed in St. Louis since late 1914, were called up by the High War Command and ordered to move west, to meet a joint American-Mexican invasion of Missouri. The group left in February 1916, and met a minor CSA brigade in Moberly. The B group continued towards Chillicothe, where the CS troops had rallied after the Moberly defeat. The Mexican and American armies met on March 7th 1916, and the battle began on March 8th. The Americans lost most of their men to the CS big guns, but the Mexicans used the clever 1872 Retreat Strategy again and defeated charge after charge of Confederate troops. On March 10th, the southerners surrendered. Although the Allied had won in Missouri, the Americans were losing tons of men in West Virginia under the CS guns. An important army general of the US, General Pershing staged a coup on July 4th 1916 and overthrew the pro-war government. Pershing declared himself President and declared a ceasefire with the CSA, valid until the end of the war.

The Great War from 1916 to 1918

Excerpt from: The Great War in the Americas. London, UK, 1998

The sudden change of sides of the US caught the Mexicans by surprise. However, the Southerners were deadlocked in the north, and too preoccupied to counterattack in the "Deep South". The American ceasefire did not end the war, as the people had hoped, and by July 10th, the US was back in the war, this time allied with the CSA against Mexico and Britain. The Mexican troops in Georgia and Missouri were sent through Tennessee and Kentucky to launch an attack on Indiana and Ohio. Meanwhile, Villa's Brigades attacked Illinois. On the Home Front in the US, New England rose in revolt in mid-July 1916 and declared its independence on the 18th of August 1916. It later joined the allied powers. In Iowa, the state seceded and formed a Republic in August 1916. Mexican troops progressed like lightning through Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. In the north, the British and Canadians staged Operation BEAVER, the invasion of the US in Detroit, Niagara, and New York State. The British met a few pockets of military resistance, but were able to capture most of Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New York by January 1917. The Mexicans advanced through southern Pennsylvania and met the British troops in northern Pennsylvania. The Allied troops marched south along the Delaware River to Philadelphia, the US capital. Philadelphia fell in early December 1917 and General Pershing's government the next day. During this time, Mexican troops in South Carolina and Mexican ships in Florida marched and sailed up north along the Atlantic Coast. North Carolina fell by March 1917. The attack halted until the army received orders to capture Richmond. Finally, in September 1918, the huge, reformed Mexican army marched north, aided by air squadrons and a large British-Mexican fleet. The ships captured the CS Naval Base in Norfolk, Virginia and British and Mexican marines joined the regular troops 25km from Richmond. CS troops rushed to Richmond, but it was too late. The Mexican snake and eagle floated over the Confederate White House on October 16th 1918. The troops continued north to the old US capital in Washington DC, now home of the government of the CSA after Richmond's fall. The Mexican troops rushed through Washington DC, and captured the Washington DC White House. The CSA surrendered on November 1st 1918.

The Treaty of Versailles and the Americas

Excerpt from: The Great War in the Americas. London, UK, 1998

Meanwhile, the war in Europe ended a few days after the war in America. The following year, 1919, Allied leaders met to sign the treaty of Versailles. Mexico's Prime Minister Venustiano Carranza traveled to France for the historic treaty. As part of the treaty, Britain, Colombia, and Mexico were awarded occupation zones in the defeated CSA and USA. In the US, Pershing's military government was overthrown and replaced by ex-President Taft for a few months. Taft's government was forced to live under Mexican occupation, as well as Woodrow Wilson's new Confederate government. Mexican troops remaining in states such as Georgia, Alabama or Missouri remained there. This move of keeping soldiers after the war on captured territory was very unpopular and in 1920, Carranza was taken out of office and replaced by Adolfo de la Huerta, who ended Mexican military occupation. However, reparation payments were enforced.

Post-War Prosperity

Excerpt from: The Great War in the Americas. London, UK, 1998

For most of the 1920s, Mexico enjoyed prosperity and democracy. The victory in the war raised confidence in the Emperor, the army, and the government. In the 1919-victory parade, the crowds numbering over 20,000 cheered the emperor and General Pancho Villa, who were responsible for a large part of the victory in the war. Pancho Villa became a national hero and was later assigned an important post in the government. The war had created jobs, including a few in the new aircraft industry. The newly-employed workers kept on their jobs and went on to build almost all of Mexico’s military supplies. The war also helped transportation. Some of the new riverboats built for action in the Mississippi with Pancho Villa’s brigades were transformed into regular river services boats inside the Empire. Roads built for goods and troop transport in Texas, Louisiana, and Florida were enlarged and became part of the nation’s first highway system. Mexico after the war was enjoying life.

The Nation Mourns

Excerpt from: The Encyclopedia of Mexico, Mexico City, 2006

In July 1925, the Emperor, Agustin III was taken to bed, sick. The nation’s best doctors tried to save the sick emperor, but it was too late. On July 23rd 1925, Agustin III “the Great” died in Mexico City. The nation went into a month long period of mourning. The flag was lowered to half-mast, and a great burial was held in the capital. Other nations also observed the death of Mexico’s greatest emperor. The American and Colombian governments declared a 1-day period of mourning, and both of the above countries flags were flown at half-mast. His oldest daughter, Maria Josepha Sophia was crowned Empress.

Military Coup

Excerpt from: The Encyclopedia of Mexico, Mexico City, 2006

Taking advantage of the weakness of the new imperial power, General Alvaro Obregon overthrew the Congress of PM Adolfo de la Huerta and declared himself Prime Minister in 1926. He forced Empress Maria Josepha I to sign a new constitution, making him PM for life. During his 2-year rule, he became a dictator, outlawing the freedoms in the constitution, and forced the Empress to remain a figurehead. He considered an invasion of Panama and Colombia, but died before he could carry it out. After his death in 1928, Empress Maria Josepha forced his successors to resign and she restored the freedoms of the constitution.

Economic Depression

Excerpt from: The Encyclopedia of Mexico, Mexico City, 2006

In 1929, the stock market in Mexico City crashed, and many stockowners lost everything they had gained overnight. The country, like the rest of the world entered a huge economic depression. Many jobs were lost and people were forced to sell their cars, and homes. However, the Prime Minister, Pascual Ortiz Rubio, created the Mexican Solution economic program. In 1932, many people were employed once more in public jobs either in the government, military, or in the national development sectors. Roads were built, and by 1933, the country had developed an important highway system, as well as numerous aerodromes. By 1935, the economic slum was over, but the economy of the country was still feeble and struggling.

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