The 16th century is marked by large-scale wars. Jian China contends with the Celtic and Roman Empires for control over Atlantis and Caribis in the Atlantic and the Caribian Wars.
Internal combustion engines are greatly improved and produced in large quantities. Tanks and machine guns bring about the era of industrial warfare. In Eran, which controls little coal deposits but large oil deposits, automobiles become a means of mass transportation of freights and individual persons. Here, too, electricity receives widespread use, and public provision of an infrastructure for the production and distribution of electricity is pioneered here. Hosts of new electrical devices like the washing machine, the boiler and the refrigerator revolutionise the homes in the Celtic Empire, the Roman countryside, India, Eran, the Pontos-Tanais industrial zone, Great Perm, the Caucasus, Sheba, Aksum, Gao, the Taino islands, and wealthy Germanic, Slavic, Tai, Malayan and Bantu families.
They merely bring down prices of services in Roman, Chinese and Nihonian cities, where laundering, bathing, cooking etc. are not done in the private, but the public realm. Here, electricity is introduced, too, but coal and coal-powered devices remain dominant over oil-powered ones. Telephones are invented early in the century, and their use spreads across two thirds of the world during this century. Airships, which have developed at the beginning of the century from earlier hot-air balloons, dominate the newly established air travel for several decades before Iranians and Indians invent viable airplanes. The triumph of the aircraft technology is helped by its use (first by Indian empires and Jian China, then also by the Roman, Celtic, Aksumite, Gao and Watu Empires) in inter-continental warfare, where they allow the dropping of incendiary and explosive bombs. In the second half of the century, civil aircraft use increases, too. Iranian and Indian engineers remain the leaders in this domain.
Sheba becomes rich over night through the exploration and exploitation of its huge fields of oil, for which demand sky-rockets in this century. Oil finds in Northern Caribia and on Atlantis` Taino Sea coast spark major wars.
After century-long struggles, women achieve equal rights in the Celtic and Roman Empire - including its socioeconomic building blocks, the societates and collegia -, in Bangladesh, Nusantara and Great Perm and some Germanic and Slavic states. In Western India, the fight goes on, while the Chinese Jian emperors smoothly grant equal rights and also introduce a weak parliament, which deals with popular petitions and exerts a control over bureaucrats.
These measures, along with compulsory secondary education, are hesitantly copied in Baekje, Nihon, and various South-East Asian polities.
Lysianism is adapted and massively supported by new Roman and Celtic elites. It helps reconcile society and shape the transition to an individualised society in a socially cohesive fashion. Hitherto insufficient public welfare programs in the Celtic and Roman Empires are brought to the higher Christian and Mazdakist standards of Aksum and Eran in waves of Lysianist bleeding-heart reforms.