Alternate History

1500-1599 (The Kalmar Union)

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Leifia - With a few Danish ships the Vinlandic navy sets fire to Quebec and then relieves Fjallasay.

'The town was in a fearful state ... with many families half starved. We were received as heroes ...' - Captain Jansson of the Danish ship Margarethe. Álengiamark finally untangles itself from local disputes and its army marches through Kanienmark, capturing its capital and king before halting an army of Algonquins moving south. 'The ranks of Alengsk knights with their polished armour and bright banners [was] blinding to the eye. The [Algonquin] prince near surrendered on the spot without fighting.' - Penob Kennebec, Abernaki historian.

Arles - King Frederick X dies. His cousin Charles I succeeds him.


Prussia - Kalmar wipes out the Prussian navy at the Battle of Memel.

Leifia - Second Congress of Fjallasay aims to pacify Northern Leifia.

  • Hafsvaedaland is expanded up to the Ottawa river giving Vinland a land route to Fjallasay.
  • The Algonquin lands south of the Breidurras are split between Abernakriga and the Six Nations.
  • Quebec is divided between Abernakriga and Vinland.
  • Algonquinland is reduced to a rump state with Atikamekwia taking a large Western portion.
  • Kanienmark is restored as independent but the previous king (still held prisoner by Álengiamark) is removed and replaced with a more pliable relative. Many Kanien'gehuga move north to Vinland to escape the harsh regime in their homeland.


John III Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

John III, King of Bohemia, Hungary and Count of Luxembourg (1502-1536)

Luxembourg, Hungary, Bohemia and Holy Roman Empire - Sigismund II dies. His son John inherits all the Luxembourg lands and secures the Imperial election.

Anglia - France and Wessex join the ongoing War of Anglian Succession.

Eric IX lands in Anglia. A badly organised siege of London is inconclusive and embarrassing and the Anglian nobles distance themselves from it. He then takes his troops with a Manx contingent to Holland to begin a long and barely more coherent campaign there. France meanwhile takes to besieging various cities in Lorraine and Bar. The Anglian nobles begin to favour Luxembourg as the preferred claimant.

Kristjana VI (The Kalmar Union)

Kristjana VI, Queen of Vinland (1502-1523)

Vinland - Konunglegursaey is depopulated as the remaining Norse families move to the more secure fortress of Quebec, and the line of earls dies out 6 years later.

Jakobina II dies. Kristjana VI succeeds.

Álengiamark - Elin V dies. Brynhildur I succeeds.

Eastern Roasjoinn - Messengers report that the Chinese are now regularly trading with the Mexica and even the Tawantinsuyu. A small Chinese community is resident in Cuzco and the Tawantinsuyu are beginning to build an ocean going navy in the Chinese 'junk' style.


Naples - James III dies. Peter II succeeds him.


Poland - Alexander I dies. His daughter Sophia is married to Sigismund of Nassau and he is elected by the Sejm to see off any potential Piast claimants.


Christopher II Den

Christopher II, King of Greater Denmark & Anglia (1509-1535)

Denmark- Eric IX dies. His son Christopher II succeeds to a bankrupt state. He continues his claim of the Anglian throne, but due to the poor state of Kalmar finances can do little to advance it.



Kalmar Union- Christopher attempts to leverage more funds out of Svealand and Lade. Svealand rises in general rebellion though it is severely divided by various noble families all claiming superiority. Finland stays more or less loyal. Christopher considers selling Estonia to Livonia or Novgorod to pay off debts.

North Atlantic - Hordaland attempts to subjugate Iceland by blockading trade and supplies. Vinland, assuming Greenland will be next on Hordaland's list, resists and supplies the island with food and materials. Fog enables the Vinlandic navy to dodge the larger Hordaland force. Several bands of Suderfolk levies are put ashore to help the Icelanders fight the invaders. Hordaland eventually pulls out of the area after several unsuccessful attempts to capture Reykjavik. Vinland/Hordaland relations are damaged for several decades.

Álengiamark - Brynhildur I dies. Yrsa II succeeds.


Wessex - Southern Wales is finally incorporated into the Kingdom of Wessex after almost three hundred years of on and off occupation. It is hoped that by making it subject to kingly power rather than the arbitrary rule of the marcher lords it will help pacify the region.


Denmark - Ladish lords revolt, many Svealanders disaffected by their own stagnating rebellion and also Sami chiefs join their cause.

Viken rebels.


Austria - Austria is reunited after being divided between three branches of the Hapsburg family for 140 years.


Naples - Peter II dies. He is succeeded by James IV.

Lade - Using tactics adopted from Iceland and the Grey League Ladish armies outwit and defeat the under strength KU forces.


Anglia - Christopher II relinquishes claims to the Anglian throne. In an effort to stop Anglia from being overrun by France and Wessex Kalmar troops continue to fight alongside the Imperial army after being promised Holland and Fryslân.

Anna of Norfolk dies. Threatened by Wessex, Anglian nobles offer the throne to John III of Luxembourg. Meanwhile her son William leads the rump of the Anglian army to defeat Wessex at the Battle of Stafford.

Wessex - William IV dies soon after being wounded at Stafford. He is succeeded by Hugh I. Thereafter Wessex concentrates on securing a rebellious Picardy.

Electoral Saxony - Continued clerical abuses leads Martin Luther to post his 91 Theses to the door of Wittenburg cathedral.


France - Henry II dies. He is succeeded by John IV.



Leifia- The Earl of Ontario represents Vinland and Álengiamark at the Diet of Worms where Luther's heresies are crushed and all church practices upheld. Meanwhile Lutheran tracts are imported via Iceland and translated. The Algonquin reoccupy Quebec forcibly removing the Vinlanders. Konunglegursaey is resettled.

Hordaland - Olaf VII dies. Eric VII succeeds and inherits Man toward the end of the year after the House of Magnus becomes extinct.


Leifia- The first Leifian printing press is demonstrated in St Hafdiss, though widespread adoption is slow due to lack of paper and paper mills.

Álengiamark - Irronsson's bible is covertly printed. Copies circulate throughout Álengiamark and Vinland for several years.


Lade- At the Battle of Ornskoldsvik Ladish troops surround and annihilate a Kalmar army. With no army left to control Northern Svealand Denmark sues for peace. The Earldom of Lade is abolished by the Treaty of Galve. Ladish nobles form a confederation on the Swiss model, pledging allegiance to the Kalmar Union but no longer under its direct control.

William III Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

William III, King of Anglia (1523-1540)

Anglia and Luxembourg- The Treaty of Cleves ends the Anglian Succession war. Anglia's continental properties are attached to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Anglia is given Fryslân in compensation. Luxembourg will inherit Champagne and Holland on their incumbents' deaths. Luxembourg now holds three Electoral lands directly. Technically this is not allowed by the laws of the HRE but the brief 'Electoral War' cements Luxembourg's position. A further three electorates are set up to balance power.

As son of Anna of Norfolk, William III is recognised as King of Anglia, and marries John III's daughter Elizabeth to seal the succession.

Thorey IV (The Kalmar Union)

Thorey IV, Queen of Vinland (1523-1560)

Vinland - Kristjana VI dies. Her thirteen year-old niece Thorey IV succeeds her.


Vinland - After the first arrivals of Lutheran texts to Leifia and the circulation of the Irronsson Bible Lutheranism, or at least anti-Catholic sentiment. quickly spreads throughout Vinland, taking many converts from Catholic and Pagan rites, and even the remaining Odinists. Defying excommunication Thorey IV converts to Lutheranism. The Althing backs her, along with 12 of the 13 Vinlandic earls. Confiscation of church land repairs much of the holes in the state's finances following the Great Northern War, though ruins its relationship with Álengiamark.


Álengiamark - Queen Yrsa II dies. She is succeeded by Thorey III.

Naples - James IV dies. The last of the House of Barcelona, Isabella I, succeeds him.



Leon - Ferdinand VII dies. Alfonso XI succeeds.


Leifia - Lutheranism spreads amongst the Abernaki and Quiripi.

The Vinlandic bible is burnt in Álengiamark. Anti-Lutheran sentiment sweeps the Álengiamark and Erieac territories. Amongst the Illini Lutheranism becomes akin to devil worship and witch hunts begin out of all proportion to the real number of Lutherans in the area.

Meanwhile several Passamaquoddy lords, Kanienmark and the Wampanoag convert to Lutheranism. The Six Nations, Atikamekw and Aniyunwiyan remain largely pagan. Catholic church land in Vinland is abolished, or rather, handed over to secular mayors to administer. Only in a few cases do the locals revolt. The Cluniac Community at St Peter and St Michael escapes as this falls under the Earl of Pyronaber who remains Catholic. 12 out of 13 Vinlandic Earls profess the Lutheran doctrine.

Gothenland - Svante I dies. His daughter Märta is briefly considered for the throne. However, his uncle Karl VIII takes the throne instead.

Arles - Charles I dies. Frederick XI Maria succeeds him.


North Scandinavia - Lade and Novgorod agree to respect each others zones of influence. The Kola Peninsula is left deliberately vague. Ladish troops defeat the 2nd Svealand Rebellion.

Vinland - Vinland secretly joins the Schmalkaldic League. Although it can provide no concrete help it does help push the Kalmar Union toward allying with the League.

Naples - Queen Isabella I dies. Her death will plunge Naples, Italia and half of Europe into a prolonged war for the Neapolitan throne.

Scotland - James V dies. He is succeeded by James VI.


HRE - The KU allies with the Schmalkaldic League.

Eric X Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Eric X, King of Greater Denmark (1535-1551)

Denmark - Christopher II dies. He is succeeded by Eric X.


Wenceslaus II Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Wenceslaus II, King of Bohemia, Hungary and Count of Luxembourg (1536-1540)

Luxembourg, Bohemia and Hungary - John III dies. All of the Luxembourg lands are inherited by Wencenslaus II.

Holy Roman Empire - Wenceslaus does not, however, gain the Imperial title. Many of the electors feel that John III had not done enough to combat Lutheranism and even protected the 'little friar'.

Eastern Roasjoinn - In what is widely regarded as the largest naval battle ever, the vast Mexic and Tawantinsuyuan fleets trade cannon fire off the South Leifian coast for four days.


Gothenland - Karl VIII dies. His son Svante II succeeds him.


Holy Roman Empire - After three years of interregnum deliberations Albert of Saxony is elected emperor.

Hordt - Emperor Albert raises Hordt to immediacy.

Poland - Sigismund I tempers the growing religious divisions in Poland by signing the Warsaw Convention allowing freedom of religion in his kingdoms.



Henry IV Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Henry IV, King of Anglia (1540-1563)

Anglia - William III dies. He is succeeded by his son Henry IV whose reign almost 'pauses' Anglia's religious troubles with dire consequences.

Wessex - Hugh I dies. He is succeeded by Hugh II.

Joanna Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Joanna, Queen Regnant of Bohemia, Hungary and Countess of Luxembourg (1540-1562)

Luxembourg, Bohemia and Hungary - Wenceslaus II dies. His daughter Joanna will spend the next twenty-two years ruling as regent for her infant brother Henry of Prague and then after his death, her own son, Henry of Ghent.

Aragon - John IV dies. John V succeeds him.

Arles - Frederick XI Maria dies. His brother Francis I succeeds him.


Portugal - After several months of petty disputes between Castilian and Granadan sailors the town of Horta is burnt during a nine-day standoff between the two. Portugal reacts by banning both countries from using the Azores as a rest point on the Leifian trade route.

Hesse - The death of Philip I splits Hesse into three parts; Kassel, Marburg and Darmstadt.


Anna I Poland (The Kalmar Union)

Anna I, 'King' of Poland (1543-1560)

Poland - Sigismund I dies. His daughter Anna I succeeds him.


Nassau - Count Philip IV dies leaving an unclear succession. Luxembourg invades to secure its claim, however, Poland counters by invading Luxembourg's eastern kingdoms.


Wessex - Hugh II dies. He is succeeded by Edmund V.


HRE - KU troops fight and defeat imperial troops on behalf of the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Fussen, a precursor to the larger Battle of Muhlberg.

At the Battle of Muhlberg the Imperial army is defeated leading to the withdrawal of Imperial forces from Northern Germany.

Luxembourg - Poland, although so far dominant in the Nassau Succession War sues for peace so it can campaign against Tver. Nassau is officially incorporated into Luxembourg.

Vinland - As well as providing a small Vinland-Iceland unit for the Battle of Muhlberg, Vinland sets up two trading companies. The Northern Company to handle Greenland trade and explore the Northwest Passage. The Southern Company to handle trade with the Taino, Caribs and Tawantinsuyu and also explore Tawantinland. Mexica and interior trade remained a crown business.


Holy Roman Empire - Prince Christopher is present at the Diet of Oldenburg where the host declares lands under the league independent from Imperial authority. He leads the faction that dissuades the League from setting up a rival Emperor - ostensibly to keep the Kalmar Union the main Northern power. The League cedes all interest in Pomerania as thanks for KU's loyalty.

Holy Roman Empire - Emperor Albert dies. It is said he is so deep in thought in how the North can be defeated and brought back into Catholicism that he walks straight off the city walls at Regensburg. Charles of Bavaria is elected as Charles V.

France - John IV dies. Louis XIII succeeds him.



Bohemia - Henry of Prague dies. As the rest of the Luxembourg lands switch their allegiance to Joanna's son Henry of Ghent the nobles of Bohemia see the opportunity to choose a different path. Maximilian of Hapsburg is chosen, joining Bohemia to Austria.

Leon - Alfonso XI dies. He is succeeded by Philip I.


Svealand - Svealand revolts once more, this time united behind the Leijonhufvud family and with Gothenland's assistance. Despite respectable successes by Denmark and Lade the death of Prince Christopher in battle virtually guarantees Svealand's ultimate victory.

HRE - The Empire invades Schmalkaldic Germany exploiting divisions in the Kalmar Union and also in Germany over recognition of Calvinists and whether to invade Prussia and Livonia.

Cnut VIII Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Cnut VIII, King of Greater Denmark & Schmalkaldic Emperor (1551-1570)

Denmark - Eric X, dies, his reign has been plagued by illness. Cnut VIII succeeds him.

Poland - To help heal divisions between the two states under her rule Anna I elevates the Lithuanian nobility to the same status as their Polish peers. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is born.


Finland - Svealand invades Finland and swiftly defeats Denmark's garrisons there.

Coabana- The Emirate of Granada occupies Coabana (OTL Cuba) to the south of Myrland as a base for its gold and silver exports from Mexica. The act begins a scramble for the Taino islands which are generally much less advanced than the mainland and under attack from the Caribs. It also allows Granada to further shake the grip Castile wielded over it. This is fully supported by Portugal.


Vinland - Vinland occupies the three largest of the Lucayan islands (OTL Bahamas) to the west of Myrland settling with mainly Cornish descended families.

'The Vinlanders were accepted by the locals who were poor and unjustly ruled but many [of the settlers] did not like the heat or the summer storms and went home again'.


John IV Svea (The Kalmar Union)

John IV Leijonhufvud, King of Svealand (1554-1569)

Svealand - The final Danish armies are pushed out of Svealand. Though Gothenland is still occupied by Denmark, Svealand is de facto independent. John Leijonhufvud, a distant relation to the House of Eric, is proclaimed king.


Taino & Carib Islands - Álengiamark and Portugal come to blows over their respective authority over the seven Taino kingdoms on Quisqueyanos (OTL Hispaniola). Álengiamark and Vinland side with Castille which is eagerly taking over Boriken (OTL Puerto Rico). Portugal allies with Granada and Aragon. Susquehanockland and Passamaquoddia, keen to be involved in the lucrative trans-Atlantic trade, both occupy and begin to develop Lucayan islands.

Leifia- Susquehanock traders are killed in a dispute in Rome, leading to a demand from several Leifian kingdoms for proper recognition from the European powers. They ally with Leon and are active in Leon's development of their Atlantic possessions.

Scotland - James VI dies. David VI is crowned king.


Svealand - Cnut VIII of Denmark and of John IV of Svealand are reconciled. Both commit armies to be deployed in support of the Schmalkaldic League.


Denmark- Denmark occupies various islands (OTL Virgin Islands) as a barrier between the peaceful Tainos and the warrior Caribs. Its interest in its possession never really advances much beyond building a harbour in Kristiansted and Christianising the population.


Schmalkaldic Empire - The Battle of Nordlingen grinds the previously one-sided 2nd Schmalkaldic War to a halt. The Schmalkaldic League elects to setup a rival emperor as it planned to do in 1548. Cnut (or Knut) is crowned 'Emperor of the Protestant States of Germania and Scandinavia' (usually referred to as the Schmalkaldic Empire or SE) and 'Protector of the Faith'.

Gothenland, Hordaland and Man join the SE alongside Denmark, accepting Cnut as their overlord. Lade and Svealand are less enthusiastic and merely ally with it. Anglia refuses to be drawn into 'petty German wars' and leaves the Kalmar Union.

Quisqueyanos- The Pope mediates on the growing Quisqueyanos crisis which threatens to cause a general war in Iberia. Álengiamark is given authority over the Western third of the island. Portugal over the Eastern two-thirds. In an addition, Leon is given authority over all southern Atlantic islands (whether discovered or not). Álengiamark quickly helps its two Taino sub-kingdoms strengthen while Portugal is embroiled in Iberian affairs.



Asdis III (The Kalmar Union)

Asdis III, Queen of Vinland (1560-1579)

Vinland - Thorey IV dies. She is succeeded by Asdis III.

Holy Roman Empire - Emperor Charles V dies. Considerable infighting on the Catholic side prevents an emperor from being elected for four years.

Poland - Anna I dies. Her son Sigismund II succeeds her.


Henry VIII Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Henry VIII, King of Hungary, Count of Luxembourg (1562-1580)

Hungary and Luxembourg - Joanna dies. Her son Henry VIII succeeds her.

Hordaland - Eric VII dies. His son Eric VIII succeeds.

Alkafuglaeyjar - The Vinlandic Southern Company discovers the uninhabited Alkafuglaeyjar (OTL Falklands) and claims them for Vinland. The main islands are named Hafdis and Elisiv after the 11th Century twin queens of the Norse Leifian states. Reports of the discovery immediately provoke clashes with Leon which claims all southern Atlantic islands by the Treaty of Quisqueyanos.

Rolegurfolkland - The Rolegurfolk (OTL Yamasee Indians, Camden and Glynn counties, Georgia) contract Icelanders to help build fortifications and help protect against their more aggressive neighbours.


Lucas Cranach the Younger - Prince Elector Moritz of Saxony (1578) - Google Art Project

John III, King of Anglia (1563-1574, 1577, 1580-1581)

Anglia - Henry IV dies. He is succeeded by his younger brother John III.

Gothenland - Svante II dies. John V succeeds him.


Holy Roman Empire - After considerable delay, Frederick of Hohenzollern is elected Emperor as Frederick V.


Leifia- The Leifian Wars of Religion begin. The bishop of St Hafdiss is assassinated by Lutheran plotters. Álengiamark instigates a brutal repression of Quiripi Lutherans which is strongly criticised by Vinland and Passamaquodia. Álengsk Catholics are beaten up and ejected from Fjallasay cathedral. Goaded by Leon and Portugal, Álengiamark blockades Vinlandic ships on Ontario Vatn.

On the Protestant side: Vinland, Iceland, Kanienmark, Passamaquoddia, Abernakriga and Wampanoag rebels in Álengiamark. The Schmalkaldic Empire provides money.

On the Catholic side: Álengiamark, Erie, Portugal, Susquehanockland, Algonquinland. Leon provides money.


Leifia - The Schmalkaldic League pledges support for Vinland's war and subsidises an Icelandic army. Passamaquoddia incites the southern Wampanoag to rebel against the Álengsk. It then invades as the rebellion falters.


Wessex - Edmund V dies. Matilda II succeeds him.


Leifia - A Leifian Protestant League is created with Vinland at its head. Icelandic troops are attached to the Abernaki and they advance through Kanienmark to prop up its tottering forces.

Several naval battles are fought around the Lucayan islands as Leon and Susquehannockland attempt to force the League out of the area.

Erie and Álengiamark invade Hafsvaedaland but are defeated at the Battle of Vesteranní. Algonquinland accepts Catholic subsidies and blockades the Breidurass at Quebec.


Leifia - League forces break through Álengsk lines at Kaater and begin besieging Kristjanaborg. It is hoped this will end the war quickly though the besieging forces are eventually driven off as winter approaches.

Wessex - Matilda II (suspected by many of being Lutheran) is usurped by her cousin Henry III. This act unleashes the Wessex War of Religion.

Luxembourg - Henry VIII abruptly embraces Lutheranism. Most of his subjects in the Low Countries and Brandenburg are Protestant by this point anyway. Hungary, however, is firmly Catholic and revolts as a result. The Hungarian nobles elect Stephen Zápolya as king.

Scotland - The Catholic king David VI is deposed by the Lutheran James VII, though Catholic revolts would continue to trouble his own reign.


Gustav I Svea (The Kalmar Union)

Gustav I, King of Svealand (1569-1599)

Svealand - John IV dies. His son Gustav I succeeds him.

HRE - The Italian states half-heartedly sign the Treaty of Trier which is meant to pacify the peninsula. It fails completely.

Leifia - A large Portuguese army arrives at St Hafdiss and is directed to the Passamaquoddy front. Their commander is overly cautious and takes five months to reach Quispamis during which his forces are depleted by disease and hunger. The Passamaquoddy retreat to the Eikveggur where a refreshed Vinlandic-Icelandic army is waiting. The Portuguese are defeated during a vicious snowstorm.



Eric XI Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Eric XI, King of Greater Denmark & Schmalkaldic Emperor (1570-1605)

Denmark and Schmalkaldic Empire - Emperor Cnut dies succeeded by Eric XI who is elected Emperor later in the year.

Wessex - Matilda II is executed at the Tower of Bristol.

Álengiamark - Thorey III dies. She is succeeded by Thorey IV.


Leifia - The war has reached a stalemate. Álengiamark is unable to push the League out of its territory but equally the League is unable to capture any major Álengsk or Erie town. Attempts to entice Aniyunwiya into joining the Protestant side get nowhere.

Iceland - A famine begins in Iceland. Participation in the war drops off as a result.


Aragon - John V dies. John VI succeeds him.

Hesse - Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt embark on the First Hessian War over the fate of the vacant Hesse-Marburg.


Anglia - With Wessex bound up in its own religious struggle John III renounces Catholicism and promotes Lutheranism. This splits the nobles and the Witenage and the two sides soon take up arms.

Leifia - The Peace of Niskayuna is concluded. All 1565 borders are respected. By general agreement every state is allowed to promote its state religion within its own borders. States have no right to interfere in the religious affairs of their neighbours. By the end of the century Álengiamark is almost totally Catholic again.


Richard II Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Richard II, King of Anglia (1575-1577)

Anglia - John III's brother, Richard is crowned by a reduced Witenage after the capture of Lincoln by Catholic forces in May. John falls back to Suffolk. Richard's Yorvikshire stronghold is less Catholic than his supporters would admit and severe revolts and three assassination attempts prevent him from driving John to the continent.

Wessex - The religious civil war in Wessex is more clear cut, however. The Duke of Kent is driven to Normandy where most of the barons openly defy Henry III.


Naples - The Duke of Alençon, Charles V and his wife, Louise of Luxembourg, finally have their rule in Naples accepted by the Great Neapolitan War's belligerents.


Richard III Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Richard III, King of Anglia (1577-1580, 1581-1590)

Anglia - With a large Frisian contingent bulking out John III's force he retakes the throne. Richard II dies of wounds received at the Battle of Stamford but John's army is beaten. Richard's son, Richard III now becomes the Catholic figurehead.

Leon - Philip I dies. Philip II succeeds him.


Alkafuglaeyjar- Using the ongoing Icelandic famine to gather support, Vinland transports 34 families from Iceland to the Alkafuglaeyjar, to settle and protect them from Leonese raids. They find the climate similar to Iceland's and sheep farming the best form of agriculture. Further colonisation is slow but Vinland keeps its colony well supplied. The Tawantinsuyu use it as a resupply depot before the dangerous crossing to Africa and a small resident population of Tawantinsuyu develops, as well as a few African Bantu.


Snaedis III (The Kalmar Union)

Snaedis III, Queen of Vinland (1579-1603)

Vinland - Queen Asdis III dies. Snaedis III succeeds her.

Hungary - Stephen I abdicates. The Hungarian nobles elect the Polish John IV Jagellion. John immediately begins operations against the Hapsburg-run kingdoms (Austria-Bohemia and Poland) on Hungary's borders.



Henry IX Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Henry IX, Count of Luxembourg (1580-1602)

Luxembourg - Henry VIII dies. He is succeeded by Henry IX.

Anglia - John III retakes Anglia. Richard III is forced to flee into Wessex.

Wessex - The Lutheran faction, reduced to holding small pockets of Normandy, is finally defeated. Henry III instigates a brutal crackdown on Protestants and is granted a huge increase in power by the cowed Parliament.

Holy Roman Empire - Frederick V dies. He is succeeded as Emperor by Frederick of Hapsburg, Frederick VI.

Scotland - James VII is assassinated by a Catholic fanatic. His son James VIII succeeds.


Anglia - John III dies. Richard III returns from exile. With no opposition he violently oppresses Anglian Protestants. However, the Frisian church is out of his reach and John III's son William of Fryslan successfully defends the duchy from Richard's attacks.

Scotland - James VIII dies suddenly. His sister Anne, married to Prince John August of Svealand, is formally recalled to Scotland to become queen.


Gothenland - John V dies. Karl IX succeeds.

Hordaland - Eric VIII dies. His son Christian I is crowned. Poland - Sigismund II dies. The Sejm elects Stephen I Zamoyska.

Arles - Francis I dies. His grandson Frederick XII succeeds him.


Wessex - Henry III dies. Succeeded by Thomas I.

Poland - His policies running into trouble, Stephen I is murdered. John of Hapsburg (Jan II) is elected thanks to his Jagiellonian wife.



William IV Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

William IV, King of Anglia (1590-1603)

Anglia - Richard III is usurped once more and flees to Wessex. William IV is crowned king at Lincoln.


Álengiamark - Queen Thorey IV dies. She is succeeded by Brynja II.

France - Louis XIII dies. He is succeeded by Henry III.


Anglia - William IV signs the Act of Settlement. Anglia will be a Lutheran country, however, Catholic institutions are not dismembered and radical Protestant sects are ruthlessly persecuted.

Naples - Charles V dies. Queen Louise formally abdicates and their son James V succeeds.


Gustav II Svea (The Kalmar Union)

Gustav II, King of Svealand (1599-1616)

Svealand - Gustav I of Svealand dies. Gustav II suceeds.

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