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- Plague is wiped out in London leading to Parliament convening in October.
- The Houses of Parliament are blown up leaving England's fledgling democracy crippled. King James and his wife were killed in the cataclysm.
- The plotters seize Princess Elizabeth as a hostage. Prince Charles is also captured.
- Catholics are appalled at the mass murder as are Protestants.
- The English took up arms in a panic, turning upon the Catholics in their respective areas, and imprisoning or slaughtering them.
- Protestant militia and vigilantes converged on the rebels in the Midlands and overwhelmed them. The conspirators fortunately had not murdered the royal children when surrounded. Their actual conduct when brought to bay was that of a high-minded resignation to martyrdom.
- Catholic countries weakly protest but the murder of King and Parliament silence their protest.
- Prince Charles is crowned King of England, Scotland and Ireland.
During Charles's infancy a regency council stabilises the country though the Parliament and the country's nobility is broken. In fact in the process of stabilisation of England, the country is run from the much stabler Scotland. One of these stabilisation policies is to bring the three kingdoms into the Protestant Union by marrying Princess Elizabeth to Elector Frederick who became King of Bohemia in 1619.
- An 18 year old Charles takes the reigns of power himself. He goes south to England where he sweeps aside the remnants of the crippled nobility and secures himself as absolute monarch.
- The stabilisation policies of the regency council as well as Charles's devout Protestantism, make him extremely popular, in England and Scotland.
- He established a bureaucracy to run the country and generally established his Divine Right as King.
- Fredeick V becomes King of Bohemia strengthening Charles's ties to the Protestant Union.
- The King of Bohemia, husband of Elizabeth is unseated by Catholics. King Charles declares war on the Catholic Hapsburgs and joins the Protestants in the Thirty Years War.
- Bohemia rebels against the Catholic takeover and letters sent to the former King of Bohemia are captured. Lower Austria also rebels against the Catholics.
- Osman II offers his support to the Protestants.
- Poland is crushed by the Ottomans.
- Savoy is broken by the Hapsburg and an important ally falls out of the war.
A series of terrible catastrophes for the Protestants. Austria and Bohemia are pacified and a war in the Rhine rages. Frederick V goes to curry favour with other European powers. England and Scotland pledge their support and begin raising an army and the revenues to go with it. The war is immensely popular. Fortunately for the Protestants, France a strong Catholic country was taken out of the war fighting a civil war with the Huguenot Protestants. This dragged England straight into the conflict. This conflict ended abruptly when France agreed to side against Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
Denmark entered into the war on the side of the Protestants to stop the Saxon tide. France and England supported the stable Protestant northern kingdom. Unfortunately for Denmark, the English were economically weak, France was in the midst of a civil war, Sweden was at war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and neither Brandenburg nor Saxony were interested in changes to the tenuous peace in eastern Germany. This was a dark era for the Protestants. Only the port of Stralsund continued to hold out.
The excellent General Wallenstein was dismissed by the Emperor. This was his folly for the Swedish entered the war against Catholicism. He came to aid the German Lutherans, to forestall Catholic aggression against their homeland, and to obtain economic influence in the German states around the Baltic Sea. The Swedish army pushed back the Imperial army and retook the Protestant northern kingdoms. King Gustavus crushed the Catholic Leagues forces under General Tilly. Scotland who was more economically stable than their faltering cousins to the south entered the war in Germany on the side of the Swedes. By the Spring of 1635, all Swedish resistance in the south of Germany had ended. The Peace of Prague entailed a delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for 40 years and allowed Protestant rulers to retain secularized bishoprics held by them in 1627. This protected the Lutheran rulers of northeastern Germany, but not those of the south and west.
The treaty also provided for the union of the army of the Emperor and the armies of the German states into a single army of the Holy Roman Empire (although Johann Georg of Saxony and Maximillian of Bavaria kept, as a practical matter, independent command of their forces, now nominally components of the "Imperial" army). Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the Emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630.
This treaty failed to satisfy France, however, because of the renewed strength it granted the Habsburgs. France then entered the conflict, beginning the final period of the Thirty Years' War. France declared war on Spain in May. However for the early period of the war the French intervention was a military disaster with the Spanish wreaking chaos across the country. In 1636 the Spanish were pushed back to the borders of France. The Swedes crushed the Danish and the French annihilated the Bavarians. Only Austria was safe in the hands of the Hapsburgs. French General Louis II de Bourbon, 4th Prince de Condé, Duc d'Enghien, The Great Condé defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in 1643, which led to negotiations. Over a four year period, the parties were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty but instead by a group of treaties such as the Treaty of Hamburg. On 15 May 1648, the Treaty of Osnabrück was signed. Over five months later, on 24 October, the Treaty of Münster was signed, ending both the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War.
A minor extension of the Thirty Years War was Spanish aid sent to dissenting Irish Catholics. In 1649 they exploded in all out war, establishing a Catholic Confederacy of Ireland. They didn't need much encouragement what with the King being such an avowed hater of Papists. Unfortunately for the Irish, King Charles sent Oliver Cromwell a fierce Puritan general who had proved his mettle in the war with France. Irish Catholicism was broken as was the remnants of the Hapsburg greatness. Anyone implicated in the rebellion of 1649 was executed. Those who participated in Confederate Ireland had all their land confiscated and thousands were transported to the West Indies as slaves. Those Catholic landowners who had not taken part in the wars still had their land confiscated, although they were entitled to claim land in Connaught as compensation. In addition, no Catholics were allowed to live in towns. Irish soldiers who had fought in the Confederate and Royalist armies left the country in large numbers to find service in the armies of France and Spain. The practice of Catholicism was banned and bounties were offered for the capture of priests, who were executed when found. The terrible financial crisis was solved by not paying the troops and settling them in Ireland if they wanted to. If they didn't they returned home where they were granted a farm. All the costs of establishing the farm were waived by the government. Settlers were given grants to settle in Ireland.
The Great Evangelisation began as Protestants toured Ireland evangelising while being protected by disguised soldiers. If there was any protest, the soldiers were to massacre the population.
Oliver Cromwell reorganises the army at the behest of the King. The New Model Army is created. The massacres are stopped in Ireland and any found guilty of Catholicism are shipped to the French colony of New France.
The Parliament of Ireland is dissolved and is replaced by a military bureaucracy under Cromwell. The three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were now an absolute monarchy. Each kingdom represented a different aspect of Charles's absolutism. Ireland was now run by the fearsome military which commanded a political following of its own. England was run by a bureaucracy and a system that excluded the nobility for the merchant middle class. Scotland still had a Parliament but was run by a clique of nobles who were bound to the King.
King Charles I dies leaving the country without a King. Elizabeth became Queen but she was an isolationist Queen and her son, Rupert did much of the work. Prince Regent Rupert ran his mother's kingdom in a maverick fashion. He maintained each country's independence though he encourage religious integration, actively encouraging the spread of Scottish Presbyterianism. In 1662, Queen Elizabeth II died leaving the throne to Rupert.
King Rupert sat on the throne for 20 years. He renounced his titles on the continent as his attention was drawn away from fighting them back as he worked on his new inheritance. He encouraged colonialism and founded the League of British Adventurers. Science and art flourished under his reign and he ensured the military didn't act with impunity. In the 1670's he married Peg Hughes. Their daughter Ruperta was crowned Princess of Wales and made heir to the throne. He died in 1682, leaving his kingdoms to his daughter, who was crowned Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland at the age of nine.
In this period, Queen Ruperta was in her infancy, and a regency council from all three kingdoms ran the nation. Unfortunately in 1690, she was assassinated by a Catholic. This left Princess Louise Marie of the Palatinate and Princess Sophia of Hanover. The regency council selected Sophia because she did not have Catholic sympathies.
Queen Sophia invested the countries wealth in banks and companies which reversed the downward spiral that the economy had been suffering since the reign of Charles. She reigned for twenty four years in which the three kingdoms increased in wealth and power. However only the first nine will be touched upon here. Sophia commissioned the creation of a variety of colonies in the New World.