1813-1814: Aftermath of Leipzig
Because of the Treaty of Leipzig, all of Europe was in rejoice. However, one nation was unhappy. This was the Kingdom of Crimea. It had been created by the recent Treaty, and was run, essentially by French Catholic Priests, as a vassal state of France. This did not go down well with the mostly Muslim population. Many had disliked Russian Rule, but disliked this new Kingdom. Rebellion soon broke out, and Russia was eager to aid the Rebels, who were vast in numbers but sourly needed aid. The government quickly collapsed. Before a government could be restored, French troops flooded into the nation. Russia sent troops and money to aid the rebels. However, Russia and France decided that all the fighting would be done in Crimea. In November 13th 1814, the Peace of Odessa was signed, and a fully independent Sultanate was created in Crimea. Although France gained territory, this was seen as defeat by many Frenchman.In America, France begins sending aid to Americans. Because of this, America starts pushing the British back in Canada.
1815-1817: The Problem With Britain
Napoleon needed to prove that he was still deserving the title Emperor. The Treaty of Leipzig was something that Napoleon couldn't just ignore, so he decided to play games with smaller German States. Bavaria (allied to Napoleon) was told it had to take the British-Friendly Wurtumberg. A massive invasion took place, and by early 1816, Wurtumberg collapsed. This angered the British, but they too thought that the Treaty of Leipzig was too important to destroy. So as soon as peace had been ensured in America (Britain had lost small, but important parts of Canada) Britain sent troops took over all of Iberia. War seemed very close between Britain and France, but peace was ensured.
1818-1820: Creating AlliesDuring this time very little happened, except for the fact that more and more so, small nations either relied on Great Britain, France, or Russia. On important thing however, was that the kingdom of Great Norway (which hated both France and Britain) attacked Pro-French Sweden. France promised aid, but none came. In early 1820, Britain feared that a massive French army was on it's way to Scandinavia. Although no French army was on its way to Scandinavia, Britain launched an army to aid Norway. Thus Norway, became allied to Britain. The Ottoman Empire became very unstable around late 1819, and many small rebellions occurred. This empire would have collapsed without Russian aid, so The Ottomans allied themselves to Russia.
1821-1823: The Germanic WarThe Germanic Wars begin as a combined army of 250,000 French and allied troops move into the Rhineland in an attempt to unify Germany for Bavaria's sake, and turn the new German state into a French client state for France's sake. Britain leads a coalition force of 375,000 troops from Britain, British Spain, British Netherlands, and the British allied German states move into the Rhineland themselves, Britain intends to make the Rhineland part of their empire and then use it as a starting point for an invasion of France. Napoleon, catching on to this plan easily, decides that the French Coalition's only option is to pull the British coalition's army south into the lower Rhineland and defeat them in a decisive battle that will either destroy their army or just kill enough of the enemies men to force them to surrender the army. The place Napoleon plans to pitch this battle is in the developing town of Koblenz, the plan for Napoleon's battle is much like his greatest success, Austerlitz, let the enemy think he is weak on an important point, and let them go after that point until you counterattack and sweep into their center flank. Napoleon modifies this battle plan to fit the conditions of Koblenz, he moves a lesser parts of his forces onto the lowlands, where the British attack, until a portion of the Imperial Guard moves down from the hills and wipes out the British right flank. The battle continues as a great success and French forces suffer only 12,000 casualties while the British suffer 120,000 troops killed or captured while the others escape, although the British king George IV, is captured with his men and his capture forces the British Coalition to surrender in February of 1822. The French Coalition, after their great capture of the Rhineland, moves west, while Napoleon makes his plans to lay siege to Berlin, but unfortunately the Russians decide to get to Berlin first, making an uneasy alliance with the Prussian and a coalition of non-French allied German nations, making their total numbers a large 525,000 troops. On December 2, 1822, the 18th anniversary of Napoleon's coronation as emperor, the French coalition, now with new supplies and resources captured from both the Germans and the British who have retreated, move on to lay siege to Berlin, Napoleon orders his men to have the city captured by August 15, of 1823, his 54th birthday. The city is quickly surrounded by the French and soon, the people of the city begin to starve, but their redemption comes in February when more than 100,000 Ottoman troops arrive to relieve the city, their attempt to breakout the Russian forces from Berlin, unfortunately, ends in disaster as cannons located on the high ground smash into their infantry and cavalry and the Ottoman command quickly collapses. In the summer of 1823, a Smallpox outbreak rages through the starving city as medical equipment is already being used on all military personnel, and soon the people rebel against the garrisoned troops and begin killing the Russian and German troops stationed there. The garrison agrees to surrender on August 9, and does so on August 11, word get back to Paris, where Napoleon has returned to in order to help plan his birthday celebration, and on the word gets back to him and the people of France celebrate August 15 as Napoleon's birthday and the creation of the German Confederation, a Confederation of the German states with Berlin as the capital and a French friendly government in power. As Napoleon's birthday ends, he makes a momentous announcement to his imperial court, the Swiss Confederation, already heavily French speaking, have agreed to be annexed directly into the empire, making for enough excitement to make the celebration go well into the next day.
1824-1828: The Mexican Revolution and the French ReformationsBy 1824 Britain has owned the Iberian peninsula for about 7 years and the royal governments of Spain and Portugal now live in New Spain and Brazil respectively and have begun to rebuild the military and economic powers of their countries largely and are both now major players if only in the Americas. However, their methods of reviving themselves have been very different, while Spain has used high taxes on peasants and a mostly command economy, Portugal has used a differing tax system that varies for social classes and a mostly market economy. By 1821, many peasants and natives in New Spain have become fed up with the Spanish dictatorial rule, and multiple native officers begin planning a widespread revolt against the Spanish royal family and choose Antonio López de Santa Anna, a promising young officer to lead their revolution, and by late 1823 have come up with a plan for the revolt. On February 21, 1824, Santa Anna's 30 birthday, the revolt begin, multiple peasant revolt occur in the Mexican countryside lead by some low-ranking native officers. The Spanish believe that these small revolts won't have much of an effect and send only small amounts of troops to quell the rebellion, however by late May the revolts spread to multiple cities, mainly Guadalajara and Monterrey and more troops are sent to quell these rebellions, pulling men away from important strong points such as Mexico City and Tijuana. By 1825 the revolts have become massive, spreading all over the country and now beginning in Mexico City and Tijuana, where troops have been pulled away from to defend other cities inland, cities which are seen by the Spanish royal family as lost causes, and Santa Anna assumes full leadership of the revolution and begins to make a massive army of peasants from the countryside to overrun Mexico City, the capital of New Spain. However, by early 1826 the tides seemed to have turned on the revolutionaries as France and the United States have gone to war with the revolution, both believing Mexico could pose a threat to them if it allies with Britain, and send an invasion force adding up to 125,000 troops to subdue the Revolution. They enter Mexico on two fronts, the Americans through their Western border, and the French by amphibious landings along the coast, and are able to put down rebellions in El Paso and Veracruz and move onto combat Santa Anna in the middle of Mexico. By late 1826 the entire Revolution seemed to be lost as Santa Anna lost multiple battles against the French forces commanded by Napoleon I himself and his son, Napoleon II, soon to be his successor, and the Americans moved south into northern Mexico, with little resistance. However, in July 1827, as all seemed lost for Santa Anna and his revolution, Britain declared its support for Santa Anna's revolution and their own army of 100,000 men was sent to invade Mexico and support Santa Anna against the French and the Americans. The British reason for doing this was to gain an ally and they knew that if New Spain regained Mexico their manpower and economic power would soon be powerful enough to invade the Iberian and recreate Spain. By Late 1828, Santa Anna and the British recaptured El Paso and Veracruz and began making plans to battle the royal government and its allies in Mexico City with a total force of 120,000 men against the Royalists and allies' 100,000. On September 8 of that year, the opposing forces meet in Mexico City and a huge decisive battle begins between the two side with the entire revolution and independence of Mexico at stake for both sides. Both sides engage on massive assaults against each other until the Royalists move up their guns to multiple prominent hills and fire down on the Revolutionaries, causing casualties in the hundreds in a single day. The tide turns again, however, when a huge cavalry charge by the Revolutionaries sweeps across the Royalists right flank and smashes their numbers, causing the Royalists to surrender on September 15, although Napoleon was able to escape the city the previous night and returns to France safe, albeit with a smashed reputation. When news of the war reaches back to France, many members of the French government are outraged by Napoleon's defeat and some demand he abdicate the throne so others in the royal family can assume the throne. Napoleon declares the French Reformations which creates the French Senate, a group of elected officials who represent the different regions of France and its colonies, which puts down much of the ruckus, other parts of the Reformations moves the French economy towards a much more market economic system, while also establishing multiple new Departments and offices for the government, and ushers in a new era of good approval ratings for the late emperor and is seen by many as his greatest lasting legacy.
1829-1832: The Greek War of IndependenceAfter the Mexican War of Independence the prestige of France and the old Napoleon I dropped until the French Reformations were put into law, but the feeling of nationalism felt by some other groups around the world after the war was so great that the Greeks, which were conquered by the Turks hundreds of years ago, now felt they had a chance of independence. The Greeks were mostly Eastern Orthodox Christians who were long oppressed by their Muslim overlords and were drastically in need of a their own country, and more importantly, an ally that could support them. After high ranking members of Greece contemplated the idea, they decided to ask for help from France, and although France's power seemed to dwindle, they knew France was the only country close enough to supply their needs for independence from the Turks. The Greeks officially declared their independence from Turkey on March 25 as the Kingdom of Greece, and constitutional monarchy with the capital at Athens, an important Greek city since the times of the Ancient Greek city-states, and the Turkish Army was quickly sent in to combat this new threat. France soon declared war on Turkey declaring it recognized Greece as independent and an ally, sending troops through Austria to support the rebels, but just as it happened in Mexico, Britain declared war on Greece and moved to help Turkey, leading many in France to believe the same thing would be happening as it did in Mexico, although vice versa with sides. Although the battlefield was smaller than Mexico, three major battles would take place during the war, each more decisive than the last, and all knew victory would likely be decided again at the rebels capital, Athens. Napoleon I set on to Greece from Paris in late April with an army of 75,000 troops to aid the Greeks, but while Napoleon's army would reach Greece in a 3 weeks, Napoleon himself died en route to Greece in Austria on April 23, 1829, he lived 59 years, and left a legacy only comparable to Caesar or Augustus, and a great funeral in Paris would occur next month. But the priority now was that Napoleon II, Napoleon I's son, would have to become both emperor and commander of the French army headed to Greece, and he would have to use the combat experience he learned from Mexico, fighting with his father, and apply it to Greece. The first of the major battles took place in Thessaloniki, where the French Army combated the Turks, who had set up a defensive line in the north to keep the French out of Greece, this victory went to the French, whose highly skilled soldiers were far more powerful than the Turks and this allowed them to smash through the defensive line and move south to capture most of northern Greece from the Turks. The second major battle was at sea, a small fleet of warships that had sailed from Marseille west to combat the British navy, however, at what would be called the Battle of the Aegean Sea, a detachment of the British navy surprised the French ships and within hours multiple frigates and supply ships were sunk, although it wasn't a complete loss as the British lost multiple ships too, including three man-o-war, which was a blow to the British naval prestige. The final battle, against popular opinion, wasn't fought in Athens, but rather in Adrianople, just miles away from the Turkish capital of Constantinople, Napoleon II army, which had gained much experience from fighting on the Pelopennese, moved east with an army of thousands of Greek rebels to fight a retreating British and Turkish army. What ensued would be one of the greatest battles in history, thousands dies over the 2 week period the battle was fought and the final result was a decisive victoy for Napoleon II and the Greek rebels which pushed the Turks back into Constantinople. Although the leader of the Greeks, Theodoros Kolokotronis, wanted to push forward, the casualties taken by French was far too much for Napoleon II, who returned home a hero, now emperor of the French Empire, and a man worthy of the name Napoleon. And, although Greece fought hard to do so, the entire Balkan peninsula would not be theirs, as Greece ended up fighting other groups in the peninsula who would gain their own independence and the Balkans would stay divided for decades to come.
1833-1835: The Aftermath of Napoleon I's Death
After Napoleon I's death in 1829 on his way to fight in the Greek War of Independence, a great worry came up in the French Royal family, the direct descendant of Napoleon I was his son Napoleon II, but he was only 18 at the time of his father's death and he was still of fighting in Greece. The French Senate decided that the right thing to do was wait for Napoleon II to return, and in the meantime elect an emperor until he returned, the choice was made to make Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon II step-brother from Napoleon I's first marriage. Eugène was crowned emperor on May 1, 1829 and began making some changes of his own, welfare was expanded upon, economic growth was increased through industrial growth, and the size of France's unemployment dropped drastically. By the time Napoleon II returned in 1832, France was richer than ever, unemployment was down and the economy was up, Napoleon II was now 21, a full-grown man, battlefield tested and anxious to become the third French emperor. Although Eugène was originally reluctant to give up his throne to his step-brother, the Senate overruled him after demanding to stay emperor and Napoleon II was crowned emperor on his 22 birthday, July 22, 1833, he was crowned and he enjoyed a lavish birthday party that day. He kept his step-brothers reforms as they obviously expanded the economy, but a great concern for him was the growing uncontentment from Italy, Italy which had been declining since Greek independence due to many of its port being raided for the supplies by both side during the war and Greek and Balkan privateers and naval vessels continuing these raids. Italy began to fracture as the king that ruled it loses more followers and power, in 1835 the discontentment caused Venice to succeed on March 18, Sicily and part of southern Italy succeeded on April 12, Naples succeeded on June 9, and Sardinia succeeded on July 30. Venice and Naples were republics, Sicily was a monarchy, and Sardinia was much like a dictatorship. France paid little attention to this until Tuscany, a monarchy, succeeded from combined parts of France and Italy, creating uproar in the imperial family, senate, and the population, and made it clearer than ever that Italy was about to enter a civil war, where the winner would dominate Italy.
1836-1840: Italian War of Reunification
1836: The War Begins
The war started very eventfully, but this year would prove little against the massive operations that shape the rest of the war. This war started with Sardinia preparing an invasion of Tuscany, Tuscany was very unprepared for a defense from an invasion from the coast, they had prepared for a land invasion from th east by Venice. When Sardinia sent out its navy to make way for an amphibious invasion of Tuscany, Tuscany sent out its navy in an attempt to block the invasion and keep the Sardinians in check. They meet for an engagement off of Elba on April 27, where the Sardinian's cut into the line of Tuscan ships, breaking their formation and splitting the Tuscan navy into two pieces and destroying one piece at a time. The Tuscan government goes into a panic as May 1 comes around and the Sardinians land off the coast and make a push against Tuscan land forces, but the unprepared and under equipped Sardinians are quickly bogged down and the Tuscans calm down as the invasion stalls into a stalemate. Meanwhile, another great victory occurs for Tuscany when Venice, which was the enemy they had intended to fight invade through the east and move out to capture Milan, a major city in Tuscany, which they intend to capture and then move south in a campaign against Florence, the Tuscan capital. On another front, Sicilian forces move north from their bases in southern Italy for their invasion of Naples, where they intend to cut off a Papalian army headed to help their ally against the Sicilians. They meet in the town of Campobasso where the Sicilians are beat back in two large pushes, but a giant cavalry charge beats the enemy's flanks and the Sicilian forces make the enemy armies retreat back to Rome and Naples. Now with the Papalians cut off with Naples, the Sicilians move on their plan to capture the enemy capital, but a harsh winter in that year make them yield, while the fate of Naples seems unpredictable. The rest of Europe and the world look with amazement and horror as the Italians continue fighting each other and and the entire fate of Europe may lay in the winner of this war of reunification.