The Intolerable Acts
In response to the Boston Tea Party of 1773, Britain decided to lay down the law, and passed four acts against the colonists of Massachusetts. The first act was the Boston Port Act, which closed the ports of Boston until the East India Company had been repaid and the king was satisfied with the repayment. The second was the Massachusetts Government Act, which ended self government in Massachusetts and all government officials had to be appointed by the king. The ruler of Massachusetts was now General Thomas Gates. The third was the Administration of Justice Act, which allowed the trials of accused officials to be moved to Great Britain. The fourth was the Quartering Act, which allowed governors to house soldiers if other buildings were not available.
This created a spark of outrage in the American colonies, and masses of protestors gathered in cities declaring "no taxation without representation" which became a slogan for angry colonists. This worried King George the III, who decided not to pass the Quebec Act of 1774. The act would have expanded the borders of Quebec into Ohio Country and promote the Roman Catholic faith in preference of the widely-held Protestant beliefs. When the act was not passed several American colonies were pleased, while French colonists in Quebec were angry with the British government.
Finally, in 1755, the Representation Act of 1775 was made, and representation was given to the American colonies in the British Parliament. While a major part of the colonists' anger was gone, revolution was still inevitable.
First American Revolt
In April of 1775, General Gates sent out British regulars to seize munitions stored in Concord, Massachusetts. Colonial militia successfully defeated the British at Concord, forcing them to undergo a bloody retreat back to Boston. The militia then surrounded the city, though neither side was stronger to overtake the other. George Washington, who was now the commander of the Continental Army, went to help the militia. Eventually, the arrival of cannons from the captured Fort Ticonderoga tipped the balance towards the colonists. The placement of the cannons on Dorchester Heights forced the British, now under General Howe, to retreat out of the Boston Harbor to Halifax. Washington then went to New York to protect it from a possible British invasion.
Hoping to stall Washington's advance, Governor William Tryon of New York set out to Connecticut. Tryon's force set up defenses at Ridgefield, and prevented Washington's force for advancing for a week. Colonial forces under Daniel Wooster and Benedict Arnold flanked the British and attacked them from behind, forcing a British retreat. The battle had cost Washington several lives, and time to prepare defenses.
At New York the defenses were only a quarter complete, due to only having a little amount of men and Loyalist attacks. The defenses were no where complete when the British attacked. Using the unprotected Jamaica Pass, Howe's soldiers flanked Washington and forced them back to the river. Howe ordered his troops on, due to being shot in the leg. Washington's force was crushed, as was most of the rebellion.
The only rebels remaining were those belonging to Generals Arnold and Wooster in Rhode Island. Arnold, knowing the situation was hopeless, defected to the British and gave them vital information. Wooster's force was crushed at Providence, and the rebellion had ended.
Meanwhile in Quebec, many French-speaking colonists became angry over the suppression of their language and religion, and a rebellion was organized. However, this failed to garner much support, because Quebec had a large English population and they were comfortable under English rule. Even so, about 500 men were recruited into rebellion, led by Jame Livingston. During the Siege of Boston, Livingston's unit captured Fort Chambly, which gave them a supply of munitions and arms. This raised alarms, and British commander Guy Carleton fortified Fort Saint-Jean which protected Montreal.
Livingston's force, now nearly 600, attacked Saint-Jean. Carleton's force was too strong, and a diversion led by Richard Livingston had failed to work. The force was decimated to 150, and forced to retreat to Fort Chambly, where they were defeated again. The rebels escaped to Sorel-Tracy, where they met a second British Army under Lt. Colonel Allan Maclean. Richard Livingston was killed, and James Livingston was captured along with 40 other men. The men were executed for treason and the rebellion was wiped out.
The New North AmericaFollowing the American defeat the British knew they had to make sure the American colonies would never rebel again. In 1777 the United Colonies of America were created, with the capital at New York. The UCA were granted several was given representation in the congress and each colony was allowed self-governorship. However, certain restrictions were placed on the colonies. All were under the control of the Governor-General, who was appointed by Parliament who could make new laws and raise taxes. The British Army maintained a permanent presence in each colony, as well as the Royal Navy in important harbors. The UCA was made up of the 13 American colonies as well as a smaller Quebec, which had given up most of its territories. The new colonies formed were Nova Scotia and Lower Canada, which both had major English populations.
The French War
In Europe, the French War was shaking up the continent. On February 3, France declared war on Great Britain and her colonies. As a result Britain ended trade with France. American shipping ended as well, with ships now being diverted the Britain's allies. The French fleet began to attack American trade ships, with about 300 ships being seized or destroyed during 1974. Britain began to protect the ships with convoys, however they did not have enough ships to protect all shipping and fight France at the same time. On April 1, 1775 the Navy Act was created, which allowed the United Colonies of America to construct and man their own ships. Later that year the first three ships of the line were produced, which consisted of the UCAN Boston, the UCAN Parliament (later renamed the USS Independence), and the UCAN New York. Soon ten more ships of the line were created, along with 20 two-deckers armed with 50 guns.
The UCA Navy began to protect its shipping from the French, and proved to be successful. Britain, seeing the navy's success, sent it to fight in other places. Several battles took place off the Barbary Coast, ending the rampant piracy there that had been in place under Ottoman rule. Continuing onward, UCA continued to fought with the French Navy across the Mediterranean, and helped the British defeat the French at the Battle of the Nile. The power of the UCA Navy worried Britain, because besides being ordered by the Governor-General they mainly operated independently. In 1800 Britain seized control of the UCA Navy, placing British officers in control of each ship. This angered many sailors, and this later led the Second American Revolt.
Louisiana was important to further colonizations of North American because of the port of New Orleans and the Mississippi River. Spain had controlled this territory since 1762, but had given it to France in 1800 in the Treaty of San Ildenfso. Power transferred to France in late 1803, which alarmed the British because of its closeness to America. The UCA Navy began to blockade New Orleans in 1804, but it was difficult to get through and the French later defeat the blockade. Because a blockade was impossible, a land invasion was decided upon, to be led by General Andrew Jackson. Jackson assembled 5,000 men and marched toward New Orleans, which was protected by a series of forts. The British forces managed to take each fort, and finally laid siege to the city. A week later the French commander surrendered, and New Orleans was now British. Other British attacks on forts along the Mississippi River were successful, and the Louisiana Territory was controlled by Great Britain. A colony was set up, and was given the name Louisiana.
Second American Revolt
While the British were away, major events were happening in America. In Boston of 1806, a sailor's revolt shut down the harbor, and soon things turned bloody. A mob led by John Quincy Adams stormed a local garrison and stole all the weapons and ammunition there. The local governor, William Hall Gage, attempted to put down the rebellion with the army, but the mob of people was too great and Gage was captured. The people, hoping to send a message to Britain, executed Gage and other government officials near the Old State House, the site of the earlier Boston Massacre. Continuing fighting between the people and soldiers eventually made Britain call in reinforcements from Quebec. Adams managed to take the city when the British retreated to defend other major cities.Things turned chaotic in New York. While New York City was a major loyalist city many people in the surrounding country side supported the revolution. The rebels were led by William Hull, a former soldier of the first revolt. Supplied with weapons and cannons from rebels in other colonies, Hull took control of the surrounding countryside and sent a large force to take New York City. The British firmly held the city, and had ordered their Native American allies to retake upstate New York. A new front opened in the north, and Hull managed to hold on. Fortunately, Adams sent an army under Henry Dearborn to help Hull, and they defeated the Indians at the Battle of. The Royal Navy was defeated when a UCA fleet under defecting royal navy admiral Francis Pickmore defeated them in the Long Island Sound. However, the British in the city made a last stand, and it took 70 days to completely defeat them. Hull declared the independent Republic of New York.
Winfield Scott, a young artillery commander from Virginia, made a name for himself by capturing Richmond from the British. Following this, he conquered the entire Piedmont Region of Virginia. Scott declared the new independent nation of Piedmont. The British didn't want this and sent General Isaac Brock to defeat Scott. Scott outmanuevered Brock at the Battle of Swift Creek which resulted in a quick defeat and the capture of Raleigh. Turning around, Scott and his men captured and defeated Brock at the Battle of Mathews. Piedmont then laid siege to Charlotte and captured it in a week. North Carolina was now under firm Piedmont control. Scott then turned to the west to defeat the British in Kentucky, where he smashed a small British army at the Battle of Clarksville (OTL Louisville). Kentucky was captured. With the west, east, and south secure, Scott turned to the north.
North America at War
However, the friendship between the new independent Republic of New England and New York came to an end. Disputes over control of Vermont led to Hull declaring war on New England in 1807. The dissolution of the Green Mountain Boys meant Vermont was mostly undefended, and New York moved in unopposed. New England quickly mobilized and sent an army under Henry Dearborn. Hull defeated Dearborn at the Battles of Bennington and Burlington, handing New England hundreds of casualties. However, continuing British attacks from upstate New York forced Hull to withdraw to defend it. Dearborn led an offensive campaign and took the British fort of Saratoga. Using the captured cannons there, Dearborn attacked Hull from the rear and defeated and killed him in Plattsburgh. With Hull gone and the British and New England threatening it, New York signed a peace treaty with New England, ending the war.
However, war continued for New England. The British began to blockade of New England ports and had invaded Maine. General Daniel Shays was assigned to Maine, however his army was defeated in several battles and force to retreat. Even worse, Maine declared its independence from New England and was promised by the British to be given special rights and benefits. Several colonists rose up against Shay, and his army was forced to retreat from Maine. Dearborn soon arrived and defeated the British at the Battle of Bath, but they could not capitalize on their gain. Admiral Francis Pickmore was killed, and his ship, the NES Constitution, was destroyed during the Battle of Halifax, asserting the dominance of the British in New England waters.
The one thing that kept New England alive was the Napoleonic Wars. The British had planned on sending more troops to the conflict, but the continuing War of the Fourth Coalition and the new Peninsular War prevented them from doing so. This break in the conflict was used by New England to rebuild and repair, and in the spring of 1808 Henry Dearborn led a campaign into Maine. He defeat the British in the Battle of Alfred, and campaigned into much of Maine. After capturing Bangor and Augusta, Dearborn offered an armistice, but the British turned it down. Dearborn then liberated Arroostook County, and after getting new supplies, invaded Nova Scotia.Dearborn was hoping for support from the Quebec rebels, however the British under John Coape Sherbrooke rallied his troops and successfully defended Nova Scotia in the Battle of Dartmouth, which stalled the New England advance. Winter soon set in, and the New Englands were undersupplied and unready for the cold. With no new supplies, Dearborn led a retreat back to Maine, facing numerous British attacks on the way back. Dearborn returned with only 1/3 of his troops. The British had faced horrible casualties as well, and most troops were tired of the three year conflict. In the Treaty of Halifax, all rebellious American nations were granting independence, finally ending the Second American Revolt.
The Era of Good FeelingsIn North America and Europe, the Era of Good Feelings begun because of the recent military triumphs over Great Britain and France, respectively.
Piedmont came out as the strongest power in North America, led by its great general Winfield Scott. Scott was originally going to be offered to be President of Piedmont, however most citizens feared a man popular in the military and in charge of the government could lead to a dictatorship, so the presidency went to James Madison. Madison put the Virginia Plan in action, creating a bicameral legislative branch. The president supported a strong national government and a strong military, which resulted in the created of the new Army of Piedmont. Madison wanted to improve his nation's economy and infrastructure, began to rebuild destroyed areas. The first railroad lines outside of Europe appeared in Piedmont, connecting Virginia Beach to Richmond. Harbors and other ports, schools, mines, and barracks. A series of forts were constructed in the southern border to protect Piedmont from possible British attacks. Madison also made sure that all returning veterans were promised money until they could find some; this prevented possible rebellions and ensured the success of the Republican Party in the next election.
Madison knew that a war with the British could be very soon, and went out to create an alliance. He offered the Republic of Pennsylvania an alliance, which Pennsylvania, quickly agreed to, hoping to crush Michigan in the Toledo War. Scott was sent, and the Michigan Army was crushed at the Battle of Toledo, giving victory to Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania and Piedmont solidified its alliance following the war, giving Piedmont an edge over New York and New England. This new alliance made the two former enemies think, and decided to create the Northern Alliance. Madison's last great legacy was limited his presidency to two terms of four years, which Piedmont presidents still follow today. John Randolph of the Republican Party won, and continued Madison's policies.
Uprising in Latin America
In Latin America, tensions were brewing. Following the First and Second American Revolts along with the French Revolution, revolutionary fervour took Latin America by storm. Earlier rebellions took place in the French colony of Haiti, however they were crushed by the local French navy and army in New Orleans. Following the Congress of Vienna, Haiti was given to Great Britain, and another revolt occurred. The British put this one down as well, and took strict control over the colony. Many leaders escaped to Latin America, where they continued to spread revolutionary ideas. Tensions between Criollos, lower class and natives and the upper-class Peninsulars boiled, and during the 1820s severe rebellions broke out, led by Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. The revolution was a back-and-forth affair, however, Bolivar's campaign to liberate northern South America was a success, and with a new base of operations, his new campaigns in the southern part of the continent were a success. During the Battle of Ayacucho, Bolivar's army defeated a Spaniard army in Peru, winning the war for the revolutionaries.In Mexico, the situation was very different. A short-lived Mexican Republic was declared, but the Spanish defeated the army in several battles and executed its leader, Jose Maria Morelos. The remaining rebels were forced into hiding, and waged a guerrilla war against Spanish rule until 1821, where the groups were organized under Augustin de Iturbide. Iturbide created the Mexican Empire with him at its head. This angered General Antonio de Santa Anna, and in 1822 he led a march on the emperor's palace in Mexico City. Iturbide orders his army against the rebels, and the first Battle of Mexico City began. The rebels and the government continued to fight, and soon a stalemate occurred with Iturbide controlling the cities and the rebels controlling the countryside. Britain took this opportunity to take over all Mexican land above the Rio Grande. When the Baja Peninsula was taken in 1825, both Mexican groups declared war on Britain. British troops swiftly took the country in an 8 month campaign and disposed of Iturbide, creating the colony of Mexico. Arthur Wellesley was placed in charge of Mexico, where he continued to put down revolts. Knowing something needed to be done, Wellesley repaired the colony's infrastructure, while fixing the school system. Mexico was transformed into a colonial powerhouse.
The Toledo War
Michigan was still angry over the loss of Toledo, and its small army had already been destroyed in the Battle of Toledo. Britain, hoping to regain the lost agriculture powerhouse of Pennsylvania, offered support to Michigan in exchange for some territory in Pennsylvania. Michigan's president Lewis Cass agreed, and in 1827 the Toledo War entered a new, deadlier stage. The first attacks took the Pennsylvanians by storm, and several forts were captured until the city of Toledo itself was taken. Michigan's military was replenished and restocked, and took the fight into Pennsylvania's state of Ohio.
Michigan's plan was to take the several strong communities found in Ohio, and here is where they made their mistake: The army was split into two groups, one under the command of British Officer George MacDonnell, the other under Michigan General William Woodbridge. The plan was for MacDonnel's group to take Losantville and Woodbridge's group would taken Cleveland, then link up at Campbell Fort. Both cities were taken but with many losses. The rivalry between the British and former colonists were still active, which resulted in Woodridge's group leaving a week earlier to be at the fort first.
Pennsylvanian soldiers and Piedmont reinforcements defeated Woodbridge's force at Campbell, and from interrogation learned the other group were on their way. MacDonnell arrived at the fort to be greeted with cannons and enemy rifles. MacDonnell's force were defeated as well, and Michigan lost control over their conquered territories. Pennyslvanian commander Jacob Brown retook Losantville and Cleveland, and these two battles crippled Michigan's army. Brown took Toledo back, and asked for peace. When Michigan refused, Brown invaded Michigan and destroyed Detroit in what is now known as the Burning of Detroit.
Pennsylvania, knowing it could not keep control over an area the size of Michigan, retreated back to Toledo and again asked for a Peace Treaty. Michigan agreed, and the Toledo War was over, ten months after it started.