A New Era


With the independent movement almost dead, Ferdinand I of the Rio de la Plata proclaimed a new kingdom. The rebels fled to the Patagonia and proclaimed a republic (and Bernardo O'Higgins as its president); all of them, except for José Gervasio Artigas, who led a new movement so called the League of the Free Peoples.

Also this year John of Portugal died because of a rebellion in the capital. Peter, prince of Brazil, ascend this country and converted it in a Empire.

Ferdinand I of the Rio de la Plata and VII of Spain.

Ferdinand ruled for three years, and in constant war with the rebels. The main rebel possessions were in Uruguay and the north. But, in 1821, happened a outbreak of a new rebellion in Peru. Juan de Dios Rivera, cousin of Túpac Amaru, and his own cousin Juan Bautista Condorcanqui, also relative of Túpac Amaru. The peruvian rebels established the Kingdom of Peru.

The Rioplatense Civil War began. For for years Ferdinand I and his ally, Peter I of Brazil, prevented any invasion to Buenos Aires. But, finally, the riots came to that city and Ferdinand had to fleed. Ferdinand and the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros fled to Cordoba, there they were welcome for a group of the governor's emissaries. In the road to the capital, the suit was ambushed and all its members died.

The royal counsil designated Charles I as king. The king Charles created the Majesty Law. This law acclaimed that the citzen of the Two Realms (Spain was still considerated part of the Borbon Dynasty's dominions) were free, but could not defy the king's will.

Charles was eventually captured for the rebels and killed one year later (1821). Since his kidnapping, Pedro de Sousa Holstein, minister of Peter of Brazil, operated as regent. He was regent too during the minority of Charles II.

New Kingdom

Brazil was incapable of coordinate an attack with Gran Colombia, and the peace was made. In Gran Colombia, Simón Bolivar was exiled and Francisco de Miranda became president. Bolivar was president after him, and later Cristóbal Mendoza.

Charles II became king in functions at 1838. His reign was peaceful and glorious. He reorganizated the realm and created new gvernment offices.


After the sign of the Treaty of the Ardennes, the borders of Europe was stable for many years. Napoleón I invaded and conquered Switzerland and called te Congress of Lucca. In this congress, Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie was the mediator between the nations.

The Confederation of the Rhine suffered constant rebellions in the provinces of Austria and Prussia. The Grand Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Holland, the main allies of the French Empire held up the borders of the Confederation. The Kingdom of Naples and the Principalities of Savoy fought for the control of all Italy, destabilize the southern frontiers.

The Commonwealth

George III, called the Last Autocrat convinced the parliement of give him absolute power over the colonies, for prevent future rebellions (like the USA independence or the surrender of Gibraltar).

But his son, George IV had more revolutionary plans for the empire. He proposed to the parliement give the independence to the colonies and found a new comunitary government, with the King as Head of State and mediator between the independent countries. The parliement disliked it, and rejected the petition.

George IV iniciated a rebellion against the central power in London, and it had success. Finally, the kingdom became the Commonwealth of Nations, at 1820. Hannover can not form part of the Commonwealth, because it belongs already to the Confederation of the Rhine.

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