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The 1820s was probably the first period of peace in Europe since the time before the French Revolutionary Wars began. France was dominant over Europe, and virtually controlled the entire continent, with small client states in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula.
In the Americas, Spanish colonies were rocked by the Spanish-American Wars of Independence. Led by Simon Bolivar, these wars would later lead to the independence of several countries in the New World. These countries would become subject for expansion of several world powers.
Spanish-American Wars of Independence
With the Iberian Peninsula under the control of the French Empire, Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World saw opportunities for independence. The rebellion began in the Caribbean, where Cuban troops with American aid overthrew the Spanish occupiers. America supported the rebellions, and sent several advisors to the areas in rebellion. Simon Bolivar did not support American help because he thought that America's influence in Latin America would eventually led to American annexation. Simon Bolivar based his operations in South America as way to counter American influence, which was centered in the north.
The Royalists and the Rebels fought for nearly the entire the decade. In 1822, Brazil declared independence and greatly helped the Rebels. Infighting broke out between the rebels due to social tensions and regional rivalries. Hoping to stop the fighting, President James Monroe sent Andrew Jackson to Mexico with a force of 800 soldiers. Jackson quickly took control of Mexico City, and recruited hundreds of Mexicans to his force. Jackson's force soon took more and more land, including a spectacular victory at Veracruz. With victories in Baja California and Sonora, the Republic of Mexico was established and Andrew Jackson was its first president. Many Mexicans not supporting American rule fled to South America, where they helped Simon Bolivar win victories across the continent.The war ended in 1829, with the last battle occurring in a small town in Venezuela. The wars resulted in the independence of several countries, but most of them joined together in large unions. Central America and Mexico joined together to form the Republic of Mexico, which was supported by America. In the Caribbean, Cuba gained its independence and was another US backed nation. In South America, the nation of Columbia was formed, composing of all of South America except for Brazil, which created its own nation as the Empire of Brazil. Tensions across the Americas were great, as the northern nations of Mexico and Cuba were enemies and rivals of Columbia, and Brazil, and both of the nations were rivals, too.
Meanwhile, the revolution in Mexico evolved in 1822 to the Mexican Civil War, a three-way conflict between the Mexican Army under Ferdinand VII, the Mexican Republican Army under Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, and the Empire Army under Agustin Iturbide. The conflict dragged on, but after an alliance between the MRA and MA, the Empire Army was defeated. The Mexican Army then turned on the MRA, and attacked their force at Ciudad Juarez, and massacred American settlers at the border town of El Paso. Enraged, US President James Monroe ordered the American Army into Mexico. Under General Sam Houston, the US gained ground until being bogged down by MA guerrillas. An attack in 1828 shattered Ferdinand's lines, and Mexico City was captured and the United Mexican States was established, with Santa Anna as its first president.
Knowing that an attempt at a colonial empire in the Americas would prove to be disastrous, Napoleon turned his attention to northern Africa. In 1820, France began a series of wars and battles with the Barbary States in northern Africa. A landing at Tripoli in 1821 ended the wars and secured northern Africa for France. Colonists streamed in, and France gained a lot of money from the colonies. The slave trade became important, and slaves were sent to plantations in the American South.
Napoleon also sent ships to Australia to claim what was left of the continent. Explorers came across the British colonists, who hadn't received news from their motherland in years. French colonists began to arrive in 1826. The British colonists at first tried to rebel against the ruling French, and fights broke out between the French and English. The British were then rounded up and sent to camps, where the food, sanitation, and overall living conditions were poor. An estimated 5,000 Britons died. Finally, in 1830, the survivors were released from the camps, and never dared rebel again.
Throughout the 1820s the United States of America found themselves at war with many of the Native American tribes. The first war came in 1821, when bands of Seminole Indians from Florida raided American settlements in Georgia. The United States would not stand for this, and sent 4,000 soldiers under Andrew Jackson there. Jackson defeated the Seminoles at the Battle of Macon in central Georgia, which forced the Seminoles to retreat back into Florida. Jackson defeated the Seminoles again at the Battle of Tallahassee. The defeat forced the Seminoles to sign a peace treaty with America, which relocated them to a reservation in central Florida.
In the northern part of the nation, the United States fought a war with the Iroquois, which was nicknamed the "Longhouse War". When America gained independence, the Iroquois moved to Canada, which was still a British colony. But once Canada gained independence, the Iroquois decided to move to the Northwest Territory. The Iroquois fought on the Western Confederacy's side during the Northwest Indian War, but was not forced to move. During the British Invasion of Canada, the Iroquois fought on Britain's side and raided settlements in America and Canada. Even after the war ended the raids continued. To stop the raids once and for all, an American army led by William Henry Harrison destroyed Iroquois villages and massacred the Indians. With American victory at the Battle of Cuyahoga River, the Iroquois were defeated and forced to move west.
In 1823, the brief Arikara War began between the Native American nation of Arikara against the United States. The Arikara had attacked a trapping expedition on the Mississippi River, which led to America sending a force of 1,000 men led by Colonel Henry Leavenworth. After a few short battles, the Arikara were defeated and forced to move west. Leavenworth, however, did not annihilate the Arikara, he simply forced them to move. This sparked a great debate between those wanting the destruction of Native Americans and those who wished to coexist with them.
The "Americas Rift"
The "Americas Rift" was the rivalry between the two continents of the Americas. The nations of North America (United States, Canada, Mexico, Winnipeg, Cuba) were enemies with the nation of Columbia, and Columbia was an enemy of Brazil. Political differences was one cause of it; the nations of North America were democracies, and Brazil was ruled by Emperor Pedro I. Columbia was divided over federalism and centralism.
Many people in nations disputed the borders. In South America, both Brazil and Columbia claimed the region of Uruguay, which was under Brazilian influence but Colombian military was stationed there. The border between the nations of Columbia and Mexico was also disputed, and small skirmishes erupted. A war was bound to erupt, now the only thing needed was a spark.
Outbreak of War
The outbreak of the war came in Columbia over the division of federalism and centralism. In the region of Panama, a rebellion broke out caused by federalists. Both Colombian and Mexican officials were killed in the fighting. Mexican forces rolled into the region because of the fighting. Columbia took this as a threat, and moved its military into Panama. Fighting broke out between the two nations. When word reach the United States, it was decided that America was now in a state of war with Columbia.
Aftermath of the Americas War
In 1838 La Paz, capital of Colombia, was finally taken by the North American Alliance and Brazil, which secured their victory in the war. The war had its costs, with 25,000 North Americans dead of wounded, 4,000 Brazilians dead or wounded, and 27,000 Colombians dead and wounded. Many leaders were killed during the war; Pedro I died at the outbreak; American Zachary Taylor was mortally wounded; Santa Anna was captured and executed; and Jose de San Martin died during the Battle of La Paz.
The map of South America was completely changed. Paraguay and Uruguay was given to Brazil, and the Lesser Antilles were given to Cuba. Columbia was divided into eight new nations: Panama, Peru, Colombia, Guyana, Argentina, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Chile.
Across the Atlantic in Europe, France was looking at the events in the war. The newly crowned Emperor of the French, Napoleon II, realized that America had proved that it could stand and fight against a nation of equal strength. He also noticed that the Americans did not defeat Columbia with any strategy, they simply overpowered the nation.
Across the Globe
With the coming of the second half of the 1830s, the world was opened. France fought a war with China and increased colonization in South East Asia. America's influence expanded across the Americas, and at the end of the 1840s brought revolutions across Europe.
France Colonization in Asia
Napoleon II, after witnessing the war which brought America to power, wanted to expand his influence too. He saw an opportunity in Asia. France first targeted China. When France decided to trade opium instead of silver to the Chinese, which was illegal in China, China seized French ships near its coasts. The result was the First Opium War. The French Navy easily overpowered the small Chinese Navy, and entered Chinese ports. The war, which ended in 1842, was a French victory. All Chinese ports were open to the French, and Hong Kong and Macau were handed over to France.
France then expanded into Southeast Asia. French traders entered the Vietnamese city of Saigon in 1844, and relationships were established. French colonists entered the southern part of Vietnam soon after. French colonization attempts then moved inward, with French traders appearing in Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia. Malaysian colonization attempts were centered around the region of Selangor.
New World InfluenceIn the 1840s, after the end of the Americas War, the west was beginning to open up for Canada. Those expanding west found acres of land for the taking, but skirmishes and Indians forced Canada to create the Canadian Western Guard, which was an army that guarded routes to main settlements. The main settlements were on the Saskatchew and Assiniboine Rivers. Winnipeg experienced a population boom, because of it being a major point in a Canadian's journey to the west. Cities such as Winnipeg City, Clearwater, and Beaver had their populations grow.
In 1847, the first railroad in the west opened, which connected Winnipeg City to Clearwater. In 1856 this would be extended to join with the Canadian city of Saskatoon, which was the major hub for Canadian settlers. However, many Native Americans found themselves being pushed out by the Canadian settlers. Many worried wars would erupt until Winnipeg welcomed any Native American groups to live in Winnipeg. This began in 1858, with Native American groups-the largest group being the Metis-moving. This added to the large population boom.America also increased its influence across the Americas. Many of the new nations that became independent from Columbia were weak and subject to revolution and civil war. The United States tried to help these nations, starting with Panama. The United States sent advisors to help improve infrastructure, with new roads and factories being built, and buildings were improved on. In return, Panama's main exports, including bananas and coffee, were shipped to the United States. Panama became a large trading partner with the United States. The success of the US experiment in Panama led many other South American nations to try to adopt it as well.
Revolution in Europe
The War of 1847 brought an end to the French Empire. Napoleon II tragically died in 1847, and a period of mourning entered France. Napoleon III was coronated the week after. However, many, including Napoleon II's cousin, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, thought that Napoleon III was a weak ruler. His rule in Italy before he was coronated was plagued by economic turmoil, corruption, and instability.
A few days after he was coronated, thousands of Parisians gathered outside of Napoleon III's palace and demanded he step down as emperor. When he refused, riots began across the French Empire. Louis, fearing that he would be killed for being an anti-Napoleon III, fled to Germany. There, people led by Otto von Bismarck, had created the State of Germany, centered around Frankfurt. Louis became king, and Bismarck became Prime Minister.
Napoleon III was not going to allow this to happen. So in October 1847, France sent its army into the city of Frankfurt.
War of 1847
The war that became known as the War of 1847 lasted three years and resulted in the death of thousands. The conflict took place in Europe, mainly between the decaying French Empire and the resurgent State of Germany.
BeginningThe French Army quickly rolled into the State of Germany's capital city, Frankfurt. The French Army overpowered the small German Army, and Frankfurt was captured. However, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte and Otto von Bismarck escaped into the German country, along with 15,000 supporters. For France, it looked like victory was in sight. Napoleon III ordered his army to enter the countryside and burn any village that housed any German supporters.
Louis decided to weaken the French Army in guerrilla warfare until a final, decisive battle could bring an end to the war. This benefited the Germans because they weren't as good as equipped as the French, and the French were used to fighting in open battles. Many skirmishes were fought in the hilly countryside. The burning of villages only drove more people to join the German side.
Public opinion in France turned against the war. The economy was slumping, France faced several revolutions, and thousands of people were forced to join the army. A protest in Lyon was brutally put down by police, which led to many people joining the German side.
The final battle which Bismarck planned for took place at Munich, Germany. When German soldiers attacked and nearly took control of the city, Napoleon III decided he could not let the city fall. He ordered more and more troops to the city. As the French troops were fighting on the outskirts of the city, an army of 200,000 Austrian and Hungarian rebels attacked the rear of the French troops, forcing them into the city. There, the French soldiers were slaughtered, and the battle ended on June 15, 1850. 250,000 French soldiers became casualties, destroying the majority of the French Army. The outlook for France looked grim.
The War of 1847 had a huge effect on Europe. The French Empire came to an end, with the people overthrowing the emperor and establishing a republic. All of the French's territory became independent. And finally, a new power had arrived in Europe: Germany.
Developments Across the Globe
The Iberian-Italian War was one of the most destructive conflicts that have taken place in the Mediterranean Sea. The war was fought between the anti-monarchist Iberian Union, and the pro-monarchist Kingdom of Italy. Before the war, Italy occupied the Balearic Islands, turning them into the Kingdom of the Balearics. The Iberian Union, fresh off a revolution, invaded the new kingdom, trying to united all of the former Spain and Portugal under anti-monarchist rule.
The war lasted three years from 1852 to 1855. The war was a stalemate for the first year, but the entrance of the Republic of Italy in the summer of 1853 turned the tide of the war. Still, the disciplined, well-trained Kingdom troops defended off the Republic and Union until 1855, when at last the two sides captured Rome, the capital of the Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Italy was forced to pay massive war reparations to the Union and Republic, and northern territory in the Kingdom of Italy was given to the Republic. The Kingdom of the Balearics was also ended, and was taken over by the victorious Iberian Union. While the Kingdom struggled for the rest of the 1850s, the economy surged forward in the 1860s and 1870s. The Iberian Union and Republic of Italy would experience an economic boom as well.
US Enters Japan
On July 8, 1853, the US entered the waters of Japan near the capital city of Edo. Commodore Matthew led 5 ships there, and attempted to negotiate with Japanese officials about Japan opening trade to the US. Japan ran on a isolation policy, and only traded with a few Chinese officials. Dutch traders entered Japan until France was conquered by the Dutch.
Perry demanded he met the highest officials in the Japanese government. Perry's boats looked powerful to Japan's leaders, who knew that they could not afford a war with America. On March 1, 1854, a treaty between America and Japan was finally signed, opening Japan to trade with America, and opened Japan to the rest of the world.
Debate Over Slavery
Many nations of the Americas found themselves wondering if they should end slavery. Northern nations, such as Canada, Winnipeg, and the northern USA, wanted to end slavery, and southern nations, such as the southern USA and Brazil, did not. It was only a matter of time before it was decided.
In 1851, Canada, Winnipeg, and Mexico abolished slavery. The Northern part of the United States, as well as some western states, had abolished slavery too. In 1852, slaves in Brazil, inspired by these events, rose up in rebellion as well. It would take a year before the rebellion would end. After the rebellion Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abolished slavery. All that was left was Cuba and the southern United States.
In 1856, Republican candidate John C. Fremont was elected president of the United States. The Republicans were an anti-slavery political party, and Fremont had announced that if he was elected he would attempt to abolish slavery. Because he was, eleven southern states declared their independence as the Confederate States of America on January 3, 1857, with Jefferson Davis as President. Cuba declared their support for the Confederate States, as well as several countries in the former Columbia. Skirmishes erupted on the border, and finally, the sinking of the USS Jefferson in the Caribbean Sea, giving the war the spark it needed. The American Civil War had begun.