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Uniting of the French and Spanish Thrones (1808)
Portuguese War (1808)
The alliance of the French and Spanish thrones became a turning point in history. Napoleon's power was now becoming the dominant force in all of Europe. It now contained Spain's colonial empire and the combined military strength of both countries. In Britain, King George III was horrified that his greatest nightmare had come true: the thrones of France and Spain, the most powerful in Europe, are now as one. He called for Spaniards to rebel against the French, but they held a deaf ear to his message. With Spain now under the control of Napoleon, the path to Portugal was clear. On May 8th, the force consisting of 150,000 Spanish and French troops stormed their way to Lisbon on what would be the Battle of Portugal, also known as the Portuguese War. At Lisbon, a 100,000 British and Portuguese force were there to defend the city. However, outmaneuvered and outnumbered, the French-Spanish force crushed the Allied resistance. The Portuguese Royal Family fled to Brazil. After two days of trying to defend the city, Portugal finally agreed to sue for peace. Later, the Royal Family returned having heard of the news.
Treaty of Lisbon
One May 25th, the Treaty of Lisbon was signed by both France and Portugal. The first term was that Portugal gave its colonial empire to France, yet it was allowed to keep Angola and Mocambique. Pedro IV was allowed to be its governor. The second term was that it had to join the Continental System and ban the importing of British goods. The third term was that Portugal was split into two states: Alentejo and a rump Portugal. The fourth term was that Algarve and Norte (Portuguese regions) were given to France. The final term was that the Portuguese states will be forced to join the French sphere of influence.
With Portugal out of the Napoleonic War, only Britain, Austria, Sicily, and Sardinia are Napoleon's enemies left. On May 16th, fearful that Napoleon will dominate Europe, Britain organized the Fifth Coalition, consisting of those nations, to fight against Napoleon. On May 17th, Napoleon arrives at Paris, where numerous celebrations took place after the victory over Portugal. Now, Napoleon sets his eyes on eliminating his last enemies of the Fifth Coalition.
War of the Fifth Coalition (1809)
As soon as the Franco-Spanish dream of unification was finally sown, the nightmare that haunted France's enemies has now come. With control over most of the American continents and inheriting its military might, King George III gathered Prussia, Austria, Sardinia, Sweden, and Sicily to a conference in London on March 11th, 1809. On March 13th, an ultimatum was sent to Napoleon, demanding an end to the union or war shall begin. Napoleon, confident that his country's military might will brush off any resistance, ignores it. On April 10th, 1809, war has been declared.
Austria was the first nation to strike against France. On April 10th, 1809, Austrian armies led by Berthier marched to Bavaria through the Inn River, though the bad road system and the cold rain hindered their advance. However, Berthier's poor military abilities would lead them to defeat. Despite the problems, Bavarian armies were smashed by the Austrians. On the 17th, Napoleon arrived at the region and smashed the Austrian troops at the battle. After that he continued to crush Austria in Eckmuhl and Regensburg. On May 13th, Vienna fell under French control while the royal family fled.
While Napoleon was smashing Austria, Napoleon's stepson Eugene clashed with Archduke John of Austria at the Illyrian region. Although Austria managed to crush French armies at the Battle of Sacile on April, at Dalmatia, Marmont, under Eugene's command, managed to crush the Austrians on April 30th, expelling any Austrian attempt to invade Italy.
On May 16th and 17th, Austrian armies traveled to Aspern-Essling to face Napoleon. On the 20th, Charles, one of the Austrian military commanders, knew that the French built a bridge at Kaiser-Ebersdorf at Lobau Island. On the 21st the battle began. Yet the Austrians were battered due to poor military strategy. On the 22nd, Charles was killed in battle. The demoralized Austrians had to flee from their great enemy.Austria's humiliating defeat at Aspern-Essling allowed Napoleon no opposition in crossing the Danube. This time, they brought more weapons and supplies to the troops just in case the Austrians return again. On June 30th, the French crossed the Danube and clashed with Austrian armies at Wagram. After a few days, on July 1st, the Austrians suffered a greater defeat, forcing Austria to sue for peace. and sign the Treaty of Schonbrunn, which has similar terms like OTL, yet it is more harsh on Austria, as it is forced to pay 50 million Francs and permanently stay out of the war forever.
As Austria became the first nation declared war, Prussia also declared for to step in for its ally. King Fredrick Wilhelm III knew that Prussian sovereignty was threatened by the Confederation of the Rhine. Supported by the British and the Swedes, Prussian armies led by Gebhard von Blucher attacked Kassel at Westphalia in April 12th. Frederick Augustus of Saxony (a state in the Confederation of the Rhine) was pulled into the conflict and led French troops into the war. During the battle, he decisively forced the Prussians out. They retreated to Berlin, hoping to recover.Napoleon, in the meantime, did not want the Prussians to escape. On April 17th, Napoleon surprised Prussian troops at Berlin and eventually captured the city, the second time since the War of the Fourth Coalition. Despite the crushing defeat, the Prussians stubbornly still fought on. Fredrick Wilhelm III was captured before he can escape from Berlin, and was eventually executed a day later.
On April 20th, a Prussian-Swede-British force attacked the French garrison at Augsburg. Because it was nighttime when the battle occurred, a majority of the troops were fatigued. However, the coalition had brought torches to set fire to the tents at the French camp, forcing Napoleon and his army to flee the town. This was the first and only French defeat in the war.
On March 11th, French troops at Stettin were surprised by Prussian armies, yet their manpower was severely reduced, forcing them to retreat once again. Sweden and Russia, not wanting to be the victim of the situation, declared a cease-fire with France, promising to drop out the war. They signed the Peace of Augsburg, the terms included:
- Sweden and Russia must pay 15 million Francs each.
- Both must withdraw from the war and end hostilities with France.
On March 15th, Prussian armies and Napoleon clashed at the last battle of the war. At the Battle of Bodden, the Prussian armies were forced to flee from Napoleon after realizing they had been outnumbered. Eventually, Prussia sued for peace.
Southern England/North Sea FrontOn May 22nd, Napoleon, with his fellow friend and famous French captain Michel Ney, devised a plan in order to get Britain out of the war. He knew that with the blockades all around Europe, the British Royal Navy was going to be a challenge. After Spain and France united, King George III retaliated by blockading the coasts of Spain and France, which causes loss of contact with Spain's American colonies. However, this move caused the British Navy to be overstretched. Yet there are still ships guarding the English Channel. So Napoleon and Michel knew that they have to attack somewhere in Britain to distract the navy. Michel knew he lose; the whole scheme is to eliminate as much British ships from the English Channel as much as possible.
But Michel Ney is charge of the invasion. The "distractions" will be headed by Denis Decres. He's not much capable as Michel, but he is still a fresh fish to catch. Napoleon devised a plan: secretly rebuild the French navy in the ports of its ally Denmark-Norway, make raids around the Shetland Islands, and the main fleet moves in to Southern England.On May 28th, 1808, Napoleon presents his plan to his naval officers. The goal is to build 350 ships, 50 will be used for the raids, while 300 will be used to attack Southern England. To prevent British interference, the project was kept in total secret. By June 6th, 1808, the fleet was finished. And the invasion begins.
Due to the overstretched British Royal Navy, the fleet should have little trouble landing when the distractions take place. On June 13th, Denis departs off from Dieppe, and on June 18th, he lands on Balta Shetland. Eventually, he sent small groups of ships to raid the Shetland Islands from there.
The British fell for it: fearing for an invasion of Scotland, George III decides to send some of the ships from the English Channel to the islands. By June 24th, the fleet reaches the French ships, only to see them flee at first sight.
On June 20th, Michel Ney departed from the same city, where they manage to crush small groups of warships and headed towards Hastings, the historical site of the Battle of Hastings. the French landed on Hastings on in just several hours while the British ships were in the North Sea. With ease, the city was quickly taken. News of this event reaches London and causes great panic. Despite this, the British were not willing to sue for peace until Napoleon was kicked out of their island. News of this moment spreads to France, causing anti-Anglo sentiment known as Anglophobia, especially towards Catholics and French people.
WIth a hold now established on Britain, Napoleon was able to march to Britain. On June 23th, he captured Tunbridge Wells, facing heavy guerrilla resistance along the way. As the French were coming closer, London began to stockpile on food to prepare for a possible siege. On June 14th, Maidstone was later captured followed by Gillingham on June 26th. The royal family and most of the government fled to Yorkshire the same day Gillingham was captured.
Finally, London was reached on July 3rd. Because so many people took up arms, Napoleon knew that instead of besieging London, he should starve it to surrender. He cut off supply routes land and water. The countryside was occupied.
It was not same for any Briton to leave the city.
Thanks to limited food supplies and the winter, Londoners began to starve to death. Cannibalism and disease were not uncommon. Bread riots took place across the city while the government and rich were eating comfortably. George III lost hope for victory and knew he needed to succumb to the French.
Treaty of London
In the aftermath of the War of the Fifth Coalition, the losing powers, Britain, Austria, and Prussia came to London to discuss the terms of the treaty Obviously, Napoleon, as the victor, was the dominating figure of the meeting. On July 14th, the Treaty of London was signed. The terms included:
- All British-controlled Dutch territories were given to France except South Africa
- Britain and France will cease hostilities
- Britain will end the harassment of French and French-allied ships
- The English Channel was now a demilitarized zone
- France gains the Illyrian Provinces
- The Confederation of the Rhine gains the Prussian province of Brandenburg
- Prussia's and Austria's troops are reduced to 10,000 each
- The Napoleonic Wars ends here
The Golden Age of France (1810-1830)
First Imperial Act (1810-1820)In Paris, celebrations took place all over France. The victory of Napoleon over his enemies, which were either battered or forced to return to peace, was finally achieved. However, he knew that his country good go on no longer fighting wars. Instead, he began to rebuild and develop his country without any foreign interference. One of his accomplishments during the period was the passing of the First Imperial Act on February 4th, 1810. The plan was targeted to develop economic growth and the building and expansion of infrastructure for ten years. The plans were simply to make France ahead of Britain as the main economic power of Europe. With the Continental System in place, it would be obvious Britain can not do anything about it. Under the plans, harbors, ship yards, steel mills, and textile factories were built all over France. It also emphasized on the improving, rebuilding, and the expansion of roads and canals, which would not only allow the shipping of goods and raw materials, but allow French troops to use it when there are foreign invasions in France. Railroads begin building across the French Empire and its puppets, beginning in 1817 and would finished by 1822. Coal mines were dug up all over the country. A new, powerful trading and military fleet was built to remove Britain from controlling the seas by economic and military terms. Loans would be provided for businesses to start, grow, and expand. Schools and hospitals were built nationwide and nationalized factories were built to produce military arms, weapons, and ammunition. At least 400 million Francs was spent from the program, and the national GDP began increasing by 30% over 10 years. The rapid economic growth encouraged a population boom and shifting of people from rural areas and small villages to the big, urban, and industrialized areas. While a majority still lived in the countryside, France was becoming more and more urban and industrial.
The French puppet states of Italy, Spain, and the Confederation of the Rhine were the main supporters and contributors of the plan. The Rhine was definitely the place for industrial growth due its vast industrial mineral and coal deposits. Of all the areas of industrial growth, the French Rhine region had the fastest economic growth. The story of numerous business people being supported by the French have spread all across Europe, which leads to an increased reliance on France. Most of the nations under the reliance are also covered by French security such as the French puppet states, Denmark-Norway, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Sweden. However, there is opposition to this in those countries as numerous groups often met in secret to break their countries from French influence, but are not very popular and often hunted down and disbanded by Napoleon's Secret Police.
Growth of French Culture (1810-1830)Due to strong French influence in Europe, French culture became widespread across the continent. During this period, French painters became renowned for their famous paintings. One of the artists, Eugene Delacroix, was famed for his painting, Liberty Leading The People, symbolizing the French Revolution and the downfall of the corrupt French rulers. At that time, it was the most famous piece of art in France, admired greatly by Napoleon.
Romanticism was a cultural movement that began in Paris and eventually spread across the world. Romanticism was strongly used in music, literature, and the visual arts, but also had a legacy on historiography, education, and natural history. The movement was a revival of French culture during the period, something never seen in the country since the reign of Louis XIV. The themes of Romanticism range from authentic experience, to horror and terror, and to awe. The themes and references of nature and folk art was often common in many paintings. Romanticism is seen as a revival of Classical, Renaissance, and Medieval art and culture. The purpose of the movement was to create a authentic and epic view of the world.During this period, France was enriched by some of the world's most famous musicians and writers. One of the musicians was Ludwig van Beethoven, whose works of music is still popular in the continent to this day. Despite being deaf, he performed miraculous works of music, often attracted by the millions in the music theaters he went to. His most famous work was Symphony No. 5, Op, 67 (1st Movement). Francois-Rene was a renowned French author famed for his book, the Conspiracy, featuring two people, Louis and Jude, who hunt down a French terrorist group who plan to assassinate Napoleon. The book is very popular amongst the French people. Henri Labrouste was one of France's famed architects for the construction of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris. It began construction in 1811 and was done by 1832. The basilica is one of the most famous monuments of France, and has replaced the Notre Dame as the crowning for French kings (aka Napoleon's descendents).
As one of the oldest wine makers of the world, French wine became increasingly popular in Europe. Champagne, the most famous of all the French wine, was the most commonly drank wine in the continent. This allowed wine makers and grape growers to prosper during this period.
Latin American Colonial Problems and the War of Spanish-American Independence (1808-1812)
Inspired by the ideas and motives of the French Revolution, most of the Spanish-American colonists began to question their authorities. Prior to the Napoleonic Wars, most of Latin America was under direct control of Spain. The colonies were organized into viceroyalties (New Granada, New Spain, Peru, Rio de la Plata, Brazil). However, the people who lived there had some problems in their livelihood. Despite the reforms over the years, Spanish and Portuguese creoles (Spanish and Portuguese people who lived in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in Latin America) were often discriminated in society. They held very few high positions in the government or the military, which were mostly held by peninsulars (Spanish and Portuguese people who are from the Iberian Peninsula). The colonies were not allowed to trade with each other or trade with other nations and were only allowed to trade with their ruling countries. Industrial development was also outlawed so that Iberian manufactured products can be bought.
As the ideas of the French Revolution seeped through the tight borders of the colonies, protests all sprung up across the region. They all demanded that Napoleon enforce the Napoleonic Code in the region and grant them self-rule. Although these protests were dealt harshly by the military, the leaders from both sides did not want war. In a surprising act, Napoleon even condemned the "unjust" acts and suggested to Fernand VII to find a better option. On a visit in November 14th, 1808, he warned Fernand the possibilities of a future uprising and warns that any military action from Spain will fail in destroying the movement, reminding him of the American Revolution. Fernand dismissed this as nonsense, but even then, Napoleon will not help.
The Latin American Revolution
As months dragged on with no reform in site, some people decided to take the situation in their own hands and began a series of protests, boycotts, and movements to enforce their reform. Carrying the spirit of the American Revolution, history was about to repeat itself right here, right now.
Mexico City UprisingPossibly the most influential protest in this era was the Mexico City Uprising. On March 15th, 1809, 100,000 people led by Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla marched through Mexico City. Miguel condemned many of the injustices prior to the Napoleonic Wars. He preached to his followers of dreams of justice and if required, independence. Using the method of civil disobedience, they attracted thousands of creoles into the protest. The goal of the protest was to achieve self-rule, end slavery, ban the discrimination of creoles and peninsulars, and certain economic rights. However, the Spanish troops shot the protestors after one of them broke a window at a governmental office. This led to hundreds of casualties and the collapse of the movement. Miguel was one of the people dead during the massacre. Francisco Goya, a tourist at the city, witnessed the massacre and painted the 15th of March to reveal the horrifying massacre.
However, the protesters that did make it out alive persevered throughout Mexico to bring the word up. By summer, many missions in northern Mexico (Texas, California, New Mexico) and many other small settlements declare independence. Considering their distance from authority, little was done. But around the central zone, riots occurred in many cities including Mexico City itself. Miguel has begun a symbol of these riots and a founding father of Mexico.
Gran Colombian Slave Revolt of 1809.
Another element of the rising revolution were the slaves themselves. Bounded to chains for generations, they provided the workforce for the colonies; numerous plantations. In fact, the WHOLE economy was based on all of that. Even though the Catholic Church felt great pity among them, nothing was done to improve their conditions. Since the first European settled, the black slaves were chained to the ground to work on the fields for life.But not for long, inspired the the messages of freedom, equality, and liberty from the United States (even if slavery still exists), numerous slave rebellions popped up in the name of freedom. On February 15th, 1809, a large group of slaves whose leader remains unknown to this day rebelled against their plantation mountains in the province of Anzoategui. The rebellion spread quickly across eastern Gran Colombia. Eventually, the Spanish militia was recruited to stop the onslaught.
The rebellion lasted for two months until April 5th, something demoralizing happened. At Barcelona, the provincial capital, the rebellion's leader was shot by the militia. However, because he blended in with the crowd, it was impossible to find him. Eventually, who ever triggered the slave rebellion is unknown. But it caused the revolt to be dwindled. Eventually by June 14th, the rebellion disappeared.
While the slave revolt was a disaster, it became among the many elements of the War of Spanish-American Independence. Numerous, yet smaller insurrections that although failed, strained the stability in the colonies.
The Peruvian InsurrectionIn the colony of Peru, hundreds of native Americans and colonists, unhappy with their current lives, established a secret organization led by Bernardo O'Higgins. What was so ironic that he was the viceroy of Peru itself. Considering he was part-Irish, he was influenced by the British system of government as well as the American system of liberty and rights. Aware of the oppressive and authoritarian world he governed, he became an eventual proponent of the independence of South America.
Bernardo established the secret National Assembly of Peru and Chile on February 23rd, 1810. There, he was joined my members of every class: poor native Americans and farmers, priests and pastors of the Catholic Church, and middle and even upper class folks alike. Among his closest friends that were major proponents of South American independence were Jose Fernando de Abascal and Jose de San Martin.
The goal of the organization was to gain support from the Peruvian colonials and rebel against their peninsular masters. And as a measure to bog down authorities to speed the process, groups of secret militia were established that targeted local authorities who kep their loyalties to the Spanish crown.
As weapons and ammunition were being collected and stored, rumors of a riot at Lima began to spread like wildfire. Eventually, they were revealed to be true, as on March 14th, 1000 anti-governmental rioters attempted to take control of the city and depose the government. Although they used weapons that were illegal imported, the superior colonial military quelled the riot on May 3rd. Eventually, the government suspected possible insurrection in Peru. Bernardo, not wanting to reveal the conspiracy, made lies to the Spanish colonial military in order to find good excuses to find good excuses to get rid of them.
Since the riot, the country people had moved stockpiles of ammunition and weapons to safer areas in the eastern frontier. While attempting to rid the region of rebels, sharpshooter and small bands of militia have worn down on the troops. Using their extensive knowledge of the region and hints from native American guides, they launched numerous assassinations and terrorist attacks against the army. As a result, the Spanish colonial military suffered numerous losses while not successfully able to find the weapons and ammunition.
While Bernardo still held his position as viceroy, he continued to fund and support anti-colonial opponents. While the Spanish military remained, they were not aware of the backstabber who would later reveal himself.
As discontent and revolution seemed to take authority in the Americas, Fernand was to make sure he can re-enforce his authority. Since September 1808, at least 100,000 troops (both from Spain and the Americas) were recruited or shipped to keep order in the colonies. Of course, no one liked that. However, the troops were focused on the more rebellions regions. This was a flaw, as resistance groups could easily relocate and establish new bases.
Among the many who supported the Spanish were Royalists, people loyal to the Spanish. Obviously, these were people of the upper class elite and other members. Among them were Felix Maria Calleja of New Spain, Pablo Morillo of New Granada, Santiago de Liniers of Rio de la Plata, and Jose Fernando de Abascal of Peru.
Buenos Aires Riot of 1809As word of the Mexican City Uprising reached Buenos Aires, people in Buenos Aires thought of doing the same thing. On April 16th, 1809, the people of Buenos Aires rose up in protest. Although meant to be peaceful, it turned violent when the army was sent in, causing a bloodbath that killed thousands. Jose de San Martin, the eventual proponent of the independence of South America, saw the violence come from his window. He recorded the events in his journal:
"No longer were the orders of peace and stability ruled the thrones of the city (Buenos Aires). The people, like marching armies, rise their fists and shouts against the masters thought to be the most superior force of nature in South America. Of course, the government sent troops to destroy the movement. The troops shot numerous rounds at the people. I can hear the relentless cries of women, men, and children in the streets. Parents losing their children, children losing their parents. Property in shambles or damaged. I cannot bear to see a peaceful people get mauled by the wrath of the government."
The protest was wiped out after three days. The city became a bloodbath for all who opposed the government. Eventually, smaller and less influential riots sprung in the course of six months as news of the massacre reached the surrounding countryside.
Raid of Caracas
Of all the cities that are the most rebellious against the motherland, no more place can get any rebellious than Caracas, Gran Colombia. One of the wealthiest cities in the Americas and vital for its trade port, the middle class has been constantly frustrated of the numerous economic restrictions and demanded their relaxation. The poorer classes joined inspired by the Mexico City Massacre, an example of Spanish colonial governmental injustice. Even a few high-class elites joined. Among them was Simon Bolivar. Even so, just like the rest of the colonies, colonial governments were divided by pro-independence and anti-independence. Even if it has been just several months, the whole populace has been stirred right into rebellion.Suspecting that it might have been the capital of the revolutionary, Fernand VII ordered 10,000 troops to raid the city to cleanse the populace of any possible rebellion. On June 13th, 1809, the troops showed no mercy, raiding and plundering, it became a city-wide genocide. Although they try to lock down the city to prevent civilians from escaping, many people manage to leave even before the soldiers came. The king hoped this would forced the populace to obedience to the king. Instead, he sealed his country's fate.
Simon Bolivar, a wealthy creole and a military commander, rallied the people of Gran Colombia, persuading them that Spain was their greatest enemy and that they will never stop their injustice slaughter unless the resistance became futile. To gain support of the independence movement, Simon issued pamphlets and messengers of the event across the Americas.
Eventually, many people rallied the support for independence across the Americas and the destruction of all Spanish influence there. In the upper class, however, politicians are split in the middle by pro-independence and anti-independence. Hell was about to break lose here, and nothing was to be the same.
Congress of the Americas
As the events and the revolutionary leaders begin to tie themselves together, Simon Bolivar ordered his most trusted messengers to carry letters aimed at gaining the support from colonial elite defectors. In fact, there were plenty: among them were Jose Miguel Carrera of Chile, Vicente Guerrero Jose Maria Morelo of Mexico, and Francisco de Paul Santander and New Granada. They were at first loyal to the Spanish motherland, as they were exposed to the evils of the colonial administrators as well as witnessing their people's suffering, they eventually defected. As the revolution dragged on, a wealthy group of creoles known as the Congress of the Americas, sent a letter of demands to Fernand VII known as the Petition of Independence, including demands for self-independence and end of discrimination.
The groups was formed on September 9th, 1810. The group of men were Jose de San Martin, Francisco de Paul Santander, Jose Miguel Carrera, Simon Bolivar, Francisco de Miranda, Ramon Castilla, Vicente Guerrero Jose Maria Morelos, Antonion Jose de Sucre, and Jose Gervasio Artigas.
After the letters were sent, the men agreed they would meet at Bocas del Toro at Panama. There, they would discuss the issues between independence and status quo, patriots and loyalists, and just in case, domestic and foreign policies if they do fight a war and gain independence.
As riots and uprisings rose against the Spanish colonial authorities, the men feared greater destruction and hoped for at least peace. Eventually, it became a reason for the writing of the letter. The letter was sent to Fernand VII on October 13th, 1809. However, once told who and where they came from, he instantly threw it into the fire. The message was obvious: the Congress as well as the independence movement were acts of rebellion. And for rebellions, they must be punished.
As a result, the colonials decided that Fernand was not on their side anymore. Soon, even the Congress had to to reside to war to gain their demands. Fernand decided that peace was useless and also declared war on January 3rd, 1810. The rebels of Latin America had to face their masters. History was about to repeat itself on the fields once more.
War of Spanish American Independence
Revolution of Gran Colombia
Rebellion of Caracas
Revolution of Peru
Seizure of Lima
Revolution of Mexico
The Miguelian Revolt
Revolution of La Plata
Uprising of UruguayOn January 7th, 1810, news of Fernand's declaration of war reached throughout the colonies. People then gathered up in arms to defend not just themselves, but the goal of independence. Uruguay was one of the first regions to react. Uruguayan patriots led by Jose Gervasio Artigas attacked a Spanish colonial governmental building in Montevideo, the province's capital. The revolt gained independence amongst everyone in the town, and they soon deposed the province's rulers of the Spanish. However, what happened can not be tolerated. Riots in the province were very common. Throughout May to September, the Spanish troops under Jose Fernando de Abascal of Rio de La Plata attempted to check the influence of the rebellion. However, because most of the Spanish forces were overstretched, thus Jose was very unsuccessful in his operation as pro-independence movements were too strong. He suffered numerous defeats in Fray Bentos on January 15th, Mercedes on January 23rd, and Trinidad on February 9th. Despite his defeats, he persevered in trying to reach to Montevideo. He reached Canelones, but surprisingly managed to capture it on February 17th. In an effort to take Montevideo, he sent a letter requiring re-inforcements and ships for the capture of Montevideo. On March 3rd, several hundred men with the help of Jose Fernando besieged the city for several weeks. Because Jose Gervasio only mustered a rebel ragtag force, it fell in March 14th. Unaware of the Spanish Royalists, he fled to northeastern Uruguay to hopefully muster another force to take back Montevideo.
Fortunately for Jose Fernando, reinforcements from Spain and from the colonies helped press down against the revolutionaries. Finally, on September 8th, most rebels were either dead, captured, or in hiding. Jose Gervasio, in the meantime, escape to Buenos Aires undetected by the Spanish police. Even in failure, he is mustering enough might from the hopes of the colonials to ride of the Spanish yoke once and for all.
Treaty of HavanaOn July 2nd, Jose Martin, Simon Bolivar, Lafayette, Fernand VII, and Napoleon met at Havana where the Treaty of Havana would be drawn up. Fernand coincided to the people's number one demand: independence. Peru (with Chile), Mexico (formerly named New Spain) Argentina (formerly named La Plata), and New Granada are all proclaimed independent.
The terms of the treaty included:
- Spain will recognize the independence of its Latin American colonies.
- The Spanish Caribbean will still be hold by the Spanish.
- Both sides will share war indemnities, yet neither will be forced to bear the responsibility of the war.
- Any royalists in Latin America will be treated as equals.
- Neither side will show arms against each other for a period of twenty years (aka no attacks on either side).
The treaty was obviously devastating to Spain. With the loss of its American colonies, Spain's global influence was greatly diminished. The glory days of the past have left with it.
Fernand VII as well as the Spanish government loss most of the popularity of the Spanish people, who blamed the incompetence of the king for the country's downfall from world status.
Napoleon's decision to remain neutral soured the relations between both countries. Fernand VII blamed Napoleon for backstabbing his country by not helping the war, while Napoleon blamed Fernand for not finding a peaceful solution which would have prevented war. As a result, relations between both countries greatly soured.
The end of the war led to an age of growth, freedom and prosperity in South America. However, they still suffered a degree of destruction and damage. Due to this, reconstruction efforts will be very tough in order for the continent to return to normalcy.
Although royalists were given full rights as the treaty mentioned, little was done to enforce it. In fact, bands of South American patriots raided royalist settlements without federal protection. As a result, an enormous emigration from Latin America to the Spanish Caribbean was staged.
In May 21st, 1812, the Latin American nations established the League of South America, mainly to unite the continent economically, militarily, and politically. However, any possibilities of a union with all of the nations was deemed too difficult sideline the lack of proper infrastructure.
Because of his personal support to the revolutionaries, Napoleon did have somewhat a good image to the people and leaders of Latin America. But considering his alliance to Spain, they often made cautious decisions when it came to him. Unbeknown to most, Simon did personally despised him for his list of world power, as he once said "can never be satisfied".
In a secret treaty with Britain on October 15th, 1812, Britain promised aid to the country to help them grow and develop and defend themselves against Spain or even France just in case if they wanted to return.
Latin American Act
With the Spanish yoke finally thrown off, the new American nations can finally create their own destiny. The bad part is, that infrastructure, economies, and communities have been wrecked. And the leaders are aware of how tough reconstruction is going to be.
Simon Bolivar, the president of New Granada, enacted the Latin American Plan, which aimed for very similar goals as the First Imperial Act inspired from France. He called with the other American leaders to agree on the plan that will help rebuild the country and make into a strong nation. Economic growth, industrialization, building, improving, and expansion of infrastructure, education, health, and communication, and the urbanization of cities would occur for ten years. The plan was to simply develop and expand the country's (and the region's) economy whose progress was hindered by their original colonial rulers.
During this time, harbors, ship yards, steel mills, and textile factories were built all over the region. Freedom of trade was for free for all merchants and they can go wherever they wanted for the first time now they are not restricted from their former motherland. As a result, the Latin American countries expanded trade with the United States and the rest of Europe (obviously except Spain). The road and canal systems was expanded and improved, which allowed improved transportation across the region.
The money from the gold and silver that came from the mines was invested for economic use and not to build up wealth. The colonies were so rich in natural resources that they allowed the economy to grow at an astonishing rate. Wood came from Peru, tin came from Rio de la Plata, iron and coal from New Granada, and gold and silver cam from all over the place. The problem was to use them for the good of the economy. Thus as a result, the government allowed laissez faire, a policy of now governmental interference with the economy. Also, they allowed foreigners to make investments in their economies as a result, this allowed a boost in the economy, allowing the building of factories.
A powerful trading and a military fleet (though limited in size) was built to ship goods and raw materials worldwide. Loans were given to anyone trying to start a business. Schools and hospitals were built across the region. Factories that were nationalized manufactured military arms and ammunition. 600 million American pesos (the unitary monetary unit of the South American nations) was used in the program, with the national GDP increased 60% over the time period. This allowed a population boom and the shifting of populations to the cities from the countryside.
Apparently, the cost was expensive considering the state of their countries. And while they did get technical assistance from western European countries, work was slow. Bolivar, however, planned to be at a steady pace since he was aware of the bad state of the country. With the aid of British and French economical and political adivsors, he pushed for a capitalist economical system and a government similar to Britain.
The Monroe Doctrine
American ExpansionismIn 1808, Democratic-Republican politician James Madison became president of the United States. As a pro-expansionist he immediately began to expand the nation westward. Since America bough Louisiana from France in 1803, numerous Americans have moved west and settled the area. However, Amerindians resisted any American attempt to displace them from their homeland by slaughtering tens of settlers and burning numerous western settlements. In 1810, James Madison, angered by this issue, assisted the settlers to combat the Amerindians by sending militia to protect them. Yet this only caused even more conflict.
Although the attack of American settlers was a big problem, there were other problems that Madison had to face. Even when the Napoleonic Wars were over, Britain continued to attack any merchant ships sailing to France. They often forced American sailors to join the Royal Navy. This forced Madison to force naval warships to accompany with trading ships heading to France. This proved to be a big success, with many British ships captured or sunk.
Meanwhile, the British used this as an excuse to protect their interests in Canada by sending weapons and supplies to the Amerindians, who gratefully accepted them. This caused deteriorating Anglo-American relationships. In fact, after American militiamen raided the Amerindians at the Battle of Tippecanoe, their discovered that they had possessed British weapons and supplies, causing a firestorm in Congress. The War Hawks were one part of Congress who wanted to declare war against Britain, yet the pro-British Federalist Party opposed this, believing the olive branch should be used to end the problems. Eventually, Madison used diplomacy which persuaded the British to end the support of Amerindians. Despite the success, the War Hawks were displeased and continue to call for war.
On June of 1812, American settlers in the Louisiana Territory were ambushed by Amerindians and slaughtered most of them, causing Congress to pressure Madison to go to war against Britain. Despite any peaceful attempt to end the problems, nothing worked for Madison. Finally, on June 18th, 1812, Madison conceded to Congress's demands and declared war on Britain. The War of 1812 has just begun.
War of 1812 (1812-1814)
War of 1812
The shots of war began when American troops led by William Hull seized York on June 18th. Because some of the people in Canada were Americans, Madison expected the people to rise up in favor of the American cause. However, this did not happen. Nearly all Americans in Canada were loyalists who immigrated to Canada after the American Revolution. Two European groups, the English, and the French, also did not support them due to cultural differences.
After York was seized, the Canadian colonial government fled to Montreal for safety. On June 22nd, the British government soon received the news and dispatched 50,000 troops (most of them veterans from the Napoleonic Wars) to Canada. Two days later, Napoleon also received the news, who met with his military commanders and advisors to plan out the French role in the war.
By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the British Royal Navy was the world's best navy. It had 600 cruisers and other types of ships (with 85 of them in American waters), making the British masters of the sea. However, their army was weakened during the Napoleonic Wars, forcing the Parliament to takes steps to rebuild and improve on it. At Halifax, Nova Scotia, the Royal Navy in the region was greatly reduced due to the Napoleonic Wars, with only 22 ships. Meanwhile, the American Navy had only 22 ships, yet some of them (USS Constitution, USS President, and the USS United States) were superior to British ships.
During the war, Britain sent a majority of her navy to Halifax to blockade the American Coast, cease its trade with the rest of the world, and prevent them from getting any help. This caused American trade to cease completely and the economy to decline except in New England, where the pro-British Federalists mostly ruled.Because their small numbers, the American Navy used hit-and-run tactics, but because some of their ships were superior in ability, they were able to defeat some British ships, including the HMS Guerriere (August 19th by the USS Constitution), Macedonian (October 25th by the USS United States), and Java (December 29th by the USS Constitution). Of all the ships in the battles, the USS Constitution was the most famous, often receiving little damage from the battles with the HMS Guerriere and the HMS Java. It was nicknamed "Old Ironsides" because cannonballs bounced from its sides.
Due to their naval defeats, the British were forced to improve on their naval designs, eventually building the HMS Leander and the HMS Newcastle, which were bigger and had more guns. Although the United States has a well-experienced navy, the British Royal Navy greatly outnumbered the Americans, thus preventing any American attempt to break the blockade. Despite British naval superiority, they were inferior to the power and design of the American vessels.
From January to March, the USS Essex, the USS Hornet, and the USS Wasp harassed British shipping in the Atlantic, capturing at least 50 British ships. This caused damage to British trade causing the HMS Shannon, the HMS Phoebe, and the HMS Cherub to intervene. However, all three ships were crushed by the Americans.On June 1st of 1813, the British manage to land on Boston after the HMS Shannon destroyed the USS Chesapeake. However, their hold on the town was short-lived after most of the troops had to evacuate when the French began to attack British colonies. Three days later, American and British forces clashed at Washington D.C. With French support, the Americans drove out the British in one of the most patriotic battles in American history. Despite to success, a huge fire did ravage the town, damaging the White House and the US Capitol. Legend says that Thomas's wife brought a portrait of George Washington out before the White House went aflame.
Eventually in 1814, the Atlantic Theater was officially closed after the British suffered colonial losses in the Caribbean and West Africa and eventually surrendered in Haiti.
At first, Madison was confident Canada would be taken easily and the people would join his cause. However, he was proven wrong. Most of the people were loyal to the British government and were American exiles after the Revolutionary War. Other people were British and French, who also opposed the American cause for cultural reasons. After the capture of York in June 18th, 1812, the Canadian Theater has begun. From 1812 to 1813, the Great Lakes, especially Lakes Erie and Ontario, were heavily militarized by the presence of British troops and ships. What made the American advance hard was the British control over the St. Lawrence River, Lake Champlain, and the Niagara River. Amerindian tribes were also another problem, especially those from the Western frontier.
The American Army had done poorly until 1813, which suffered the first defeat at the hands of the British at St Joseph Island at the theater. Mackinac Island, an important trading post, was captured after the British fired just one cannonball. Amhertsburg was later occupied by British troops.
General William Hull attempted to siege Montreal on July 12th, whose army is made out of untrained and inexperienced militiamen. It also had limited supplies and very few artillery. Thus the battle resulted in favor of the British. Hull retreated to Fort Detroit, but by the time the British arrived on August 16th, he surrendered it without a fight. Fort Dearborn was besieged by the British on August 15th, ending with a British victory. Later, York was recaptured by the British due to the fact the Americans were demoralized about Hull's surrender.
Isaac Brock was the greatest British military commander in Canada. He gained much support from the Canadians, who saw the Americans as bloodthirsty and wanted to invade Canada to slaughter the people. Isaac convinced the people that Britain was strong and can beat the Americans in the war.The Americans managed to cross the Niagara River on October 13th, yet they suffered a defeat at the hands of the British at Queenston Heights. However, Isaac's death at the battle greatly demoralized the British army. Yet the American militia refused to go any further.
When France declared support to America in 1813, the tide turned in the favor of the Americans. On July 12th, American troops managed to captured Montreal and Toronto 10 days later. On September 13th, American and British forces clashed at the Battle of Lake Eire, which resulted in an American victory.
Because of difficulties for communication due to British militarized zones, controlling the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River became crucial for the American cause. To establish a strong presence in the region to counter Britain's, a shipyard was built at Sackett's Harbor in the state of New York. There, eleven warships were built. Thanks to the new fleet, the Americans secured a victory at the Battle of Stoney Creek on May 5th, 1813 and later won on May 24th after the British were defeated at the Battle of Beaver Dams, yet the British attack on Sackett's harbor was repulsed on June 19th.
Contrast to American militia, Canadian militia were much more skilled. French Canadians saw Americans as anti-Catholic while American loyalists did not want to be ruled by America. While some people endorsed the American cause, the American army had to struggle through obstacles and British loyalists.
At the St Lawrence River, the Americans crossed the river through Prescott on June 13th and captured Ogdensburg four days later despite harsh resistance from loyalists. Quebec City was captured on June 21st, given American control of most of the river.
On July 4th, the Americans struck at Fort Eire, crushing the British there and forcing them to retreat. 9 days later, the Americans secured another victory at the Battle of Chippewa. On October 6th, the Americans secured another victory at the Battle of Plattsburg, giving the Americans complete control over Lake Champlain.
Western TheaterGeneral William Henry Harrison was sent o the Ohio Territory to deal with the British-supported Amerindians. The goal was to simply take out Tecumseh, but the process was complicated. A part of William's army was defeated at Frenchtown on January 22nd, 1813. Because it was located at River Raisin, the incident was known as the River Raisin Massacre.
In May 1813, Tecumseh besieged Fort Meigs in Ohio. The American and French reinforcements crushed the Amerindians at the battle, forcing many to retreat and Tecumseh to leave for Canada. In July, Tecumseh once again attacked the fort, but failed just like the last time. However, to increase Amerindian morale, he besieged Fort Stephenson, located at the Sandusky River. Yet he failed, marking the end of the Ohio War. It was the Battle of Thames on October 5th, 1813 that destroyed Tecumseh's fighting force and he himself.
French-American AllianceFor the first year of the war, the Americans were doing very badly. Defeats across Canada demoralized the American army. Anti-war protests have sparked across the nation. The economy is suffering and the Federalists are threatening to secede from the Union. Madison knew that if something was not done, the United States will suffer the losses. He looked towards one nation he knew I would stop Britain: France.
On October 13th, 1812, Madison sent a letter to Napoleon, asking him for assistance in the war. Napoleon agreed to his request as an excuse to seize British colonies and weaken its power. On November 14th, American and French diplomats met in France, where they drew out the war plans and how their claims will be divided in the Paris Agreement. Eventually, both nations chose their claims: France would seize Britain's West African, Guyanan, and Lesser Antilles colonies while America would seize Britain's Canadian and Greater Antilles colonies.
The agreement would lead to the tide of the war turned against the British and its eventual defeat in the war. Many historians called this agreement the "meeting that changed America".
Seizing of British ColoniesNapoleon officially declared war on Britain on November 23rd, 1812. During the first part of his campaign, he sent the newly built and improved French Imperial Navy to attack the British West African colonies at the Gambian River region, the Gold Coast, and Sierra Leone. Due to the lack of military presence, they were easy to take, weakening British power in the West African region. The British Gambian region fell first on December 2nd, followed by the Sierra Leone on December 5th and the Gold Coast on December 5th.
When the British government received the news of the battles, they were forced to divert a part of their troops and ships to the colonies. However, because French ships improved in design and ability, it was the British who was the big loser. The British attempt to seize Sierra Leone was repulsed on December 11th.
After the capture of Britain's West African colonies, Napoleon began the invasion of the British Lesser Antilles. With forces coming from French Latin America, the British were not able to stand a chance against the situation. Trinidad and Tobago fell on December 17th, followed by Grenada on the 27th, St. Vincent and the Grenadines on January 3rd, Saint Lucia on January 7th, Barbados on January 12th, Dominica on January 15th, Antigua and Barbuda on January 19th, and Saint Kitts and Nevis on January 22th.
French victories of Britain severely weakened the navy, allowing the American navy to capture the Bahamas on January 5th and Jamaica on January 8th. Britain, although suffering great losses from its navy and army, still fought on in Canada.
After the capture of Britain's Caribbean holdings, Britain knew that Haiti was the country's only hope for reclaiming their lost colonies. On October 23rd, the King George III sent a letter to President Henri of Haiti to ask for assistance. As an enemy of France, he agreed to help liberate the lost colonies.
One November 3rd, a British-Haitian joint force attacked Barbados. However, the French were better prepared than the joint force, causing a defeat for the Haitians and the British. Napoleon had discovered the opportunity to take back their lost colony, so on November the 10th, French troops landed on Port-au-Prince. Although they won a victory, the Haitians proved to be fierce fighters. The French later one the Battle of Jereme against the Haitians and British. Just like the Haitian War of Independence, Yellow Fever was a major problem for the French, yet because fresh troops can come from Cuba, it was not as big of a problem as it used to be.
On November the 16th, however, the French were ambushed during the Second Battle of Jerome and were forced to retreat. However, 10 days later, they struck back at Jerome for the third battle and managed to weaken the British-Haitian forces. On December the 3rd, the French won a striking victory at Miragoane against the Haitians and the Battle of Jacmel on December the 9th. On December the 15th, Verrettes was captured by French forces. On December the 21st, Hinche was captured as well. On January the 1st, Port-de-Palix was captured, forcing the Haitians to surrender, allowing France to regain control of the nation.
Treaty of Washington D.C.With Britain's military and navy succumbing to its losses, its economy spiraling down, and the people revolting, Britain was forced to sue for peace on January 4th, 1814. On January 8th, the Treaty of Washington D.C. was signed by delegates from all three nations. The terms were:
- All support to Amerindians from Britain will cease permanently
The biggest winner of the War of 1812 was the United States, who were finally able to get rid of British rule in their backyard. The annexation of Canada and British-claimed North American Land tripled the country in size, something not seen since the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. James Madison was seen as a patriotic hero to his country. The Federalist Party lost all of their support for their pro-British ideology, and would never recover to this day. The Amerindians suffered the worst, as they are now vulnerable to losing their land to American settlers. Eventually, many were forced out of their homelands.
Celebrations took place all over the country from New York to Atlanta. Many people nicknamed the war their Second War of Independence since they had to struggle to defend themselves from Britain just like long ago. Franco-American relations also improved, as the two countries are now close friends. This would also lead to a more pro-French foreign policy for the United States.
Despite the successes, the New England states have complained about how the war was conducted and how the war had effected them. They accused the government on not spending enough money for the military budget and that states should have more control over their militia. The increased taxes and British blockade constantly damaged the economy, causing the anti-war sentiment to be focused in those states. There were even rumors that New England might secede from the country, but that was false.
Also, Britain freed thousands of slaves by capturing slave ships heading to the United States, causing complaints from planters about the lack of fresh slaves and how it damaged their economy.
France, like the United States, came out victorious. Its conquest of Britain's West African and Caribbean colonies would eventually lead to greater control of the regions. Napoleon was once again praised by the French people for leading into greatness. This led to an increased prestige for its people never seen since the Napoleonic Wars. France's naval victories against Britain helped replace the country as the main sea power. Their victory would eventually become one of the factors for their colonial successes in the future.
Britain suffered greatly from their defeat at the war. Once a proud, strong country, their prestige and military and economic power has been wrecked completely. Once the great sea power of the world, its naval defeats laid the way to French naval superiority. Many people looked to King George III and 2nd Earl of Liverpool as their scapegoats for their defeat in the war. This forced the prime minister to resign on December 1st, 1815, yet George III stubbornly held on to power.
The loss of their Caribbean and West African colonies damaged British trade with the rest of the world. The only important possessions left in the Atlantic Ocean were its Atlantic Islands and South Africa. Because of their loss of important pit stops, their encouraged immigration to those colonies to strengthen their control over the region.
Post-Napoleonic Wars World (1810-1852)
With Napoleon the master of all of Europe and his enemies now forced to bow down to him, the French Empire was the unopposed supreme force of all of Europe. The end of the Napoleonic Wars helped Europe to return to peace once more. Thanks to the Havana and First Imperial Acts, French products are flooding markets worldwide and Britain was losing influence in Europe and the world economy as well as the pound, the country's currency. The economic depression the country suffered led to the Panic of 1815 on February 4th, yet this did little to effect the economies worldwide as France seems to constantly prosper from their growing economy.
Napoleon began to look to other places worldwide to expand the French Empire. The first place he targeted was Algeria, where he ordered an expedition led by his brother Louis-Napoleon to anchor at Algiers in April 13th, 1818. Both the sultan and Louis signed the Treaty of Algiers, causing Algeria to be a French protectorate in exchange for opening the country's markets to French products. Soon, with Algeria annexed, the same strategy was done for Morocco (on March 16th, 1819) and Tunisia (May 4th, 1819). After most of North Africa became French, France expanded its empire around Western, Eastern, and Central Africa. Mauritania was annexed in 1820 (the area around the Volta River), the Ivory Coast, all of the Senegal River region, and the Guinea's at that same year. In 1821, France begins settling the East Indies, Western Australia, and the North Island of New Zealand. In the East Indies, however, due to the Dutch presence there, they ultimately refuse and leave their colony to Borneo, where they set up their independent countries. By 1822, the French settled in Indochina and was later annexed as a protectorate in 1823. On 1824, Madagascar was settled by French settlers and was officially a colony by the time.
Napoleon also had numerous achievements back at home. In 1817, he officially established an Italian state made out of the lands he conquered (the Italian Peninsula and Italian lands from France and Switzerland). In 1823, a German state was also created out of the French-influenced German regions.
Napoleon faced big problems in Florida, where natives constantly continue to attack settlements at the coast. Despite the military's best efforts, disease and little knowledge of the region hampers any attempt against the natives. Napoleon;s advisors suggest giving it away to take away the burden of this useless land. So he did. On February 14th, Napoleon sold Florida to America for $3 million USD. In exchange, the Monroe-Napoleon treaty is signed, which establishes an official boundary between the United States and French Latin America. (The same boundary of the OTL Adams-Onis treaty).
Sweden and Prussia, weakened by their humiliated defeats at the hands of the French and Russians, formed the Stettin-Stockholm Pact on September 4th, 1820. Although Britain was given an offer to join, it refused due to the battered army. Yet it did provide them with military expertise to help modernize and improve their armies and navies. Denmark-Norway, however, disapproved of the alliance, causing tensions between the two groups.Although the St Petersburg Accord ended any chance of war, Alexander's fears of a possible invasion (though extinguished in 1825) and the fact the French Revolution had a major influence on its people, established a series of reforms to counter the problems. On 1813, Alexander enacted the Alexander Act, which promoted economic growth, industrialization, building and improving of infrastructure, the development of natural resources, the building of forts, military barracks, and shipyards, the expansion into Central Asia, and political reforms, including the most famous of them all, end of serfdom. The act helped Russia become the fastest industrializing country in Europe, with factories quickly popping of all over the cities and increasing the industrial capacity, allowing the dependence of agriculture to decrease. And although serfdom was banned, Russian nobles still considered former serfs inferiors, causing a widening gap of the rich and poor. In 1817, due to French and American control over North America, Alexander enacted the Alaska Act, which promoted settlement in Alaska, which was sparsely populated. He promoted settlement by encouraging people to move there for free land as long as they would work on it. 1825, Alexander overcame is fears of a French invasion and asked napoleon to help support Russia in its economic growth and modernization, which Napoleon accepts. Thanks to the French, Russian modernization has become imminent. Food and industrial production were growing at least 45% a year while modern food production methods, modern factories and forges, and new, larger, and improved trading and naval fleets became common projects across Russia. The Russian navy was even better than before, with new ship designs that were even better than before and improved cannons and guns that were deadlier. However, problems remained. Nobles still controlled half the farmland, former serfs still had large debts, the city conditions were poor, and people from the lower and middle classes struggled to survive. By the time Alexander died on 1825, Russia has become a modern nation, shaking away its backwardness forever.
Austria, in the mean time, began to reel from its crushing defeat from the War of the Fifth Coalition. With the country now vulnerable to Napoleon, Francis I of Austria knew that reform was reliable. On November 2nd, 1818, he enacted the Austrian Act, which is similar to the First Imperial Plan and Alexander Plan; and also began to enact political reforms, including more freedoms to its people. Thanks to his leadership, Austria manages to expand its economy and recover from its burden, with new factories popping up in Bohemia, Austria, and Hungary. Yet the French economy has checked the success of the plan by often out competing the Austrians in certain sectors. Farms received more modern equipment which led to higher food production. However, the military was greatly reduced to just an organized militia force and numerous provisional ones to prevent antagonization of France or Russia. Francis I ordered the Germanization of Bohemia and Hungary, which was mixed amongst the people's responses. In 1824, by the demands of the Hungarian and Bohemian nobles, Francis gave Hungary and Bohemia semi-autonomy, yet refused to make them full fledged parts of the empire. Also, Bohemians and Austrians still had faced some degree of segregation, including the limitations of their successes in the upper classes (except for the nobles for obvious reasons). Other ethnic groups, such as the Croats and Slovenes, despite gaining some new freedoms still had a degree of discrimination in society.
Meanwhile, Britain continues to struggle the burden of its losses from the War of 1812. With the navy now in shambles and the army smashed to just a small fighting force, the British Parliament took careful steps to rebuild and recover their military. The British Prime Minister Earl of Liverpool had to resign, with George Canning succeeding him in his place. Under his leadership, he encouraged stronger ties with Austria, Sweden and Prussia, though he refused to let the country into the Stettin-Stockholm Pact for internal reasons. He encouraged the Parliament to attract people to settle in South Africa and India to increase British presence and prevent them from being easy pickings for the French. He encouraged closer ties with South America has the only hope to resist Napoleon. Also, he once tried to give Ireland autonomy so they wouldn't have to rebel against British rule, but sadly, the Parliament turned the proposal down. The slave trade, meanwhile, although declining, it is in no position of being anywhere to banned. Despite his efforts, George failed to help Britain out compete the French economy, as French products outpaced British products being the most bought in all of Europe. Despite the days of glory for Britain now looming, the British will not give up to France.In Prussia, fears of French domination and the influence of the French Revolution left a lasting mark of the remaining part of the reign of King William III. He knew that the military system needs massive changing and that the people are constantly demanding liberal reforms. Pressures from reformers like Heinrich Friedrich, Karl vom und zum Stein, and Hermann von Boyen were building up. William, deciding that he needs to make changes, establishes liberal reforms in his country and established a Reichstag. However, conservative military leaders did not obey his reforms and attempted to depose him in a coup on May 6th, 1815. However, the people, with the support of the king, stubbornly rebelled against it, and the conspirators were forced to surrender, while William executed every one of them as revenge. Conservative politicians, fearing their loss of power, also supported the coup, and were banished as a result. The Reichstag was officially established on October 4th, completely dominated by liberals. A majority of laws that William has passed to the Reichstag have been unanimously approved, including one that reduced the power of the Junker ruling class. However, many laws, including military reforms, made up the majority of the new laws since France was a big threat posing the nation. Prussia began building up her fleet with the help of Sweden and Britain as a response to the reforms in Russia. William once said, "To challenge what's out there, you must keep up with time".
CausesFor a few years, the Stettin-Stockholm Pact and Denmark-Norway have become closer to the verge of war. Because the Dane-Norwegians supported the French, they were seen as bitter enemies by Sweden and Prussia. Meanwhile, Russia and France are right at their shoulders, thus threatening their own sovereignty. Meanwhile, Denmark-Norway have been impatiently waiting to get their hands on Sweden one day. King Fredrick VI of Denmark-Norway has forged closer ties with Napoleon since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, relying on him for military protection in exchange for assistance in the military and economy. Russia, who were also rivals of Sweden and Prussia, also forged closer ties with Denmark-Norway as an excuse to rush their enemies in Northern Europe. Poland, meanwhile under the rule of Francois Joseph Lefebvre, sought closer ties with Russia to eliminate the Prussian menace on her borders. Britain, in the meantime, sent aid to the Stettin-Stockholm Pact, yet did not send any troops for fear of being invaded.
Fredrick VI decided that because he and his allies were more superior than Sweden or Prussia, it would be likely that he would win a war against them. So he declared war on December 5th, 1819. The next day, Danish ships led by Carl Jessen began bombarding the harbor in Stockholm. Unprepared, the Swedes, the government, and the royal family were forced to flee Stockholm, giving the Danish a stronghold on Sweden. News arrived to Stettin on December 16th, St Petersburg on December 23rd, Warsaw on December 25th, and Paris on December 28th. Soon, the war began to escalate as French, Russian, and Polish troops march to Prussia while Dane-Norwegian and Russian navies begin landing troops on Swedish coastal cities.
On December 8th, Prussian troops led by Julius Grawert attacked Warsaw to undermine the Polish War effort. However, it was the sheer size of the Polish-Russian invading force that forced the Prussians to defeat. On December 6th, back at Stettin, French troops seized the capital with little trouble, capturing the government and executed its leaders. Prussian and Swedish morale was falling, and anti-war riots taking place across the cities. Yet after all, Denmark-Norway started the war. On January 1st, a Prussian army surprised the Poles at Breslau, which forced them to retreat from Silesia, which did bring up some moral for the Prussian troops.
On February 2nd, the French and Russian navies led by French naval captain Henri Rigny attacked the new government at Danzig to force them to surrender. With the help of Polish and Russian armies, Danzig fell, yet the government escaped to an unknown location (for them). On February 14th, the Poles struck back at the Prussians once again at Breslau, with the city eventually following in just two days. On February 22nd, Konigsberg was captured easily by Russian and Polish troops. By March 7th, the Prussians were forced to sue for peace.At Prussia, revolts against foreign military occupation was common on the countryside. From March 11th-September 1st, rebels burned down foreign forts, bases, and embassies. They raided the granaries of forts and often took what ever they can. However, the militiaries responded back by burning the countryside and massacring any rebel they can find. This caused the rebellion to dwindle during September and eventually cease.
In Sweden, Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov capture Hamina on December21st and later Espoo on January5th. Despite the striking victories, guerrilla armies in Finland continued to bog down the Russians, causing some frustration amongst the soldiers. Nevertheless, Helsinki was captured on January 16th.
On December 24th, the Prussian-Swedish navy was destroyed at Visby by the Russians, while troops struggling to conquer the island of Gotland suffer massive bloodshed from resisting Swedish troops. At least 10,000 died in a single day, and while it proved the fierce the Swedish troops, yet this also took a toll on the army as well. Swedish troops were defeated at Kalmar on December 28th, allowing Russia to have a foothold of Sweden. yet bad weather prevented any advances.
Bad weather in Sweden force operations to be temporarily cancelled until April 6th, when the Swedes attempted to regain Helsinki from the Russians, yet this failed as they were forced to turn back. From Stockholm, the Dane-Norwegians began to advance north to Malmo, where it fell on April 14th. Jyvaskyla was captured by the Russians on April 27th.
A Sweden, harsh terrain and guerrilla bandits continued to bog down invading armies in Southern Sweden and Finland. On July 5th, a Franco-Dane-Norwegian force captured Gotherburg, while ending a harsh revolt in the town. On July 7th, a Russian force was defeated when the Swedes surprise attack the Russians at Tampere, yet were defeated at Turku seven days later. On July 23rd, the Swedes failed at a disastrous attempt to take St Petersburg despite the massive damage done to it.
On August 1st, Swedish troops managed to defend Falun from the Dane-Norwegians and Russians using the steep terrain as their weapon. On August 6th, Ostersund was also secured from the Dane-Norwegians due to the steep terrain. However, at Seinajoki, the Swedes suffered a crushing defeat to the Russians on August 7th. A victory scored by the Swedes at Lulea at the Dane-Norwegians again on August 11th, forcing them to turn south to invade Sweden.
On August 21st, the Battle of Lake Oulu forced the Swedes to abandon Southern Finland to the Russians and move north to help protect themselves from the Russians with the help of the Lappish locals. The Russians, meanwhile, headed in that same direction, where they bogged through Lappish, Finnish, and Swedish guerrilla attacks. They reached Rovaniemi, where on September 14th, the Russians had to retreat due to poor communication and supply lines. However, they struck back on September 17th, this time taking the city, forcing the Swedes to abandon Finland and protect Sweden from invaders.
The Russians caught up with the fleeing Swedes on October 3rd at Harnosand, where despite their best efforts. the Swedes were ultimately crushed. This left with only the army from Sweden itself to protect it from French, Polish, Dane-Norwegian, and Russian invaders. However, with winter coming ahead, the Swedes had time to recover. Despite this, the Russians made a daring move to strike them at Umea, their winter quarters. On January 13th, the Russians finally crushed the Swedes at Umea, ending the war as well as the sovereignties of Sweden and Prussia.
Treaty of Copenhagen (1/16/1821)Delegates from four nations: Denmark-Norway, Russia, Poland, and France met at Copenhagen to discuss the division of Prussia and Sweden. France was no interested in any land, leaving Russia, Denmark-Norway, and Poland to have the spoils. However, the Rhine Confederation joined the meeting as requested by the French The treaty was signed on January 16th. The terms were:
- Russia will gain all of Finland
- Denmark-Norway will claim all of Sweden
- Denmark-Norway is now the Scandinavian Union
- Northern Prussia is now part of the Rhine Confederation, while the rest is now Poland's.
Growth and Expansion of America
The American victory in the War of 1812 meant that America helped the country emerge as a middle power. With new land in Canada to settle, the people praised Madison as a hero who helped ended the British menace in border. In Canada, American settlers began to trek west to reach the Pacific Coast.
In the wake of the end of the Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican Party was the single sole party. The party was renamed the Nationalist Party, known for their patriotism towards the country. It was the only party until the Election of 1820, when members disagreed of who to support. Supporters of John Quincy Adams separated and became the Democratic Party, while supporters of John Clay remained the Nationalist Party.
Without the threat of British harassment of American ships, trading is now safe and could finally expand without any interference. The expansion of American industry helped the country compete economically with other nations. The alliance with France that originated since the War of 1812 is still strong, with the country receiving the expertise it can get to build is nation and trading France her allies resources and finished goods at low prices, generally avoiding Britain who are powerless to stop this. The Panic of 1815, like in Europe, didn't effect America as much as speculated by financialists. Democratic-Republican President James Monroe struck a crushing defeat against Federalist DeWitt Clinton, who sought to build up the country.
On May 1st, 1818, James Monroe enacted the American Act, which like the First Imperial Act, encouraged economic growth and infrastructure building, with financial support coming from France. Factories were popping across the Northern part of the country. Railroads, roads, and canals were built with French financial support. Shipyards were constructed all across the East Coast. In 1824, Napoleon visited Monroe, amazed at the successes of the American people. One time, when Alexander I visited Monroe in 1828, he was amazed of the "will of the American people to help their country grow".Meanwhile, there was a great support in the belief in the famed Manifest Destiny, an ideology that encourages the expansion from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans was desirable by the whole country. With France willing to protect the country, there was great confidence that nothing bad would happen while reaching their goal.
The inventions such as the steamboat, the steam engine, and the railroad are beginning the shape American westward expansion. Such inventions allowed industry to rise and transportation in the west to improve. Many settlers see a bright future ahead of their country.
To strengthen the goal of the Manifest Destiny, new states were created, including Mississippi (containing OTL Mississippi and Alabama) in 1837, Louisiana in 1838, Arkansas in 1839, Indiana (including Illinois and Iowa) in 1841, Ontario in 1842, and Quebec in 1844.
Presidencies of James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay
James Monroe was elected president on 1817 as the 5th president of the United States. When he took James Madison's place in office, he inherited a growing country with prosperity thanks to their victory against the British during the War of 1812.Not much happened during this presidency in terms of foreign policy other than friendly relations with France, but much was achieved in the domestic policy. On May 14th, 1818, he enacted the American Plan. Just like the French Imperial and Russian Plans, it targeted the growth and improvement of infrastructure, including roads and canals, the development of industry, and the growth of education to ensure all Americans have a place in the workforce.
The impact of the American Plan had a positive effect on the nation. On July 13th, that same year, the American Road System started building. It aimed to touch all regions of America east of the Mississippi. It will continue all the way untll October 4th, 1831, when it was finished.
On 1817, February 5th, he launched the controversial Seminole Wars led by Andrew Jackson, which aimed to "civilize" the Indians and remove them if they didn't. The wars continued even after the presidency of Monroe, yet it did more damage. Despite overwhelming odds, the Indians were paid to leave the land.
Monroe's popularity was wracked by the slavery issue, During the dispute about whether Missouri should be a slave or free state, Congress enacted the Missouri Compromise Act on February 13th, 1819, which let Maine be a free state and Missouri a slave one.
On July 4th, 1824, Napoleon visited Washington D.C. to meet up with Monroe. Both countries signed trade agreements that allowed a strong Franco-American economic partnership, although the United States was still technically seen as a neutral nation.On 1825, John Quincy Adams was voted as the country's 6th president. During his presidency, on July 4th, 1826, Alexander I of Russia visited the United States. From that day to December 5th, he traveled across the original 13 states, who was inspired by the will of the American people", which would help him continue governmental reform in Russia.
Not much happened on John's domestic policy, though he worked to get the American Plan running. He ordered the construction of a series of canals, including the Great Lakes Canals that connected the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence Seaway, the Chesapeake and Ohio and the Chesapeake and Delaware Canals, and the New York and Lake Eire Canal.
On 1830, the Indian Removal Act was enacted, which moved Indians to a designated located somewhere what is now Texas (Olklahoma in OTL). It was very harsh, as thousands of Indians have to travel to the so-called 'Trail of Tears". This names was due to the deaths that many experienced along the way.
On 1836, during election year, Martin Van Buren was John Quincy's successor to the presidency and was competing to win office. His main opponent, however, was Henry Clay. Contrast to him, he was more capable than he is. Others did chose Van Buren due to his promise to help handle tariffs and taxes. The election was tough, yet it turned in favor of Henry. However, Martin's supporters claimed that he was the winner. Because of these differences, the Nationalist Party split into two parties: the Nationalist and the Democrat parties.
In 1837, Henry Clay was promoted president. During his domestic policy, he focused more on industry. However, the panic of 1837 soon wracked his popularity. Clay handled the crisis the best he can, including lowering tariffs and establishing freer trade. Because of his efforts, things did ease up a bit, but not enough to recover fully. Unfortunately for him, he failed to handle is properly enough, and was forced out of the presidency in 1841 by William Harrison.
Although the annexation of Canada was a magnificent achievement for the United States, there was one problem with the people there. Many of them were American loyalists, French Quebecoins, and English settlers. Many of them were loyal to Britain instead of the United States, making administration in the region difficult. Anti-loyalist and anti-Catholic feelings in America stirred up conflict.
Riots were common in towns such as York, Montreal, and Toronto, as pro-British Canadians often conflicted with American and French soldiers keeping order in the region. On September 7th, 1815, Napoleon urged Madison to enact reforms for all loyalists and Catholics to gain their support. On October 14th, Madison enacted the Catholic and Loyalist Emancipation Act, which allows amnesty and ends discrimination for all Canadian loyalists and Catholics as long as they remain loyal citizens.
Meanwhile, in 1816, the American government established a referendum in Quebec in order to now the public's opinion. A vast majority (85%) wanted independence, 10% wanted French rule, 7% wanted American autonomy, and 3% wanted to be a part of the country as a whole. Quebec was declared independent by the American government (though unwillingly), which had close ties to both France and America, It was also compromised of Newfoundland and Labrador as part of the new state.
While this allowed Madison to increase his approval ratings in Canada, a large majority of the people left the region to the West to escape the "American menace". Most of the settlers were British loyalists, who feared risk of being persecuted once again since the American Revolution.
During the 1840's, many new "countries" were formed in the American Frontier, including Assinoboia, Manitoba and New Ontario. At first they were not considered a concern for the American government, but as expansion continued, conflict would arise.
The Oregon CrisisSince the defeat of Britain in the War of 1812, America finally obtained full access to the Pacific Ocean with no cost. In the Northwest, however, the Russians were continuing settling the region, many continually going south as fast as ever. Many Americans feared that their access to the Pacific would be locked out by the Russians. The Oregon Territory was a valuable fur-trading region to both countries, and they are not willing to lose it.
While running for re-election, James Monroe used the slogan, "All or none of Oregon!" to win the presidency. On July 4th, 1818, Monroe made a speech to Congress expressing his desire the maintain American presence in Oregon. However, he did not want war, as his country already had ravaged through one.
Most of the Nationalist Party wanted war with Russia, yet contrary to their expectations, James wanted the issue to be ressovled peacefully. Finally, on September 4th, Russian and American foreign ambassadors agreed to a compromise in Washington D.C. The 49th Parallel split the Oregon Territory into American (southern) and Russian (northern) halves. Also, Russia paid America $10 million to buy Yukon.
Issue of Slavery
Despite the great unity for Americans, there was only one thing that would tear it apart: slavery. Slavery has existed in the country ever since it was first settled. Many people in the North want it banned because it was morally wrong for the country while the South want it legal because it provided their livelihood. Often, both sides would try to get more states to join its side than the other, which led to tensions.
One of the disputes was the state of Missouri. Northern and Southern Congressmen have constantly argued of the status of the state. The Northerners wanted it slave-free, while the Southerners wanted it pro-slavery. On February 19th, 1820, President Monroe enacted the Missouri Compromise, which allowed Missouri to be a slave state and Maine to be a free state. It also established a line at 36 north as the boundary of slave states and free states. However, this only provided temporarily relief on the issue.In 1820, three men: John Randolph, Henry Clay, and Richard Bland Lee formed the American Colonization Society (ACS) with many other anti-slavery members, which allowed any African Americans to return to Africa by establishing a colony in what would be the American state of Liberia. On April 25th, thousands of blacks with Northern financial support established the settlement of Monrovia at Cape Mesurado, most of them escaped from the South. The Southern state governments accused the ACS as an excuse for helping slaves escape the south.
However, 1828 was one of the most fearful years in the United States. That same year, the Tariff of 1828 was enacted to protect Northern industries, yet the South disliked it because it threaten the cotton industry. John Calhoun, governor of South Carolina, threatened to secede from the Union, causing a crisis that threatened the unity of the nation. In 1833, President Henry Clay agreed to reduce the tariff over a period of time, simmering the crisis, yet widening the North-South gap.In 1831, the famous abolitionist Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Southampton County in Virginia. The revolt cause 58 white deaths, yet 100 black deaths. This forces Nat Turner and 12 of his men into hiding, yet they were eventually caught and executed for treason. This caused the plantiers to prepare for future uprisings. Despite the risks of slaves, many have escaped to freedom through the famous route known as the Underground Railroad. During this time, figures like Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass have helped slaves escape their owners to freedom in the North or in French Latin America where they cannot be found. This causes anger amongst the South, forcing Congress to pass the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 to punish anyone helping escaping slaves and return them to their owners.
In 1847, the mostly-American dominated Texas was given independence by Napoleon II, who join the United States concurrent to that. The reason for the split was mostly due to the demand for slavery in Texas, which was enacted in the state right away when it joined. Many French black settlers and fugitives from America were forced to flee from the state to French Mexico and the Northern states.On 1852, Harriet Stowe releases the book, Uncle Tom's Cabin, explaining the life of an escaped slave and how he got to freedom. The book became popular across the country and intensified the North-South Tensions. The influence of the book forced Southern states to bar it from coming to those states, fearing a slave uprising.
On 1854, the Kansas Act is enacted to deal with the slave issue in Kansas (also containing Nebraska), which permits popular sovereignty to decide whether the state should be free or a slave state. However, the referendum was constantly interrupted by riots and fights across the state in an era known as "Bleeding Kansas", when pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions have erupted across settlements, causing further intensifying of tensions between North and South. One year later, the US military is forced to intervene, and as a result, the conflict ended.
First Turkish War (1820-1823)
During the first four months of 1820, peace was about to become extinct in the Ottoman Empire. The empire, once the proud nation who excelled beyond Europe, it was now on the verge of crumbling and falling behind. Corruption plagued the Turkish court, The economy and currency were crashing from inflation. Europeans were constantly planning to take advantage of its weakened state. But most importantly, nationalism was common amongst the minorities inspired by the French Revolution.
French and Russian ImperialismNapoleon was looking forward to conquer Egypt, the place he failed to dominate prior to his rise to power. Yet despite the earlier failure, he stubbornly wanted to return to gain the revenge he desired. French control of the Maghreb alarmed the Ottomans, who in 1818, began to established a militarized zone at the Tunisian-Ottoman border. Ottoman pirates were another problem to the French, who were formerly from the Barbary States before being annexed to France. Hired as mercenaries by the Ottomans, they raided French towns along the French North African coast and were the biggest nuisance to French naval dominance in the Mediterranean. Napoleon sent a letter to Sultan Mahmud II. Here is a part of the letter:
Who in the name of God has give you the right to challenge the power of France in the Mediterranean? Do you even know we are the masters of Europe? If you do know this, than you should reconsider what you are doing and stop attacking the power of France in the Mediterranean.
However, Mahmud ignored the message and continued to support pirates and their raids across the Mediterranean.
Meanwhile, Russia, just like France, was also looking forward to expanding its territory into the Caucasus to end the Ottoman menace in the region. Russian troops constantly harassed Turkish outposts in the region, forcing Mahmud to send troops to the region to counter this. What also decreased the region's stability was the uprisings by Christian groups (especially Armenians) inspired by the French Revolution.
In Greece, Greek nationalists, inspired by the French Revolution, began to plot the war for independence. For centuries, since the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Greece has been embroiled by Muslim rule. Now, the people have had enough of their Muslim rulers. Rigas Feraios was another inspiration, having led an uprising in Serbia that although failed to achieve independence, the region was granted autonomy by the Turks.Alexander Ypsilantis was the leader of the Greek nationalist group Filiki Eteria, who planned to stir an uprising in Peloponnese. This was successful on April 17th, when thousands of Greeks revolted. They attacked 50,000 Muslims living in the region, with 20,000 dead. When the news hit Constantinople, Mahmud ordered the arrest of the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople, Gregorios V, arrested, suspecting him of having a part in the uprising.
The movement spread across Greece and the Balkans, causing uprisings all over the region. Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Romanians, and Bulgarians constantly attacked Muslims, Turks, and governmental buildings in what is known as the Balkan Revolution. This forced Mahmud to declare martial law in the region, yet military support was coming from Europeans.
However, support for the movement was commonplace in Europe, especially France and Russia. The moment when the Greek War of Independence began, France and Russia declared war as an excuse to help the protestors and seize territory from the Ottomans.
Course of the War
On April 22nd, 1820, Russian General Pyotr Bagration led 100,000 troops into Tiraspol, where they clashed with a 110,00 Ottoman force there. The battle went on for two days before the Ottomans were forced to retreat due to having heavier casualties than the newly improved Russian army. The Ottomans were forced to fortify Wallachia, Transylvania and Western Moldavia from the Russian invasion, yet this was difficult due to the pro-Russian and pro-independene riots.
To counter the Russian invasion of Romania, the Turks struck at Odessa on May 11th, eventually capturing the city. The Russians responded by sending a force to take back the city. During the Siege of Odessa, at least 60,000 died, mostly Turks. Eventually, the Russians captured the city on May 26th.
On May 21st, the Russians manage to strike the Ottomans at Botosani. Inspired by the Russians, the local populance began to rebel for independence, allowing the Russians to easily take the city and slaughter most of the Turkish army. On April 8th, Piatra Neamt was invaded by Russian forces, who manage to easily oust the Turks from the town. By the request of Pyotr, the Russian government began to fund Roman separatists in the region, causing constant pain to the Turkish military.
However, Selim III ordered the raids of Russian trade routes and communication lines and the burning of the countryside (to prevent the Russians from obtaining any resources), causing the Russians to suffer two defeats at Tulcea on May 29th and Galati on April 6th, forcing the Russians to recover until April 13th, when they struck the Turks back at Tulcea and eventually defeated them. Later, they once again captured Galati on April 20th.Meanwhile, the Turks began fortifying Bucharest and fought off the rebellions in the city. On July 4th, the Russians arrived, fighting the Turks in the Siege of Bucharest. One month later, the Russians broke into the city, officially forcing the Turks to retreat from Romania, allowing the Russians to advancde through Bulgaria.
Pyotr marched to Pleven with 150,000 soldiers (with 35,000 Romanian recruits) on July 9th. The goal was to march to Sofia and capture the city. However, the Turks fought valiantly to ensure the Russians did not capture it. However, eventually, the Russians took control on July 12th.Finally, the Russians marched to Sofia on August 7th. The city was greatly fortified by the Turks, who manage to squash a rebellion there and forced the inhabitants to flee. For three months, the Turks and Russians fought to take control of the city. Eventually, the Turks fell on November 10th, giving the Russians a foothold of northwestern Bulgaria.
However, the Turks began to siege the city once again to retake it. On November 21st, the outnumbered Russians had to hold off against the Turks. the battle went on for four months, with reinforcements coming from both sides. Eventually, the Russians were abel to send in more men and forced the Turks out of the city on February 26th, 1821.
Pyotr began to plan to find a route to meet up with the French at Belgade. On March 4th. However, the journey was dificult due to the mountainous terrain and the lack of adequate roads. On March 7th, the Russians headed for Svoge, where the managed to take out the Turks. On May 10th, the Russians captured Kostenets from the Turks. The capture of the town allowed the Russians to head to Serbia.The Russians manage to reach Aleksinac on August 21st. However, due to problems with the terrain, the Russians were forced to pull back. They found an alternate route by crossing to Krusevac on September 11th. There, they manage to defeat the Turks thanks to the support of Serbian rebels. Finally, on January 29th, the Russians manage to catch up with Michel Ney in Brcko, where with the French had to deal with a pro-Turkish rebellion. After Serbian rebels sieged the well-fortified city on February 1st, 1822, Russians sent troops to help. However, the siege was difficult due to thin supply routes, which often demoralized the coaltiion force at times. Fortunately, the French were able to send supplies through the Illyrian Provinces, allowing the pressure to be relieved at some cases. The seizing of Belgrade led to the independence of Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia (in a union with Herzegovina).
However, back at Bulgaria, Selim III made numerous attempts to seize Bulgaria, even going as far to attack Romania. On March 4th, the Turks raided Alexandria, later advancing to Bucharest to siege in. The siege carried on for a month until on April 2nd, the Russians forced him off. meanwhile, Selim III ordered numerous raids on the countryside of southernmost Romania, causing the burning of the countryside, seizing of villagers, and the looting of towns. The Russians led by Peter Wittgenstein helped defend the region agains the raids. On April 7th, his army managed to take back Alexandria from the Turks, ending their foothold on southern Romania.
From Plovdiv, Selim III attempted another siege of Sofia. However, a part of the army and military commanders mutined, seeing the plan as too risky. The caused a conflict in the military camp. The Russian spies, however, took note of this and urged Peter to strike at the city. He listed. On May 2nd, while the Turkish army was constantly fighting each other, the Russians with the help of the Bulgarian rebels struck the city with full force. Eventually, the overwhelmed Turks were forced to flee. Selim III was amongst the Turks who fled from the city.
Eventually, the remainder of the Turkish army was force to flee to southeastern Bulgaria, while the southwestern portion was under Russian-rebel control. Eventually, Bulgaria declared independence from the Ottoman Empire, inspiring rebellions in Ottoman Bulgaria. On May 11th, the Russian-Bulgarian force struck Stara Zagora to support an internal rebellion in the city. Selim III, however, sued for peace. He bribed the Bulgarians 100 million Lira in exchange for a ceasefire. The Bulgarian rebel leaders agreed to the cease-fire in exchnage for the recognition of their independence.
On May 2nd, Michel Ney began invading Bosnia from the Illyrian Provinces by capturing Livno, which fell in two days. Because most of the Balkan peoples have been rebelling against the Ottomans, Michel Ney expected everyone in the region to follow the lead. However, only the Croats and Serbs in the region truly joined the conflict. Muslims, Bosnians, and pro-Turkish Balkanians oppossed independence.
Because neither side would agree to the other's opinion, both sides declared war on each other. The Muslim side had the bigger advantage in terms of numbers. Michel declared support to the Serbs and Croats and began the relentless plan of exterminating the pro-Turkish rebellion. Herzegovina, a region of Bosnia, gained independence with no bloodshed, with many people joining the French to liberate the region.
After Livno fell, Michel Ney attacked Bosnian rebels in Tomislavgrad, which fell on May 6th. On May 10th, Michel captured Kupres with Croat rebels. On May 13th, Glamoc was captured, though they faced a slight rebellion in the city which was put down by the next day.
Drvar was captured on May 16th with another slight rebellion put down by the next day. This was followed by Bihac on May 22nd, Bosanska Krupa on May 25th, Buzim on May 29th, Kljuc on April 9th, Sanski Most on April 15th, Novi Grad on April 19th, and Prijedor on April 24th.
Michel then sieged Banja Luka on April 29th. The siege lasted until May 24th, when the Ottoman garrison under Muhammad Ali surrendered. Dobretici was captured on June 3rd followed by Bugojino on June 10th, Busovaca on June 14th, Jajce on June 19th, Travnik on June 24th, Vitex on July 1st, and Kresevo on June 17th.
Finally, Sarajveo was exposed to invasion. On June 28th, the city was sieged. The siege was extremely difficult due to the fact that Bosnian uprisings in villages and towns caused difficulties for the French troops. Because of this, Michel ordered a retreat on August 3rd to defend some parts of the region from rebels.
Michel defeated the rebels in Travnik on August 14th, Drvar on August 29th, and Tomislavgrad on September 13th. After a while, he returned to Sarajevo on October 1st, where he once again besieged the city. This time, the city fell on November 27th.
With the Ottomans driven away from Bosnia, it seemed that peace has finally settled. However, it has not. With pro-Turkish rebellions popping up in many places, Michel had a lot of work to do. Because the east was mostly rebel territory, he headed there.
The rebels were defeated at Gotazde on December 9th, followed by Istocno Sarajevo on December 12th, Pale on December 14th, Visegrad on December 19th. However, due to the winter, it put a great strain on the troops' supplies and morale as rebels began to harass supply lines. With the Serbs and Croats constantly fighting pro-Turkish rebels, however, the pressure on the French was relieving.
On January 6th, Zvornik was captured, followed by Bijeljina on January 15th, and Brcko on January 24th. Finally, on January 26th, the Russians arrived at Brcko, where both sides begin planning for the assault on Constantinople.
French-Russian CampaignOn May 17th, the Russians and French met in Sofia to liberate Macedonia, Albania, and Greece from Ottoman rule and eventually sack Constantinople. On April 2nd, the French-Russian coalition force (with rebels from all over the newly-freed independent Balkan countries) marched to Skopje. However, the journey was difficult due to the steep terrain and poor roads. Turkish and pro-Turkish Balkan loyalists in the region also constantly attacked supply routes, often fatiguing the army at times.
During the siege, the Turks led by Selim III built formidable defenses around the city. A deep trench was dug around the city, thus making the battle diffficult for the coalition. Eventually after two months, they dug around the trench, and attacked the city from the downtown area. It did not take long for Selim III to be murdered in the battle, demoralizing the Turkish army then on. However, a pro-Turkish mob in the city clashed with Albanian rebels and the coalition army, causing a riot that occured until April 5th, when the pro-Turkish Macedonians were forced to flee the city.However, on April 21st, pro-Turkish Bosnians, Macedonians, and Muslims begin to riot against French and Russian occupation, who demand the return to Turkish rule. However, the newly independent countries, France, and Russia obviously refused to recognize their demands. In April 24th, the French attacked Sarajevo to stop a pro-Turkish riot, which lasted for 14 days until the rioters were dead.
On April 25th, the French-Russian force sieged Tirana for four months. Despite Turkish efforts, losses in the Caucasus, Greece, and Egypt and the threat of the Russian army and navy reaching Constantinople forced the Turks to flee to Thrace, freeing most of the Balkans. On May 2nd, the French-Russian army with Greek and Balkan rebels faced the Turks at Komotini, which led to the coalition victory in the war. On May 12th, the coalition defeated the Turks at Orestiada.
With the war being loss for the Ottomans, territories being taken, and the coalition forces all targeting Constantinople, all forces were commanded to fortify the city. On May 15th, the Russian navy from the Black Sea, the French navy from Egypt, and the Coalition Army from the Balkans sieged Constantinople. On May 21st, due to the extordinary overwhelming force, the city fell to the Coalition. Obviously, the Turks sued for peace.
African Theater and the Algerian Uprising
On April 21st, just after the war began, French general Jacques-Pierre-Louis Puthod invaded Zuwarah from Tunisia. The city was sieged until May 7th, when it was caputred. Despite the first victory, however, the French had to struggle with hot and dry weather. This made the perfect environment for Ottoman guerrilla groups to wear down the troops.
On May 15th, Jacques sieged Tripoli, which lasted for several weeks. But due to Ottoman naval aid and the Algerian rebellion, it was constantly difficult to capture the city. Eventually, on April 1st, the city fell to the French. On April 11th, Al Khums was captured by the French a day after it was attacked. However, due to the Algerian rebellion, the French anvy had to assist Jacques for supplies and weapons to prevent the expedition from collapsing.
On April 18th, Misratah was captured, followed by Surt on April 27th, Ras Lanuf on May 9th, and Al Burayqah on May 20th. Benghaizi was sieged on May 29th and fell on June 19th. Al Bayda fell on June 27th and Tobruk on July 4th.
With Tripolitania now French, the Mamuluks and Ottomans spared no expense in building up fortifications across. Egypt. In the 1790's Napoleon invaded Egypt to add another region for the French empire. While he was sadly defeated, it did leave a mark in the region. Now, with the French coming back, the Mamuluks were to sure that they do not fall again.
On July 12th, Marsa Matrouh fell to the French. However, the main French supply fleet was attacked by Ottoman pirates, while Arab loyalists harassed supply routes in French North Africa. With the Algerian Uprising waning, however, more supplies were able to reach the troops. Yet there were great difficulties in Egypt due to lack of supply.
Despite the troubles, Jacques did not give up. On July 25th, he sieged the Ottomans and Mamuluks at Alexandria. With the help of the French navy, which prevented the Ottoman navy from bringing in any reinforcements, the French broke into the city on August 12th. On August 17th, Jacques captured Damanhur and Tanta on August 22nd.
On September 6th, the French reached Cairo begining one of the most epic battles in Egyptian history. The French navy, which attempted to cross the Nile River to Cairo, got stuck in Mansoura by Ottoman troops on September 7th, forcing a battle there which ended in the slaughtering of all French at the site. On September 12th, reinforcements from mainland Spain under Francisco Castanos arrived to assist. On September 16th, Ottoman-hired pirates attacked the French at Tanta, forcing some troops at Cairo to divert to the city to defend it. The pirates were defeated on Septemeber 19th. By October 9th, Cairo fell to the French, forcing the Ottomans and Mamuluks to retreat to the south.
On October 14th, the French won a decisive victory at Faiyun, folowed by Ben Suef on October 18th, Minya on October 21th, and Asyut on October 27th. However, while attempting to chase the Mamuluks, the French were defeated at Kharga due to desert isolation and harassment of supply routes. They later headed off to Luxor on November 4th, where they managed to defeat the local garrison there. As he advanced, farmers burned all their crops to ensure the French did not find anything useful.
On November 8th, Jacques invaded Qena and seized the city a day later. His plan was to stick to the Nile River because after the experience from Kharga, he did not want the experience again. On November 15th, he captured Aswan, though Qene was taken back by the Mamuluks and Ottomans two days, later, causing loss of contact in terms of communication and supplies. Jacques was forced to return on November 26th and managed to retake the city.Later, on December 13th, the French defeated the Mamuluks at Edfu and at Kom Ombo on December 24th. On January 4th of 1822, Kacques stumbled on the famous Ancient Egyptian monuements: the Abu Simbel. On January 22nd, archaeologists sent by Jacques investigated the site, uncovering ancient Egyptian history along the way.
With the Mamuluks and Ottomans establishing their main base in Khartoum, Jacques began the journey to hunt them down. He headed to Dongola on February 18th, where he defeated the Ottomans and Mamuluks. Ad-Damir was captured on Fenruary 26th.
Jacques arrived at Khartoum on March 4th, begining the epic siege that would be the last straw for the Ottomans and Mamuluks. On March 21st, Louis arrived from Algeria to assist Jacques in the siege. On April 17th, the city fell, forcing the Ottomans and the Mamuluks to surrender.
Both sides signed the Treaty of Khartoum, which forced the Mamuluks out of power and forced the Ottomans to leave all of its African possessions to the French.
Algerian UprisingMeanwhile, in Algeria, Abdelkader El Djezairi led a rebellion in Algiers on April 28th to resist French rule. With Jacques away, another French general Louis-Nicholas Davout was sent to deal with the rebellion. Although by the rebellion was done with by May 11th, the influence of the event spread all across Algeria. With support of the Ottomans, they attacked French military forts and governmental buildings in the region. Abdelkader rallied rebels from the Ain Defla and Medea provinces to take back the city. On May 23rd, the French clashed with rebel forces in Ain Defla, forcing Abdelkader to flee to Djelfa. When the French were chasing him, hot weather were constantly battering the troops. Also, supply routes were constantly harassed by Algerian rebels. On June 12th, Abdelkader surprised Louis in Charef. Having being cut away from their needed supplies, Louis retreated to the mountains. There, he defeated Abdelkader in Tissemsilt on June 21st and later Bouira on June 2nd.
Despite the successes, the desert was oftenly a good hiding place for Abdelkader to operate, and lack of the knowledge of the region made finding him very difficult. On August 14th, Louis ordered papers across the region lending a bounty of 50 million francs for anyone who can capture or kill Abdelkader as long as he (or his head if dead) was brought to French authorities.
Louis defeated Algerian rebels in Relizane on August 17th, Chlef of August 23rd, and Mascara on September 6th. Although the Algerians were greatly crushed, Abdelkader was nowhere to be seen. On September 14th, an expedition was sent to the region of Illizi where locals claimed they have seen him there. However, on October 10th, the expedition came back battered with no success.
On October 23rd, Louis was defeated by Algerians in Saida and later in Sidi Bel Abbes on November 13th. In Sidi Bel Abbes, Abdelkader was injured, though not captured in the battle. After receiving the news from the spies, Louis was confident that striking at the enemy camp in Ain Temouchent. On November 28th, French troops stormed the camp, but realized the rebels left just before they can captured Abdelkader.
As winter was approaching. Louis was confident it was now okay to go to the desert to pursue Abdelkader. On December 7th, he ventured to Lagohouat, where he defeated Algerian rebels. However, as they went farther and farther south, the situation was not going so good for the inexperienced French. On December 14th, Louis was defeated in El Bayadah. This was followed by two defeats at Adar on January 3rd, 1823, and Bechar on January 15th.
Due to the lack of supplies, Louis was formed to retreat to the mountainside to recover his army before pursuing Abdelkader any farther. By January 24th, he began to once again pursue Abdelkader. In El Oued, he managed to crush Abdelkader's forces there. By that time, Abdelkader has recovered from his injury much to the dismay of Louis.
On February 3rd, Louis battled Algerian rebels in Ourgla. During the battle, Abdelkader was killed, greatly demoralizing the Algerian resistence. On February 23rd, their finally had the blow when Louis defeated them in Oran despite difficulties.
Both sides signed the Treaty of Algiers. In the treaty, all rebel leaders are executed for rebellion. Other rebels were sent to prison for life. With the situation in Algeria put to rest, Louis went on with his forces to Egypt to assist Jacques.
Anatolian Theater Part OneWhile Russia was marching through the Balkans, Russian forces under Mikhail Kutuzov attacked the Ottoman Empire from the Caucasus. The goal was to secure Turkish Armenia and Kurdistan. On April 11th, the Russians captured Ardahan, followed by Kars on April 19th, Igdir on April 27th, Agri on May 6th, Erzurum on May 21st, Artvin on June 4th, and Rize on June 17th.
The capture of Artvin and Rize allowed supplies and weapons from Russia to cross the Black Sea and deliver them to the Russian military. Meanwhile, Mikhail captured Erzincan on June 26th, Tunceli on July 13th, Elazig on July 23rd, Bingol on August 5th, and Mus on August 11th.
On August 26th, Mikhail sieged the city Manzikert, 750 years after the Turks sieged it against the Byzantines. The siege lasted until September 17th, when the garrison surrendered. On September 21st, Bitlis was captured, followed by Van on September 28th, Hakkari on October 4th, and Siirt on October 10th.
However, the Ottomans struck back at the Russians, capturing Elazing, Tunceli, and Erzincan by October 16th. Mikhail sent a part of his men to recapture the cities. By November 2nd, they were back in Russian hands. Despite victories, the mountains of Anatolia were a major hinderance to the Russian troops. Poor roads and constant attacks by Turkish guerrillas often weighed down the troops' morale.
The Russians begin to advance in the Kurdish region. Sirnak was captured on October 23rd followed by Mardin on October 28th, Batman on November 5th, Diyarbakir on November 9th, Sanliurfa on November 16th, Adiyaman on November 27th, Gazi Antep on December 3rd, and Kilis on December 5th.
With all regions of historical Armenia now under Russian control, Mikhail headed south to take over Kurdistan. Dohuk was conquered on January 21st, 1822, followed by Erbil on February 8th, Mosul on Fenruary 19th, Sulaymaniyah on February 27th, and Kirkuk on March 4th.
Anatolian Theater Part Two
With Mikhail completing his objective in the region, he can now head to Constantinople, where the French and Russians are planning to siege it. However, there were pro-Turkish rebellions in the region. Mikhail defeated the rebellions one by one, including Kirkuk on March 6th, Kilis on March 24th, Bitlis on April 24th, Van on May 8th, Siirt on May 19th, Mus on April 2nd, Tunceli on April 13th, Elazig on April 28th, adn Hakkari on May 14th.
With the rebellion over, Mikhail was able to trek to Constantinople. Trabzon fell on July 6th, followed by Giresun on July 9th, Ordu on July 15th, Samsun on July 26th, Sinop on August 7th, Kastamonu on August 11th, Bartin on August 17th, Zonguldak on September 3rd,and Duzce on November 13th, after experiencing a siege that began on September 6th.
Sakarya was later captured on January 6th, followed by Kocaeli on January 9th. Sile was captured on January 13th and later Umraniye on January 17th. Now at the doorstep at Constantinople, Mikhail waited patiently for everyone else to come to attack COnstantinople on April.
Greek War of Independence
After the Peloponnese Uprising, it step the whole stage for war. By May, most of the region was under great unrest. French general Nicolas Oudinot, Russian general Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, and Italian general Eugene de Beauharnais all volunteered to train the Greek rebel rabble army. On May 3rd, Alexander Ypsilantis was proclaimed the leader of the rebellion. On May 7th, the Peloponnesse region was proclaimed independent after Ottoman authorities fled the country. War has just begun, and there was no stopping this fact.
Pamphlets have been secretly been smuggled into Ottoman Greece, where they reached important cities such as Athens, Thessaloniki, and Patras. Greece declared war on May 21st by capturing Lamia, causing a chain reaction of uprisings and Ottoman counter invasions. On June 3rd, Athens was sieged, with lasted for many months. In northern Greece, revolts in Patras, Larissa, Volos, and Chalcis during June and July disrupted the Ottoman military. On September 11th, the city fell.
From Lamia, Larissa was sisged on September 2nd and fell on Novemeber 6th. That same time, a coalition of French, Spanish, and Italian navies requested by Nicolas arrived at the Ionian Islands. Corfu fell on September 19th along with Ithaca on September 22nd, Kefalonia on September 23rd, Lefkada on September 26th, Zakynthos on September 29th. Eventually, this was used as a base for French and Italian troops to support the Greeks in subduing the Ottomans in the region.
Piraues was later captured by the Greeks on September 20th. Meanwhile, Livadeia was captured on September 15th, followed by Chalcis on September 18th, Karpenisi on September 21st, and Amfissa on September 25th. however, this greatly drained the manpower of the Greek rebel fighting force, causing a increasing reliability of the French empire to provide men and supplies.Crete was the next target of the French navy. On October 4th, the fleet landed at Chania, staging an invasion of Crete. On October 9th, a combined French-Greek force captured Rethymno with the help of the French navy. By the time Lasithi was captured on October 14th, Crete was now considered Greek. Suffering many defeats, the Ottoman navy was restricted to the Aegan Sea. After a defeat at Ermoupoli on October 22nd, the Ottoman navy quickly retreated north. However, when Mytilene fell on october 24th, all Ottoman influence in the Aegan was obliterated.
On October 7th, Missolonghi fell to Franco-Greek forces, followed by Pyrgos on October 13th, Arta on October 28th, Ioannina on November 8th, Preveza on November 11th, and Igoumenitsa on November 16th. Despite a defeat at Karditsa on November 21st, it fell on December 3rd, which was often a month of relief for the people living in the hot region. Other victories include Larissa on December 8th, Volos on December 15th, and Trikala on December 27th.
On January 3rd, Ottoman forces built fort Athos named after the mountain it sat one. On January 18th, 1822, Greek and French forces struck at that fort, leading to a 6 month siege that ended on July 9th, ending all Ottoman control over Greece.
The Treaty of Athens was signed on July 17th, which recognized Greek independence and its already conquered territories.
Treaty of ConstantinopleAfter Constantinople fell on May 21st, 1823, the Ottomans were forced to sue for peace as the French and Russians surrounded the Topkapi Palace. On 12:14 PM, Sultan Mahmud II met with Pyotr and Mikhail of Russia, Michel, Jacques, and Louis of France, where they signed the Treaty of Constantinople in theTopkapi Palace. Due to their victory in the war, the Coalition were the main controllers of the negotiation table. The terms were:
- France receives all of Ottoman Africa
- Russia receives Ottoman Armenia and Kurdistan
- Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Romania, and Albania gain independence
- Greece is gained independence, composing of Peloponnese, Eprius, Thessalay, Central Greece, Ionia (the Aegan Region of OTL Turkey), Thrace, and the Straits Region
- Tukrey will pay 50 billion francs and 50 billion rubles to France and Russia
The War left a lasting legacy in the Balkans. To the peoples there, it was a time of joy and celebration, who were finally able to achieve independence after centuries of harsh Muslim rule. Many pro-Turks and Muslims were harshly constantly persecuted by their Christian neighbors, which often went unchecked by their pro-Christian governments. This caused ethnic cleansing across the region, forcing thousands to flee to Turkey as a safe haven.
The annexation of Ottoman Africa by the French was seen as a major achievement for the empire. Now controlling the North African coast, France has a significant influence in the Mediterranean. Egypt provided France with cereal crops and cotton. Eventually, it will also be the site of the fabled Suez Canal.
Russia, in the meantime, rejoiced the fall of Ottoman power in Europe. With one of their greatest enemies now at its knees, there is no threat for Russian access to warm waters of Europe. Thanks to the newly modernized military, Russia was now cathcing up with the rest of Europe, no longer seen as a backwards nation.
Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire was greatly devastated by the war. Despite the people demanding him to do so, Mahmud II refused to abdicate the throne. he allowed Muslim refugees from the Caucasus and the Balkans into the empire, feeling remorse for them. However, the need of change was greatly needed. Many people blamed the Jannisaries for their defeat in the war. On October 4th, the Jannisaries were eliminated, ending their position in the government forever. On November 9th, they briefly revolted against Selim until they were put out. Meanwhile, Ankara served as the new capital of the country now that Constantinople has switched hands.
However, there were still issues that needed to be faced. In France and Russia, Christians called for their respective countries to seize the Holy Land to gain revenge for the Muslim victory in the Crusades. Alexander, suspicious that the Strait of Dardenelles might be shut off, demanded full control of the Straits region. Napoleon, also suspicious (who feared growing Russian power) refused to do so, handing the power to Greece instead. This led to tensions that led to the First International War.
French Imperialism During the 1820's-1830's
From the 1820's to the 1830's, France was experiencing a boom in colonial expansion. Wihtout foreign competition or rivalry, France was free to conquer anywhere they wanted. On 1821, the Ducth East Indies, once just a small "autonomous" colony after the Napoleonic Wars, were now incorporated as a full colony. Although a small minority amongst the natives, the ducth resented the French greatly for ruling over their homeland, and escaped French dominance by migrating to Borneo, where the French won't even bother them. Although this did deprive the colonies of businessmen and managers, the fench were able to make it up by sending their own. To enforce greater control, they encouraged French people and people from their American colonies to move to the islands.
On 1824, the French established a base on the island of Singapore, which was a pit stop for all ships passing through the Straits of Malacca. That same year, Madagascar was established as a colony. Because slavery was outlawed, plantations used hired labor to keep everything running. As a result, the country prospered due to the growth of cash crops, which were often used in numerous French industries.
The Suez Canal
In 1827, since the conquest of North Africa, Napoleon ordered the construction of one of the world's most magnificent engineering marvels to date: the Suez Canal. It aimed to cut the time cost to travel from Europe to Asia, so that French ships do not have to go through British territorial waters. The canal was actually inspired by an ancient one discovered by him in 1798. While it didn't cut through the Suez Peninsula, it was the closest anyone every did to the proposed canal. The project took ten years and at least 100,000 workers dug the canal. Due to extreme conditions, thousands die due to dehydration and heat exhaustion.
Although many speculated for the project to break down, by 1827, the ribbon was cut for the Suez Canal, which broke all odds during the construction. many boats were able to taste their first sites of the canal.
The canal was open to public, yet the France's enemies, espeically the British, were not permitted to use the canal. Because the canal also allowed easy access to India, South Africa had increased importance to the British.
Violence in the Balkans (1824-1838)
When the Ottomans were kicked out of Europe, they left behind thousands of Muslims. What things very bad was the fact Balkanians hated Muslims for their oppression during Ottoman rule. Once the "superior" masters of the region, they are now shrounded in fear from the people.
Anti-Muslim riots across the region are not uncommon, as cities such as Belgrade, Sofia, Athens, and Constantinople. The police took no care of this other than preventing it from spreading to other communities.
Often during riots, Qur'ans were burned, mosques were damaged, but worst of all, Muslim women were constantly raped. This caused thousands of Turks and Muslims to flee to Turkey, which served as a safe haven for them. While this could give a good excuse for war, the Ottomans were not capable of doing so after their crushing defeat.
No international aid or charities were set up to help them. In fact, stereotypes against Muslims were commonplace throughout Europe. Many Europeans believed Christianity was the superior religion and called for the destruction of Islam and even the "liberation" of the Holy Land from the "demons". Even their respective governments also outlawed the region. From the very start, Serbia, Greece, Macedonia, and Bulgaria outlawed Islam and anything related to it. Militaries were allowed to kill Muslims without regret. And people could steal what Muslims possessed.
1827 was the worst year of Muslim persecution. By that year, 85% of all Balkanian Muslims either fled or died. Only Albania avoided the mayhem, yet it also persecuted Christians as retaliation for the situation in the other Balkan countries. In Bosnia, anarchy was only the begining. Muslims retaliated by forming militias to resist persecution.
Bosnian Anarchy (1828-1838)
By 1828, three factions: the Bosniak Muslims, and Croat Catholics, and the Orthodox Serbs pited amongst one another. The new government that struggled to preserve order immediately feel apart. On February 15th, a bomb planted in the parliament building by Bosniak terrorists destroys the government, ending all traces of law and order. On March 4th, the three factions rioted in the capital of Sarajevo. The police nor the miltiary was there to help. Anarchy has begun.There were three militant groups formed in the region. They include the Serbian Christian Army, the Bosniak Allah's Crusaders, and the Croat Catholic Legions. Of all the three factions, the Serbs had the better advantage. Many rebel leaders who played a role in the First Turkish War began to split and align with their respective factions. Sarajevo, like the country, has been split by these three factions.
Starvation and disease were very common in the area. By the end of the anarchy, one million people were dead. Groups of militia and bandits raided the countryside to steal anything they needed. Villages of the same religion often banded together to be self-sustainable, and if possible, support their respective sides.
The Serbian Christian Army was the largest faction in the war, and apparently was responisble for the Anarchy's greatest destruction. Following the plan of ethnic cleansing, they were responible for the murder of thousands of Muslims and Catholics who did not join their Orthodox religion. Human trafficking was very common, as women and children became slaves or were sometimes killed for military or leisure purposes.
1834 was the worst year during the Anarchy. At least five million people died in the period. This was due to harsh weather conditions, famine, hunger, disease, genocide, and warfare. At that time, the Muslims were the worst victims of this nightmare, as 80% were either killed or forced to convert to Christianity.
The Bosnian Anarchy would soon lead to even another level of violence. One that would repeat history all over again. And it is coming from the Balkanians' formers masters: the Ottomans.
Second Turkish War (1830-1831)
Persecution of Balkanian Muslims and the Bosnian AnarchySince the independence of the Balkanian states, the people felt a deep hatred for Muslims, who oppressed them ever since they came under their rule. Due to the suffering, many of them were forced to flee from their Christian brethren and take refugee in the Ottoman Empire. During the Bosnian Anarchy, the Ottomans secretly shipped supplies and weapons to the Bosniak Muslims, causing a further hatred on Muslims by Christians.
Lucien Bonaparte, who was at that time Napoleon's prime minister, was angered by the events who feared Ottoman influence in the region and on September 7th, 1828, called for war. He made a list of war goals for Napoleon, which were:
- Protection of the newly independent Balkanian states
- Seizure of the Holy Land
- End Ottoman involvement in Bosnia
- Restore order in Bosnia
Napoleon later met with Constantine I on December 15th, 1829, who discussed the war goals. After a while, Constantine agreed to go to war against the Ottomans. On March 1st, 1830, war has begun when the Ottomans first struck.
Pope Pius XIII's Florence Address
On 1829, April 23rd, Pope Pius XIII made a speech in Florence. In the speech, he praised France and Russia for wrecking the strength of the Ottomans during the First Turkish War. In the speech, he made referrences to the Crusades, the Fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Siege of Vienna, and the Barbary Pirates, infamous for their raids on the Mediteranean and seizing Christians as slaves.
"Our brothers have constantly fell victim to the demons of Mecca. We knew how much they feel to suffer under their tyranny and wrath. But thanks to the recent war against them (the Ottomans), we gained relief and revenge for what they did. It is our duty to take back (the Holy Land) what was ours and finished them off once and for all! Amen."
Lucien praised the Pope on May 6th, praising him for "loyalty and patirotism for our God". His speech was then used as one of the few excuses to go to war against the Ottomans.
Course of the War
On May 1st, Ottoman troops landed in Herceg Novi, Montenegro to "save" the Balkanian Muslims. Because of the unrest in the region, the Ottomans had no trouble capturing the port. Later, on May 6th, Danilovgrad was later captured by Ottoman forces. Alarmed by their actions, Greece and Serbia stepped in to drive them out. On May 15th, the Ottomans were decively defeated at Andrijevica. On May 17th, however, Ottoman troops managed to cross into Bosnia and managed to seize Visegrad. Because the country descended into anarchy, the Ottomans expected little trouble.However, the Serbs and Croats were later forced to ally with each other as the Ottomans were coming in. On May 23rd, the French arrived to assist them. On June 3rd, the Ottomans were forced out of Pale while attempting to siege it. On June 8th, the Coalition forced the Ottomans out of Visegrad.
With Montenegro under Ottoman control, the Coalition began to work to take it back. On June 16th, Coalition forces captured Danilovgrad, followed by Podgorcia on June 24th and Cetinje on July 2nd.
The crushing defeat of the Ottoman forces caused a drainage in their manpower. To make matters worse for them, their overstretched supply routes were constantly harassed by the French and Greek navies.
Ottoman occupation of Montenegro split into the north and the southern thirds. Zablijak was captured on July 7th, while Pljevlja was captured on July 15th, followed by Bijelo Polje on July 23rd, and Plav on August 6th. At the southern region, Kotor was captured on July 8th, followed by Thlvat on July 9th, Hercegnovi on July 14th, and Bar on August 1st.
Anatolian TheaterOn May 4th, an Ottoman army managed to siege Constantinople for several months with their hugest army they have thrown at. The battle took place at both land at sea. At the sea, however, the more modern more efficient Coalition navy manage to crush the outdated Turkish one. On July 19th, the city repulsed the Turkish invaders. Greece, willing for revenge, begins to chase the Turks to the Marmara Region. Due to the crushing defeat, the Turks are forced to revert to the defensive.
On August 28th, Izmit was captured by Greek troops, while a sea invasion from Greece captured Yalova on September 1st. When forces from the two locations met on September 4th, they headed to Nilufer, where it was captured on September 11th. Bursa was later followed on September 13th and soon Osmangazi on September 15th. Edremit was captured on September 18th, followed by Havran on September 22nd, Susurluk on September 26th and Dursunbey on October 2nd.
With the Marmara region of Anatolia under Greek control, the Coalition planned to capture the country's new capital at Ankara to eliminate their war effort. On October 10th, Eskisehir was captured. Later, on October 15th, Ankara was under siege until December 7th. During the siege, the Ottoman government secretly fled to Damascus to operate. Many of the Ottomans fought bravely to defend their city. Because of this, they were given the nickname, the Erkeler Yigitlik, Men of Honor in Turkic. Later, on January 10th, the Ottomans sued for peace.
On May 17th, the Russians led by Alexander Prozorpvsky and the Ottomans fought at Nineveh on their way to Baghdad, their main aim of the war. The battle raged on for several days until May 23rd. After the battle, the Russians excavated this ancient city in curiosity, discovering the ancient civilization of the Assyrians from May 23rd to July 2nd. Alexander would eventually publish his book, Потерянный город, which in English means, The Lost City.
Because of the lack of troops in the region (since many had to be diverted towards Anatolia to defend themselves from the Coalition), Mesopotamia became an easy target for the Russians. On June 13th, the Russians managed to capture Mosul with little trouble. This was followed by a string of victories from Kirkuk on June 17th, Tikrit on June 29th, and Baqubah on August 5th.
Baghdad was sieged from August 8th to October 14th. It was so far the Ottoman's only great stronghold in the region. When it fell, the military resistence in Mesopotamia collapsed. Until the end of the war, the Russians occupied the whole region, only having to deal with insurgents from the desert.
Aden was the first battle on the Yemen Theater of the war. From May 13th to June 5th, the French navy ravaged the city's harbor. However, constant troops from other parts of the empire delayed a land invasion. but as the Turks were losing battles at Europe, many had to be diverted. As a result, the French seized the advantage and captured the city on the June 6th.
With Yemen captured, the French aimed to conquer the region and possible march to the Islamic Holy Cities if they can. Lahij was captured on June 9th, followed by Ta'izz on June 14th, Ibb on June 15th, Al Hudaydah on June 18th, Al Mahwit on June 20th, Sana'a on June 21st, 'Amran on June 24th, Hajjah on June 28th, and Saada on July 1st. The army then marched through the mountains, countering resistence from Arab guerrillas. Jizan was captured on July 7th, 'Asir was captured on July 15th, and Al Bahah on July 21st.
The French generals then aimed to conquer Mecca then Medina to score a blow for the Ottomans. Unfortunately, some of the troops were Muslims. According to one story, a soldier spyed on the generals and realized their war plans. He then introduced it to his fellow soldiers before escaping to the desert. His identity remains unknown to this day.
Nevertheless, outrage was spurred from the soldiers, who began to mutiny against their generals. This led to unrest throughout the army for several months. At that time, they attempted to remove Yemen of all French control to ensure victory. However, the rebels did have a strong leader, causing them to have a disadvantage in the mutiny. eventually, the French generals decisevly crushed the mutiny on December 5th, but to prevent further mutinies, they canceled the siege of Mecca.
Treaty of Athens
At Damascus, the government-in-exile had lost all hope in winning the war and by January 10th, they sued for peace. Soon, the Coalition and the Ottomans met at Athens, where the Treaty of Athens was signed. The terms were:
- Turkey must give Yemen to France and Mesopotamia to Russia
- Turkey is forced to pay Russia and France 100 million francs and 100 million rubles
- The Marmara Region of Anatolia is given to Greece
- Turkey is forced to never intervene into events into the Balkan countries ever again, while the nations are to never again persecute Muslims
The Ottoman Empire, known to the world as the "sick man of Europe" was greatly shattered once again during the war. Once again, the war proved the superiority of European civilization throughout the whole world. Suffering many economic problems, the British and the Ottomans made a secret agreement 10 days after the Treaty of Athens, which sent aid to the Ottomans to recover from their devastation.
At the Balkans, it once again showed their patriotism towards the rest of the world. However, Montenegro and some sourrounding areas suffered heavy damage from the war. The refrain of Muslim persecution also ended some of the violence of the region. France, in the meantime, sent troops to the region to end the anarchy and eventually establish order.
For the Russians, it once again displayed its power towards the whole world. The acquisition of Mesopotamia finally allowed access to the Indian Ocean, increasing Russian influence in the Middle East. Alexander I once commetted, "This war is a monumental achievement to western civilization, one that shows we are unstoppable".
Conflicts with the Catholic Church Under Napoleon II
Despite Pius's Florence Address which made him popular across France, the Catholic Church and Napoleon had numerous conflicts among many domestic policies, including church influence in the government, industrialization, modernization, and the growing social ecularization.The Roman Catholic Church greatly condemned the French Revolution as an attack on the churcg. Fearing that they may be th next target of the Revolution's influence, they declared war on France in 1796. However, they were defeated, forcing Pope Pouis XI to sue for peace.
Since the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the church has been under the scrutiny of the French government, mostly Napoleon. Pope Pius XI has been imprisoned in 1796 for his refusal to recognize the Roman Republic and Pope Pius XII was also imprisoned for excommunicating Napoleon on 1808. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon focused on industrialization and the growth of the French economy.However, because Napoleon's policies were often liberal and secular, it greatly reduced the influence of the Catholic Church. In 1815, Pope Leo XII, who becae pope after
Pius' arrest, condemned Napoleon for weakening the power of the church. Like the last pope, he was arrested.After Pope Pius XIII became pope, Napoleon forced him to remain silent on secular domestic affairs and not condemn them. For fear of arrest, he never spoke against Napoleon.
On July 17th, 1837, Prime Minister Lucien enacts the Church Authority Act, which eliminates the Catholic Church's power in the government and held most of its "extra" land on sale. Angered, Pius excommunicated him, but he later send troops to surround the Vatican and arrest the pope. This act was highly controversial, as many objected it could have done some seroius damage to the Vatican's buildings.
Other moves made were the banning of the Jesuits on August 3rd followed by the end and prohibition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (which banned certain books) and the Inquisition on August 14th. The church greatly opposed these moves as an attack of their power, but the ability for the government to remove corrupt church officials from power kept them silent.
Death of Napoleon (1838)
On September 19th, 1830, Napoleon was diagnosed wtih autopsy. News of his illness greatly spread throughout France, with concerns of who would rule the empire once he has died or if he may live or not. On June 14th, 1835, Napoleon announced that Napoleon II would succeed him on the throne. Despite doctors' best efforts, his health was failing to the point that Prime Minister Lucien Bonaparte had to take his place.
On February 2nd, 1838, Napoleon was diagnosed with stomach cancer and died peacefully. Amongst those who witnessed his death was his son and successor Napoleon II, famed French diplomat Talleyrand, and prime minister Lafayette. His last words were "I have seen so much in my life. My son... carry out what I have achieved. Try to do even greater than what I did. I am counting on you to bring this nation to glory. Do it son. Do it for your country."
News of Napoleon's death caused great mourning amongst the people of France. On March 10th, Napoleon II held a massive funeral for the "Father of Modern France", attended by millions of Frenchmen who came to pay their respect. Other people, including James Monroe, James Madison, John Clay, and John Calhoun of the United States, Constantine I of Russia, Simon Bolivar, and Jose de Martin all came to visit.Napoleon II gave a long speech, showing the dedication of Napoleon to his country and how he will carry on and outdo his successes. One of his famous words were:
"He never cared what his enemies (referring to the British) thought of him. He can do anything and nothing was impossible for such man!"
After his speech, he was soon crowned emperor of France by Prime Minister Lafayette. After his coronation, he made another, though shorter, speech to the people, promising to carry on and possible outdo his father's achievements. After this, he was greeted with joy by his loyal subjects.
In Britain, however, things were much different. Joyful crowds burned French flags and dummies of Napoleon. They often showed insults and profanities against France, French culture, and Napoleon. King Goerge III announced that he praised Napoleon's death as a "great relief" and promised to destroy everything he has achieved.
Industrial Revolution (1816-1890)In 1816, in Bonn, located in the Rhine region, French industrialist Jean-Baptiste Say was visiting one of his many factories amongst the Rhine River. Like most factories they were running on hydropower. At this era, France was undergoing radical economic change. Canals were being dug, roads were being laid, factories were being placed, mines were being dug, and businesses popped up like mushrooms. France's industrial process would not have been that way without the inspiration from Britain, who apparently was the first "industrialized" nation. From the steam engine to steam power to steel, France borrowed all of that from Britain. Britain's suffering blow in the War of 1812 jammed its industrial might. Also, many of its long-kepy secrets were passed to France. Jean knew that if the Rhine did not flow fast enough, it would be frustrating for the factories, as they wouldn't run at a fast pace. He looked for possible answers in the best libraries in France, where he picked the best books relating to industry (obviously from Britain). Jean soon stumbled on designs for machines that run on coal. These were the very same designs Britain used for their factories (although not very widespread). Inspired, Jean kept the designs a secret and implemented them in his factories. His actions contributed to the rise of the Industrial Revolution.
This was running along during an era known as the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution brought rise to new technologies, led to a population boom, increased agricultural output, remodeled societies and cities, and reshaped and redefined the status quo of the modern world. All across Europe, farmers were migrating in herds to the factories, streets became the lifeblood of whole cities, and the sounds and smells of factories filled the air.
Throughout the whole era, France was the leader of the bongo line of industrial nations. Without the Imperial Act, the Industrial Revolution in France would have dragged through slowly. But the enviornment was filled with shipyards, roads, trains, canals, mines, and factories, allowing France to expand as easy as it can be. All factories needed raw materials for goods, so nations made every effort to exploit what they have at home and aboard. For France, they grew cash crops like cotton and indigo from their colonies and iron ore and coal from back home. It also signed trade agreements with America, in which American can receive French goods and assisstence in their American Act as long as they allowed certain raw materials into France.
Meanwhile, in order to expand their markets and gain access to others, France closed its colonies from other markets except those from France. That way, French companies can sell their goods and develop in those areas with no outside competition.
Other countries and French client states soon followed France's lead. Germany held vast reserves of coal and iron ore, allowing the iron and steel industry to develop quickly. Italy's northern region led the whole country in economic development as it held supplies of coal and iron ore. In Russia, the country's biggest tool was simply its manpower itself. With a vast, expansive populaton, they can easily recruit former serfs and farmers to feed the factories' desire for a workforce. In Britain, the industrialists simply focused on textiles (the country's traditional main source of income) and iron and steel industries. Like Germany, its sources of iron and coal were often next to each other, allowing the industry to develop. But since the recent wars it has been through, its development has been hampered through war debt. Yet its markets in Latin America help make up for their loss of influence in continental Europe.
Meanwhile, at the Western Hemisphere, Latin America and the United States, although their existence is at infancy levels, catch up to European standards in industry. Thanks to the Grandan Act (with British aid), the Latin American nations undergo a period of modernization. British industrialists aid in the construction of factories and infrastructure while foreign diplomats teach the countries the ways of government in order for the countries to remain politically stanle. In the United States, the American Act has led to a surge in the construction of infrastructure and industry. Southern cotton has fed the Northern factories, allowing the country to have one of the world's strongest textile industries.
The most noted inventions during this period included the steam engine, the spinning jenny, gas lighting, the threshing machine, the seed drill, the paper machine, the cylinder process, machine tools, Dupit's puddling process, and the cementation process.
In the metallurgy industry, Jules Dupuit was known for his contributions. He brought the steel-making methods from Britain to France, supplying France with a strong steel industry, outcompeting Britain. Like Jules, many other economists, inventors, and scholars have brought technological achievements from Britain (as a result of the Treaty of Washington D.C) and used it to benefit the French economy. Because of this, it didn't take long for France to rise up in the technological ranks.
Social EffectsIf there was anything the Industrial Revolution taught society, it was that man and the machine were a unstoppable force across the land. And that was true. The middle class displaced the farming class as the largest class in society. The need for factory workers and industrial and economical successes from businessmen in the middle class led to the rise of cities. Europe, once a land of farmers and fields, suddenly was covered in factories, bustling cities, and enormous populations. With new opprutunities in the city, many countryfolks began to move there in hopes for better pay. However, the social effects brought more problems than it solved. Because industry required fossil fuels, emissions began to cover the air. As cities brought more people than they can handle, overcrowding, poverty, and disease were not a unusual problem. And a businesses expanded, labor demands increased; thus this led to the rise of child labor, where children worked alongside their families in hagrid conditions.
Industry did indeed led to the rise of the factory. Before the factory, its closest counterparts were the mills and craftshops. As industry took power over the economy, labor was in constant demand Thus these buildings became larger to the point they were powerhouses for any product, thus took the name factory. And as workers came, the rise of the modern city was in place. The urban world would be dominate over the rural world.
But not all people embraced the economical changes. Skilled craftsmen cannot keep up with the competition that wrecked their livelihoods. In order to support their lives, many rose up against the machines. Among the famous of these
groups was the Luddites of England, led by the supposedly infamous Ned Ludd. Because of the economic threats of these riots, governments have used armed militias to crush any resistence from the anti-industrial movement. Thus, craftsmen lost the important position they held prior to the Industrial Age.
Despite the unsanitary conditions of industrial urban spaces, there was, however, great advancements in agriculture and medicine. The combination of the two allowed families to have more children than ever before. However, the negative effects were never realized until the population boom in response to the rise of the facotry. As malnutrition and unsanitation plagued the urban population, the standard of living for many cities plummeted. Once clean and fresh cities of the 17th and 18th Cneutires fell victim to the changes of time.In order to combat their problems, workers began to organize labor unions. Labor unions were groups of workers who, dissatisfied of their conditions, banded together to force changes in the government. During the late 1820's and early 1830's, trade unions became a powerful force to be reckoned with. Obviously, this did not please the industrialists, who pursuaded the governments to crack-down on them in any reliable way. However, this only strengthened the movement. Thus in 1834, Britain and France (and for her client states) were forced to enact new laws improving the standard of living for city people.
"The Beginning of the Inevitable""My dear friends (nobles), we must not ignore the forces of time that will sweep though this great country. If we do not keep up with the force, what will happen next will be the beginning of the inevitable".
(This quote above was a famous memoir from Constantine I of Russia. Why he said that will be soon discovered below.)
Russia is starting to emerge from its own dark period. Once a country so ancient compared to the rest of modern Europe, it is beginning to become one of thos countries. With serfdom abolished, the restrictions of modernization have basically crumbled. And with that allows the growth of factories, as millions of former serfs moved to the cities for a better life.
In spite of the evident changes, there are still many problems yet to solve. Although the serfs were technically "freed", their debts still tied them to the land. Since the discriminatory order of the country still remained intact, millions of people struggled through with their poverty. As former farmers and serfs moved to the cities, the agricultural output diminished, leading to rising food prices, thus leading to hunger. The Panic of 1833 did no good for the people, has some lost their jobs and had to beg for food. The ground was set for absolute catastrophe.
Alexander I of Russia has just died in 1825, allowing Constantine I to claim the throne. Other than continuing his father's work, nothing major has occured during his early reign. But in 1831, while touring the provinces, he saw how hard the people had been living lately. Alexander wrote the traumatic images of poverty, starvation, and death he encountered in his journey.
"As my stagecoach trotted along the icy roads, I looked out the window to see what was out there. My father used to tell me about Russia's countryside as a place of natural beauty. Instead, what I found was nautral cruelty. I can helplessly see the poor villages struggling through their lives. I saw that a child so young has passed away in one village. Some people huggled in blankets in another. These people do not deserve what they have and shoudl have deserved even better lives."
The Social Proclamation (6/4/1832)
Realizing the impoverished state of the country, Constantine I made an attempt to push for reform. On June 4th, 1832, he wrote the Social Proclamation. The Social Proclamation aims for reforms that would benefit the poor class, eliminate social injustices, improve living and working conditions, provide unemployement benefits, provide universal education and healthcare, and increase taxes on the rich an decrease taxes on the poor. But the Duma, which consisted of mostly nobles and businessmen, shot down the idea.
Realizing that his work needs to be put into effect, he tried it again, and again, and again. All efforts included sending
pamphlets that teach the benefits of the Social Proclamation, held meetings with reformist economists and politicians, and and even Constatnine told stories of what he experienced during his trip in 1831. But all efforts have been proved fruitless.
Then, a final effort to pursuade the Duma was the hanging of a portrait of the French Revolution, reminding the nobles that what happened there can mean the same for Russia. And although many took notice on it, it was secretly taken down by the nobles.
Despite the numerous failures on trying to get the nobility to listen to him, there were some sympathizers for reform. These people were known as the Poomoshchniki, Russian for "helpers". However, because of their willingness to giver up some of their privelages and rights, they were constantly mocked by the majority, who often made fun of them. However, no one realized that disaster is just about to strike.