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HRE - Luxembourg invades Fryslan, eager to annex it and not let it to fall into the Kalmar sphere. Renewed rebellion in Holland and resistance in Fryslan give Kalmar enough time to occupy strategic points and keep Frisian independence. Iceland and Vinland, freed from the burden and after-effects of the First Mexic-Leifian War, join Hordaland in holding Fryslan while the main Kalmar force heads toward Cologne. However the blocking of Anglian claims to the duchy causes disruption in Anglia.
Luxembourg - Charles III dies. His son Henry X succeeds.
Gothenland - John IV dies. Succeeded by Karl VIII.
Brandenburg - Beginning of the Brandenburg Civil War (1653-1659). Elector George I begins an attempt to curb his Catholic lords' power though has underestimated their strength.
Austria - Austrian Lutherans rebel and threaten Vienna.
Holy Roman Empire - Svealand captures Regensburg, with its walls virtually intact, to the great joy of the Lutheran population. It will use the city as its base for the next 14 years.
The Swiss Confederation declares war on Luxembourg after it sacks Selesat. The Decapole cities (except for Hagenau) vote to join the Swiss Confederation.
Algonquinland - Algonquinland buys back the land lost to Atikamekwia after the Great Northern War for the not inconsiderable sum of 40,000 VIK.
Scotland - King Carl dies. He is succeeded by James IX.
Hordaland - Christian II dies. He is succeeded by Haakon VIII.
Svealand - Gustav III dies. Carl II succeeds.
Hungary - Louis III dies. He is succeeded by his daughter Mary II.
1659Brandenburg - The Brandenburg Diet executes George I for treason, abolishing the monarchy and initiating the 'Commonwealth'.
Denmark - Christopher III dies. He is succeeded by Christopher IV.
Arles - Charles II Frederick dies. He is succeeded by Thomas I.
Denmark - Imperial forces fail in an attempt to seize Lubeck. In their retreat they devastate much of Danish Pommerania.
Brandenburg - A Kalmar army invades Brandenburg and overthrows the Commonwealth, restoring the monarchy.
HRE - Peace negotiations begin in Copenhagen. However, military operations continue in Germany and Bohemia, primarily to try and improve the various party's positions at the peace conference. Austria is very noticeable by its absence.
Álengiamark - Elin VI dies. She is succeeded by Gunndis.
HRE - Svealandic troops finally break through the Austrian lines and begin beseiging Vienna itself. A final surge by Kalmar forces prevents Bavaria from relieving them. Austria is forced to come to the negotiating table.
Wessex - Henry IV dies. Thomas II succeeds but dies while out hunting later in the year. His brother Edmund VI succeeds.
Holy Roman Empire - The Treaty of Copenhagen is signed in May. The main points were as follows:
- Those territories previously part of the Schmalkaldic League shall rejoin the Empire and declare their allegiance to the Emperor. No mention was made of the Schmalkaldic Empire, nor how much Denmark's territory was included in this.
- Those ecclesiastical lands secularised before 1600 shall remain so. Those secularised after that date shall be restored to their rightful owners. This largely meant all of the secularisations carried out by Luxembourg, the Swiss Confederation and Denmark were confirmed as legal. Many of the secularisations that occurred during the war were ignored as well, most notably Denmark's seizure and secularisation of the Archbishopric of Bremen in 1627.
- Those imperial cities, previously free, and able to defend themselves shall be returned to immediacy. Those whose walls are no longer fit for purpose shall be annexed by their neighbours as is seen fit by this committee. This caused a brief stone shortage in the empire as cities rushed to rebuild their walls to prevent being swallowed up. Around a half of all Imperial cities were dis-established and integrated into their neighbours.
- Aragon shall administer Sardinia but retreat to the West bank of the Rhine.
- All inheritance of land shall be respected. Chiefly put in to ensure Denmark's annexation of Oldenburg.
- With the exceptions of the above all states and borders of such states shall be restored to rightful rulers as of 1558. Unlawful seizure of property shall be rectified. Largely reset all the various seizures and counter-seizures of property that had occurred due to rulers converting to Protestant creeds.
- The Imperial Diet shall be restored and given power to uphold this committee's decisions. Its first decision was in fact to ensure the election of John to the Bohemian throne after the secret clauses to the Austrian-Luxembourg alliance were revealed. Cases arguing for and against the seizure of property clogged up the Diet for a century. Francis Medici was elected Emperor in 1748 precisely because he had no claims related to the war and was an impartial judge. The last property claim related to the Fifty Years War was settled in 1811, after which Emperor Joseph declared the subject closed, to much relief.
- Five new electorates shall be raised by this committee as to be decided. This was chiefly to keep Austria on side and redress the balance between Catholic and Lutheran electorates. The five new electorates were only finalised in 1676.
- Citizens of the Empire are universally free to practice whichever Christian creed they wish, and rulers have no right to compel their subjects to follow their own. This largely satisfies the ex-Schmalkaldic states and reconciles them to their former enemies. How much this applied to lands nominally part of the Empire but administered by other parties was open to debate. It did however ignore Jewish citizens and a clause protecting them and their property had to be inserted in 1672.
- The papacy shall no longer influence policy to the detriment of the Empire. While the committee respects its power in Rome it does not accept it has any temporal power in the Empire as a whole.
The treaty is accepted by all temporal powers present though Emperor Rudolph III 'takes ill' and leaves his ministers to sign. The Pope's delegates walk out of the reading of the terms and refuse to sign.
Naples - With its succession unclear Naples asks for Imperial protection to ward off Aragonese intervention. It officially joins the Empire. Martin III dies and is succeeded, as planned, by his niece Isabella II.
Anglia - John V dies. The Anglian crown reverts to Louis of Battenburg, John V's nephew.
Brandenburg - The restored autocratic monarchy under George II Frederick falls as unrest rocks several cities.
Hungary - Mary II dies. The Hungarian throne passes to her younger sister Catherine and her husband Josef I of Esterházy.
Vinland - Tired of persecution Vinland's Anabaptist population leaves. The main host travels southward hoping to settle on a Carib island. A second smaller group travels westward hoping to reach the Roasjoinn.
1673Svealand - Carl II dies. Olaf III succeeds.
Alkafuglaeyjar - The main group of Vinlandic Anabaptists reach Alkafuglaeyjar. Disease in the tropics has cut their numbers in half however.
Brandenburg - George III August of Mansfeld is given Brandenburg by occupying Kalmar troops. He maintains a Svealandic corps until his enlightened rule has time to 'bed in'.
Aragon - John VIII dies. He is succeeded by James V.
Arles - Thomas I dies. He is succeeded by his sister Marie.
Lakota - The Lakota brutally massacre the Vinlandic Anabaptists travelling through their territory after a disagreement about thefts from the camp.
Hungary - Catherine dies. By common consent amongst the nobles her husband Josef I of Esterházy assumes full kingship.
Lakota - To avenge various incidents perpetrated on traders and the Anabaptists in northern Lakota-run territory Vinland declares war on the Lakota.
Scotland - James IX dies ending the rule of the Scottish branch of the Leijonhufvud family. His cousin James, Earl of Rothesay, is crowned as James X.
Gothenland - Karl VIII dies. He is succeeded by Karl IX.
1680Denmark - Christopher IV dies. He is succeeded by Harald V.
Holy Roman Empire - John IV of Luxembourg is reported to be on his death-bed. His successor would be the widely despised Prince Charles of Utrecht. Flanders rises in revolt once more, and afraid their liberties would be under threat the Bohemian nobles pick of Maximilian of Austria as their new king. John recovers and Luxembourg declares war on Austria as a result. There are minor engagements in the Palatinate but otherwise continuing debts cripple the ability of both armies.
Hordaland - Haakon VIII dies. Christopher I succeeds him.
1681Vinland - Greta I dies. She is succeeded by Thorey VI.
Lakota - The Lakota sue for peace, ending the First Lakota War. Nakotaland is given outright independence while Ojibwe is briefly run as a protectorate and potential Fylk of Vinland.
HRE - The threat of a Kalmar invasion of Bohemia to safeguard Protestant rights leads Austria and Luxembourg to come to a quick peace. Luxembourg concedes the loss of Bohemia is return for Austria's renunciation of various titles in Western Germany.
Bohemia - Emperor Rudolph III reaffirms the rights of Protestants in Bohemia in the 'Prague Bull' to keep his new kingdom peaceful. This triggers a wave of protest in Austria proper as they demand a similar document.
Leon - Maria dies. She is succeeded by Peter III.
Ochangaramark - Ochangarans rise up against the enforced union with Mamaceqtawia. Their separate kingdom is restored by the year's end.
Hungary - Josef I dies. He is succeeded by his son Josef II.
Arles - Queen Marie dies. She is succeeded by her son Thomas II.
Gothenland - Karl IX dies. He is succeeded by Christian I.
Kalmar Union - Accusing Wessex of funding the Catholic peasant army, and increasingly annoyed at Wessex's growing naval confidence, the Kalmar Union declares war.Anglia - Louis dies. Henry V succeeds.
Holy Roman Empire - King John of Luxembourg is elected Holy Roman Emperor.
Wessex - Edmund VI dies. Succeeded by Henry V.
Scotland - James X dies. His son Henry I is crowned.
France - Charles VII dies. He is succeeded by Charles VIII.
Svealand - Olaf III dies. Gustav IV succeeds.
1694Vinland - Thorey VI dies. She is succeeded by Thorey VII.
Naples - Isabella II dies. Her son Charles VI succeeds.
Luxembourg - Emperor John II dies. He is succeeded in Luxembourg by his son Henry XI.
Holy Roman Empire - The electors choose the Bavarian George-William as the next Holy Roman Empire.
Leon - Peter III dies. He is succeeded by Ferdinand VIII.
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