1813-1814: Aftermath of Leipzig

Because of the Treaty of Leipzig, all of Europe was in rejoice. However, one nation was unhappy. This was the Kingdom of Crimea. It had been created by the recent Treaty, and was run, essentially by French Catholic Priests, as a vassal state of France. This did not go down well with the mostly Muslim population. Many had disliked Russian Rule, but disliked this new Kingdom. Rebellion soon broke out, and Russia was eager to aid the Rebels, who were vast in numbers but sourly needed aid. The government quickly collapsed. Before a government could be restored, French troops flooded into the nation. Russia sent troops and money to aid the rebels. However, Russia and France decided that all the fighting would be done in Crimea. In November 13th 1814, the Peace of Odessa was signed, and a fully independent Sultanate was created in Crimea. Although France gained territory, this was seen as defeat by many Frenchman.

In America, France begins sending aid to Americans. Because of this, America starts pushing the British back in Canada.

Map of Crimea

1815-1817: The Problem With Britain

Napoleon needed to prove that he was still deserving the title Emperor. The Treaty of Leipzig was something that Napoleon couldn't just ignore, so he decided to play games with smaller German States. Bavaria (allied to Napoleon) was told it had to take the British-Friendly Wurtumberg. A massive invasion took place, and by early 1816, Wurtumberg collapsed. This angered the British, but they too thought that the Treaty of Leipzig was too important to destroy. So as soon as peace had been ensured in America (Britain had lost small, but important parts of Canada) Britain sent troops took over all of Iberia. War seemed very close between Britain and France, but peace was ensured.

1818-1820: Creating Allies

During this time very little happened, except for the fact that more and more so, small nations either relied on Great Britain, France, or Russia. On important thing however, was that the kingdom of Great Norway (which hated both France and Britain) attacked Pro-French Sweden. France promised aid, but none came. In early 1820, Britain feared that a massive French army was on it's way to Scandinavia. Although no French army was on its way to Scandinavia, Britain launched an army to aid Norway. Thus Norway, became allied to Britain. The Ottoman Empire became very unstable around late 1819, and many small rebellions occurred. This empire would have collapsed without Russian aid, so The Ottomans allied themselves to Russia.

Dark Red is Britain, light red is Pro-British, Dark Blue is France, Light blue is Pro-French, Dark Green is Russia, light green is Pro-Russian

1821-1823: The Germanic War

The Germanic Wars begin as a combined army of 250,000 French and allied troops move into the Rhineland in an attempt to unify Germany for Bavaria's sake, and turn the new German state into a French client state for France's sake. Britain leads a coalition force of 375,000 troops from Britain, British Spain, British Netherlands, and the British allied German states move into the Rhineland themselves, Britain intends to make the Rhineland part of their empire and then use it as a starting point for an invasion of France. Napoleon, catching on to this plan easily, decides that the French Coalition's only option is to pull the British coalition's army south into the lower Rhineland and defeat them in a decisive battle that will either destroy their army or just kill enough of the enemies men to force them to surrender the army. The place Napoleon plans to pitch this battle is in the developing town of Koblenz, the plan for Napoleon's battle is much like his greatest success, Austerlitz, let the enemy think he is weak on an important point, and let them go after that point until you counterattack and sweep into their center flank. Napoleon modifies this battle plan to fit the conditions of Koblenz, he moves a lesser parts of his forces onto the lowlands, where the British attack, until a portion of the Imperial Guard moves down from the hills and wipes out the British right flank. The battle continues as a great success and French forces suffer only 12,000 casualties while the British suffer 120,000 troops killed or captured while the others escape, although the British king George IV, is captured with his men and his capture forces the British Coalition to surrender in February of 1822. The French Coalition, after their great capture of the Rhineland, moves west, while Napoleon makes his plans to lay siege to Berlin, but unfortunately the Russians decide to get to Berlin first, making an uneasy alliance with the Prussian and a coalition of non-French allied German nations, making their total numbers a large 525,000 troops. On December 2, 1822, the 18th anniversary of Napoleon's coronation as emperor, the French coalition, now with new supplies an
Post-Germanic War Europe

Europe Post-Germanic War

d resources captured from both the Germans and the British who have retreated, move on to lay siege to Berlin, Napoleon orders his men to have the city captured by August 15, of 1823, his 54th birthday. The city is quickly surrounded by the French and soon, the people of the city begin to starve, but their redemption comes in February when more than 100,000 Ottoman troops arrive to relieve the city, their attempt to breakout the Russian forces from Berlin, unfortunately, ends in disaster as cannons located on the high ground smash into their infantry and cavalry and the Ottoman command quickly collapses. In the summer of 1823, a Smallpox outbreak rages through the starving city as medical equipment is already being used on all military personnel, and soon the people rebel against the garrisoned troops and begin killing the Russian and German troops stationed there. The garrison agrees to surrender on August 9, and does so on August 11, word get back to Paris, where Napoleon has returned to in order to help plan his birthday celebration, and on the word gets back to him and the people of France celebrate August 15 as Napoleon's birthday and the creation of the German Confederation, a Confederation of the German states with Berlin as the capital and a French friendly government in power. As Napoleon's birthday ends, he makes a momentous announcement to his imperial court, the Swiss Confederation, already heavily French speaking, have agreed to be annexed directly into the empire, making for enough excitement to make the celebration go well into the next day.

1824-1828: The Mexican Revolution and the French Reformations

By 1824 Britain has owned the Iberian peninsula for about 7 years and the royal governments of Spain and Portugal now live in New Spain and Brazil respectively and have begun to rebuild the military and economic powers of their countries largely and are both now major players if only in the Americas.
Mexican Revolution World
However, their methods of reviving themselves have been very different, while Spain has used high taxes on peasants and a mostly command economy, Portugal has used a differing tax system that varies for social classes and a mostly market economy. By 1821, many peasants and natives in New Spain have become fed up with the Spanish dictatorial rule, and multiple native officers begin planning a widespread revolt against the Spanish royal family and choose Antonio López de Santa Anna, a promising young officer to lead their revolution, and by late 1823 have come up with a plan for the revolt. On February 21, 1824, Santa Anna's 30 birthday, the revolt begin, multiple peasant revolt occur in the Mexican countryside lead by some low-ranking native officers. The Spanish believe that these small revolts won't have much of an effect and send only small amounts of troops to quell the rebellion, however by late May the revolts spread to multiple cities, mainly Guadalajara and Monterrey and more troops are sent to quell these rebellions, pulling men away from important strong points such as Mexico City and Tijuana. By 1825 the revolts have become massive, spreading all over the country and now beginning in Mexico City and Tijuana, where troops have been pulled away from to defend other cities inland, cities which are seen by the Spanish royal family as lost causes, and Santa Anna assumes full leadership of the revolution and begins to make a massive army of peasants from the countryside to overrun Mexico City, the capital of New Spain. However, by early 1826 the tides seemed to have turned on the revolutionaries as France and the United States have gone to war with the revolution, both believing Mexico could pose a threat to them if it allies with Britain, and send an invasion force adding up to 125,000 troops to subdue the Revolution. They enter Mexico on two fronts, the Americans through their Western border, and the French by amphibious landings along the coast, and are able to put down rebellions in El Paso and Veracruz and move onto combat Santa Anna in the middle of Mexico. By late 1826 the entire Revolution seemed to be lost as Santa Anna lost multiple battles against the French forces commanded by Napoleon I himself and his son, Napoleon II, soon to be his successor, and the Americans moved south into northern Mexico, with little resistance. However, in July 1827, as all seemed lost for Santa Anna and his revolution, Britain declared its support for Santa Anna's revolution and their own army of 100,000 men was sent to invade Mexico and support Santa Anna against the French and the Americans. The British reason for doing this was to gain an ally and they knew that if New Spain regained Mexico their manpower and economic power would soon be powerful enough to invade the Iberian and recreate Spain. By Late 1828, Santa Anna and the British recaptured El Paso and Veracruz and began making plans to battle the royal government and its allies in Mexico City with a total force of 120,000 men against the Royalists and allies' 100,000. On September 8 of that year, the opposing forces meet in Mexico City and a huge decisive battle begins between the two side with the entire revolution and independence of Mexico at stake for both sides. Both sides engage on massive assaults against each other until the Royalists move up their guns to multiple prominent hills and fire down on the Revolutionaries, causing casualties in the hundreds in a single day. The tide turns again, however, when a huge cavalry charge by the Revolutionaries sweeps across the Royalists right flank and smashes their numbers, causing the Royalists to surrender on September 15, although Napoleon was able to escape the city the previous night and returns to France safe, albeit with a smashed reputation. When news of the war reaches back to France, many members of the French government are outraged by Napoleon's defeat and some demand he abdicate the throne so others in the royal family can assume the throne. Napoleon declares the French Reformations which creates the French Senate, a group of elected officials who represent the different regions of France and its colonies, which puts down much of the ruckus, other parts of the Reformations moves the French economy towards a much more market economic system, while also establishing multiple new Departments and offices for the government, and ushers in a new era of good approval ratings for the late emperor and is seen by many as his greatest lasting legacy.

1829-1832: The Greek War of Independence

After the Mexican War of Independence the prestige of France and the old Napoleon I dropped until the French Reformations were put into law, but the feeling of nationalism felt by some other groups around the world after the war was so great that the Greeks, which were conquered by the Turks hundreds of years ago, now felt they had a chance of independence. The Greeks were mostly Eastern Orthodox Christians who were long oppressed by their Muslim overlords and were drastically in need of a their own country, and more importantly, an ally that could support them. After high ranking members of Greece contemplated the idea, they decided to ask for help from France, and although France's power seemed to dwindle, they knew France was the only country close enough to supply their needs for independence from the Turks. The Greeks officially declared their independence from Turkey on March 25 as the Kingdom of Greece, and constitutional monarchy with the capital at Athens, an important Greek city since the times of the Ancient Greek city-states, and the Turkish Army was quickly sent in to combat this new threat. France soon declared war on Turkey declaring it recognized Greece as independent and an ally, sending troops through Austria to support the rebels, but just as it happened in Mexico, Britain declared war on Greece and moved to help Turkey, leading many in France to believe the same thing would be happening as it did in Mexico, although vice versa with sides. Although the battlefield was smaller than Mexico, three major battles would take place during the war, each more decisive than the last, and all knew victory would likely be decided again at the rebels capital, Athens. Napoleon I set on to Greece from Paris in late April with an army of 75,000 troops to aid the Greeks, but while Napoleon's army would reach Greece in a 3 weeks, Napoleon himself died en route to Greece in Austria on April 23, 1829, he lived 59 years, and left a legacy only comparable to Caesar or Augustus, and a great funeral in Paris would occur next month. But the priority now was that Napoleon II, Napoleon I's son, would have to become both emperor and commander of the French army headed to Greece, and he would have to use the combat experience he learned from Mexico, fighting with his father, and apply it to Greece. The first of the major battles took place in Thessaloniki, where the French Army combated the Turks, who had set up a defensive line in the north to keep the French out of Greece, this victory went to the French, whose highly skilled soldiers were far more powerful than the Turks and this allowed them to smash through the defensive line and move south to capture most of northern Greece from the Turks. The second major battle was at sea, a small fleet of warships that had sailed from Marseille west to combat the British navy, however, at what would be called the Battle of the Aegean Sea, a detachment of the British navy surprised the French ships and within hours multiple frigates and supply ships were sunk, although it wasn't a complete loss as the British lost multiple ships too, including three man-o-war, which was a blow to the British naval prestige. The final battle, against popular opinion, wasn't fought in Athens, but rather in Adrianople, just miles away from the Turkish capital of Constantinople, Napoleon II army, which had gained much experience from fighting on the Pelopennese, moved east with an army of thousands of Greek rebels to fight a retreating British and Turkish army. What ensued would be one of the greatest battles in history, thousands dies over the 2 week period the battle was fought and the final result was a decisive victoy for Napoleon II and the Greek rebels which pushed the Turks back into Constantinople. Although the leader of the Greeks, Theodoros Kolokotronis, wanted to push forward, the casualties taken by French was far too much for Napoleon II, who returned home a hero, now emperor of the French Empire, and a man worthy of the name Napoleon. And, although Greece fought hard to do so, the entire Balkan peninsula would not be theirs, as Greece ended up fighting other groups in the peninsula who would gain their own independence and the Balkans would stay divided for decades to come.
Post-Greek War of Independence Europe

Post-Greek War of Independence Europe

1833-1835: The Aftermath of Napoleon I's Death

After Napoleon I's death in 1829 on his way to fight in the Greek War of Independence, a great worry came up in the French Royal family, the direct descendant of Napoleon I was his son Napoleon II, but he was only 18 at the time of his father's death and he was still of fighting in Greece. The French Senate decided that the right thing to do was wait for Napoleon II to return, and in the meantime elect an emperor until he returned, the choice was made to make Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon II step-brother from Napoleon I's first marriage. Eugène was crowned emperor on May 1, 1829 and began making some changes of his own, welfare was expanded upon, economic growth was increased through industrial growth, and the size of France's unemployment dropped drastically. By the time Napoleon II returned in 1832, France was richer than ever, unemployment was down and the economy was up, Napoleon II was now 21, a full-grown man, battlefield tested and anxious to become the third French emperor. Although Eugène was originally reluctant to give up his throne to his step-brother, the Senate overruled him after demanding to stay emperor and Napoleon II was crowned emperor on his 22 birthday, July 22, 1833, he was crowned and he enjoyed a lavish birthday party that day. He kept his step-brothers reforms as they obviously expanded the economy, but a great concern for him was the growing uncontentment from Italy, Italy which had been declining since Greek independence due to many of its port being raided for the supplies by both side during the war and Greek and Balkan privateers and naval vessels continuing these raids. Italy began to fracture as the king that ruled it loses more followers and power, in 1835 the discontentment caused Venice to succeed on March 18, Sicily and part of southern Italy succeeded on April 12, Naples succeeded on June 9, and Sardinia succeeded on July 30. Venice and Naples were republics, Sicily was a monarchy, and Sardinia was much like a dictatorship. France paid little attention to this until Tuscany, a monarchy, succeeded from combined parts of France and Italy, creating uproar in the imperial family, senate, and the population, and made it clearer than ever that Italy was about to enter a civil war, where the winner would dominate Italy.

Italy Pre-Unification

Italy, Pre-Reunification

1836-1840: Italian War of Reunification

1836: The War Begins

The war started very eventfully, but this year would prove little against the massive operations that shape the rest of the war. This war started with Sardinia preparing an invasion of Tuscany, Tuscany was very unprepared for a defense from an invasion from the coast, they had prepared for a land invasion from th east by Venice. When Sardinia sent out its navy to make way for an amphibious invasion of Tuscany, Tuscany sent out its navy in an attempt to block the invasion and keep the Sardinians in check. They meet for an engagement off of Elba on April 27, where the Sardinian's cut into the line of Tuscan ships, breaking their formation and splitting the Tuscan navy into two pieces and destroying one piece at a time. The Tuscan government goes into a panic as May 1 comes around and the Sardinians land off the coast and make a push against Tuscan land forces, but the unprepared and under equipped Sardinians are quickly bogged down and the Tuscans calm down as the invasion stalls into a stalemate. Meanwhile, another great victory occurs for Tuscany when Venice, which was the enemy they had intended to fight invade through the east and move out to capture Milan, a major city in Tuscany, which they intend to capture and then move south in a campaign against Florence, the Tuscan capital. On another front, Sicilian forces move north from their bases in southern Italy for their invasion of Naples, where they intend to cut off a Papalian army headed to help their ally against the Sicilians. They meet in the town of Campobasso where the Sicilians are beat back in two large pushes, but a giant cavalry charge beats the enemy's flanks and the Sicilian forces make the enemy armies retreat back to Rome and Naples. Now with the Papalians cut off with Naples, the Sicilians move on their plan to capture the enemy capital, but a harsh winter in that year make them yield, while the fate of Naples seems unpredictable. The rest of Europe and the world look with amazement and horror as the Italians continue fighting each other and and the entire fate of Europe may lay in the winner of this war of reunification.

Italy 1836

Operations of 1836

1837: Sicilians Beat at Sea, Tuscans Win at Milan, and Venetians Blocked

The events of the year began in late February as the winter ice and snow thawed and land and naval operations could start again, the war resumed as a Sicilian fleet, planning to destroy the Papal-Napoletani fleet and force them back to port giving Sicily an easy advantage over the allies. The engagement between the much larger Sicilian navy of 16 ships-of-the-line, 24 frigates, and 42 corvettes, against the Papal-Napoletani fleets of 12 ships-of-the-line, 17 frigates, and 22 corvettes last for 14 hours, and while the Sicilian navy was larger, they were far less experienced conscripts while the opposing fleet was made up of professional sailors, merchants, and seamen who knew how to run and operate a ship. At first the overwhelming size of the Sicilian navy proved too much for the allied fleet, but a huge turn-around came when the enemy flagship, the Palermitani, was sunk by an allied frigate and was a huge blow to Sicilian moral, the ensuing engagements proved disastrous for the Sicilians as 12 more of their ships-of-the-lines were sunk, 20 frigates, and 36 corvettes, compared to the allied losses of 4 ships-of-the-lines, 3 frigates, and 9 corvettes. After the battle ended the Sicilian navy was destroyed and forced back to port in Palermo where they would remain for the majority of the war, meanwhile an allied naval blockade resulted in the Sicilians losing a majority of their ports along the western border. But the loss at sea did little to stop the invasion from the land as Sicilian armies continued to move west and deeper into Naples, which kept losing land and men to the constant enemy advance. Up north, Tuscany was in a different situation, the Sardinian advance was proving futile as the stalemate turned bad for the Sardinians they tried to overrun Milan, this battle which was fought over a two week period in late May, and resulted in the killing or capturing of 5,000 highly-trained Sardinian soldiers, the other 10,000 troops were conscripts who retreated south to help in the fight for Florence, joining another 20,000 conscripts who went to fight in Florence, but their advance slowed down more and more until the winter bogged them down again. In October, a Venetian army attempted an invasion of the Papal States but failed miserably as an engagement for the under-equipped Venetian armies were fought by the Papal army who easily defeated them and forced them into a retreat by early December, marking another failed invasion for Venice, and nearly destroying their army.
Italy 1837

Operations of 1837

1838: Battles of Florence and Naples, Tuscan Counteroffensive Begin

The year started off very uneventfully, the Sardinians and Sicilians were preparing for their final push, the Sardinians were preparing their arm of 35,000 men for a final push to capture Florence, while in the south the Sicilians were preparing for their final push to capture Naples with an army of 90,000 men, the Venetians, meanwhile, were recovering from their recent failed invasion of the Papal States and decided to indefinitely postpone any operations for the year. The Sardinians begin laying siege to Florence in March and the Sicilians to Naples in early May, and for both armies the objective seemed simple and easy to accomplish. However, after just three months of siege, the Sardinians were beginning to overestimate their own capacity for victory, their siege soon lifted as a massive counterattack began and their entire army was captured, meanwhile the Tuscans from Milan launched another counteroffensive into Sardinian-occupied Tuscany and were soon joined by the army from Florence. While the Tuscans recaptured the land, the Tuscan commanders knew a major operation against Sardinia itself couldn't begin until the next year so the winter could pass and their ships and men would be prepared. Meanwhile in the south, the Sicilians held on their noose on Naples for almost the entire spring, summer and fall, but when winter came, the Sicilians weren't prepared for a siege in the winter and underestimated the will of the allies to resist. But in the late of that year the allies defeated the Sicilians, ending their invasion of Naples and forcing them to retreat back to Sicilian-held Italy, where the allies pursued them relentlessly. The year ended with Florence and the Papal-Napoletani forces on the counteroffensive and prepared to strike back at the invaders, while the Venetians sat by and watched, waiting for their enemies to show weakness when their armies were ready.
Italy 1838

Operations of 1838

1839: Tuscan and Allied Supremacy

The year began very eventfully. In late January, fortune smiled upon the invaded nations as the ice and snow of winter thawed very early this year and Florence was able to invade Sardinia early in February, and the allies were able to launch a massive counteroffensive against the Sicilians and force them back to to their home island. The Sardinian's army was collapsing rapidly and was unable to fight off the Florentine advance, and by early June the invaders had surrounded the Sardinian capital city of Cagliari and laid siege to it. The allies were making serious gains against the Sicilians, and while the Sicilians retreated to Sicily, the allies followed them and invaded the island in late May, while the allied navy, ready and bigger than ever before, blockaded the capital of Palermo. The battles were very short as the capitals were not very well defended and the invaders quickly won, now the Florentines invaded Venice, who had been inactive for most of the war, with a three pronged offensive in late August, while Naples and the Papal States united under a single country in late of that year in a state called the Roman Republic, with the capital city being Rome. The Venetian capital fell after another short siege and they created their own country called the Kingdom of Italy, now the two remaining countries in Italy would have to face each other, and everyone knew it wouldn't end pretty.
Italy 1839

Operations of 1839

1840: End of the War and the Treaty of Rome

The year began very eventfully, the two remaining states declared war on each other and a massive offensive from the Roman Republic began to push deep into the eastern border of the Kingdom of Italy and made their way to the capital city, Florence. They had an army of 125,000 troops who were equipped with hundreds of cannons moved west to make a right hook on the city and planned to capture it, but something they hadn't known was that the Italians had had implaced a massive force of 100,000 men outside the city. They were prepared to defend the city with their lives, and that is what is cost most of them, 24,000 Italians were killed or captured in the battle, while 46,000 Roman troops were killed or wounded and the rest, including their commanders, were captured. The Italians then moved on to make their own offensive of the enemy capital, while four smaller, more flexible, armies of 15,000 men were moved south to surround Rome, a larger army of 75,000 troops moved amphibiously to capture Rome from the sea. While the fleet protecting them moved, they were intercepted by the Italian navy, while most of their warships were destroyed, the invasion force was damaged very insignificantly and went on to land a few miles south of Rome, however, the attack on their navy was very fortunate, what the naval commanders didn't know was that their own army had encamped outside of Rome and were supposed to defend the city from the invaders. They invaders, consisting of a total of 135,000 troops, surrounded the city and laid siege to it, they have already smashed the Roman army and the siege is over in a relatively short time of 2 and a half months, and the Roman government was forced to surrender in early December. The Treaty of Rome ended the Italian War of Reunification, the entire conflict ended lasted over 5 years, with the treaty being signed on New Year's Eve of that year, and had lead to the death of over 250,000 Italians and nearly destroyed all of the invaded areas. At the treaty signing, representatives from France, Britain, and Russia all offered to open relations with Italy and make it part of their sphere of influence, but Italy denied being made a part of their sphere's, but agreed to relations to all three countries, and so the Kingdom of Italy as a constitutional monarchy and a great power.
Italy 1840

Operations of 1840

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